bims-ciryme Biomed News
on Circadian rhythms and metabolism
Issue of 2019‒03‒31
two papers selected by
Gabriela Da Silva Xavier
University of Birmingham

  1. J Endocr Soc. 2019 Apr 01. 3(4): 716-733
      In rodents, the preovulatory LH surge is temporally gated, but the timing cue is unknown. Estrogen primes neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) to secrete kisspeptin, which potently activates GnRH neurons to release GnRH, eliciting a surge of LH to induce ovulation. Deletion of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 results in infertility. Previous studies have found that Bmal1 knockout (KO) females do not display an LH surge at any time of day. We sought to determine whether neuroendocrine disruption contributes to the absence of the LH surge. Because Kiss1 expression in the AVPV is critical for regulating ovulation, we hypothesized that this population is disrupted in Bmal1 KO females. However, we found an appropriate rise in AVPV Kiss1 and Fos mRNA at the time of lights out in ovariectomized estrogen-treated animals, despite the absence of a measureable increase in LH. Furthermore, Bmal1 KO females have significantly increased LH response to kiss-10 administration, although the LH response to GnRH was unchanged. We then created Kiss1- and GnRH-specific Bmal1 KO mice to examine whether Bmal1 expression is necessary within either kisspeptin or GnRH neurons. We detected no significant differences in any measured reproductive parameter. Our results indicate that disruption of the hypothalamic regulation of fertility in the Bmal1 KO females is not dependent on endogenous clocks within either the GnRH or kisspeptin neurons.
    Keywords:  Bmal1; GnRH; LH; circadian rhythms; kisspeptin
  2. Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 29. 9(1): 5350
      The PERIOD2 (PER2) gene is a core molecular component of the circadian clock and plays an important role in the generation and maintenance of daily rhythms. Rs35333999, a missense variant of PER2 common in European populations, has been shown to associate with later chronotype. Chronotype relates to the timing of biological and behavioral activities, including when we sleep, eat, and exercise, and later chronotype is associated with longer intrinsic circadian period (cycle length), a fundamental property of the circadian system. Thus, we tested whether this PER2 variant was associated with circadian period and found significant associations with longer intrinsic circadian period as measured under forced desynchrony protocols, the 'gold standard' for intrinsic circadian period assessment. Minor allele (T) carriers exhibited significantly longer circadian periods when determinations were based on either core body temperature or plasma melatonin measurements, as compared to non-carriers (by 12 and 11 min, respectively; accounting for ~7% of inter-individual variance). These findings provide a possible underlying biological mechanism for inter-individual differences in chronotype, and support the central role of PER2 in the human circadian timing system.