bims-chumac Biomed News
on Context effects on human mate choice
Issue of 2020‒06‒21
five papers selected by
Jay Dixit

  1. J Marital Fam Ther. 2020 Jun 19.
    Roberts K, Jaurequi ME, Kimmes JG, Selice L.
      This study sought to understand the link between trait mindfulness, forgiveness, and relationship satisfaction. Previous research established a significant positive relationship between mindfulness and relationship satisfaction, but forgiveness had not been studied in relation to these variables. Two hundred and nineteen couples in committed romantic relationships were included in the sample and completed self-report measures on trait mindfulness, forgiveness, and relationship satisfaction. Upon conducting an actor-partner interdependence model mediation (APIMeM; Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 2006, 37, 27-40) analysis for dyadic data, results indicated significant positive associations for both inter and intrapersonal effects for both men and women. Findings indicated forgiveness is linked to both individual and partner mindfulness and relationship satisfaction, such that a person's ability to be mindful can impact the ability to forgive and therefore increase relationship satisfaction.
  2. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2020 Jul;88(7): 583-596
    Roddy MK, Walsh LM, Rothman K, Hatch SG, Doss BD.
      OBJECTIVES: This study updated existing meta-analyses of couple therapy that typically do not include multiple treatment modalities, various research designs, long-term outcomes, or recent studies. Eligibility Criteria: Studies published in English that reported relationship satisfaction or other outcomes of couple therapy were included; over 70% of studies have not been included in previous meta-analyses. Methods of Synthesis: Using random effects models across 58 studies representing 40 unique samples and 2,092 couples, effect sizes were summarized within measure domains as mean gains for treatment groups and waitlist groups as well as between-groups comparisons.RESULTS: Couple therapy has a large effect on relationship satisfaction (pre to post within-group Hedges ḡ = 1.12, CI [0.92, 1.31], p < .001) and couples assigned to waitlists do not significantly improve (pre-to-post within-group satisfaction Hedges ḡ = 0.12, CI [-0.04, 0.29], p > .05). Additionally, couple therapy has significant impacts on key domains including self-reported and observed communication, emotional intimacy, and partner behaviors. Moderation analyses of pre-to-post gains in relationship satisfaction for treatment groups were generally nonsignificant; however, greater baseline distress was associated with larger gains.
    CONCLUSIONS: Couple therapy has large effects on key relationship domains and gains are generally maintained over short- and long-term follow-up with minimal impact of tested moderators. Limitations include sample of exclusively opposite sex couples and inability to fully model dependencies within studies. The relationship between mean gain effect sizes and between-groups comparisons is discussed with implications for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
  3. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2020 Jun 18.
    Reynolds A, Garton R, Kvam P, Sauer J, Osth AF, Heathcote A.
      We propose a dynamic theory of decisions not to choose which of 2 options is correct. Such "do not-know" judgments are of theoretical and practical importance in domains ranging from comparative psychology, psychophysics, episodic memory, and metacognition to applied areas including educational testing and eyewitness testimony. However, no previous theory has provided a detailed quantitative account of the time it takes to make both definitive and do not-know responses and their relative frequencies. We tested our theory, the multiple threshold race (MTR), in 1 recognition memory experiment where participants had to pick a previously studied target out of 2 similar faces and another where targets and lures were tested 1 at a time. In both experiments we manipulated similarity through face morphing. High similarity made decisions difficult, encouraging do not-know responses. We also tested the MTR's ability to account for other manipulations that aimed to affect the speed and probability of do not-know responses, including increasing penalties for making an error (with no penalty for a do not-know response) and emphasizing either response speed or accuracy. We found that there were marked individual differences in do not-know use, and that the MTR was able to account for the intricate pattern of effects associated with our manipulations, both on average and in terms of individual differences. We discuss how estimates of MTR's parameters illuminate the psychological mechanisms that govern the interplay between definitive and do not-know responding. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
  4. Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 2020 Jun;66(2): 193-207
    Seiffge-Krenke I, Shulman S.
      Is sexual activity during adolescence good for future romantic relationships? Objectives: The study examines the effects of different forms of sexual activity at the age of 16 on sexuality and the quality of romantic relationships at the age of 23. Methods: In a multimodal longitudinal study (diaries, questionnaires), 144 16-year-old adolescents (59.7 % female) reported on their sexual activities and their relationship status. At the age of 23, they reported on their romantic and sexual experiences in the past two years and the quality of their current romantic relationship. Regressions analyzed the predictive power of adolescent predictors for future sexuality and relationship quality. Results: For men and women, frequent non-committed sexual activities at the age of 16 consistently predicted a higher probability of participating in different patterns of non-committed sexual encounters and short relationship duration at the age of 23 years. Adolescents who were more satisfied in their romantic relationships had more stable, longer-lasting partner relationships at young adulthood. Discussion: The special role that non-committed sexual activities compared to sexual activities within a romantic relationship play in future sexual and romantic activities became clear. Parental influences were negligible.
    Keywords:  Diary Data; Longitudinal Study; Predictors; Romantic Relationship Quality; Sexual Activities
  5. Adv Cogn Psychol. 2019 ;15(4): 301-307
    El Haj M, Moustafa AA, Nandrino JL.
      A substantial body of research has assessed the effect of gender on face recognition; however, little is known about the effect of relationship status on face recognition. In this study, we assessed for the first time how relationship status impacts face recognition by asking 62 male and female participants to decide whether they had previously encountered faces of males and females. Participants were also asked to fill a socio-demographic variables questionnaire which included, among other information, question about their relationship status (i.e., single vs. in a relationship). A significant effect of relationship status on face recognition was observed only in males; namely, single males demonstrated higher face recognition than males in relationships, whereas similar face recognition was observed in single and in-relationship females. More specifically, single males demonstrated higher recognition for female than for male faces, whereas no differences were observed in single females, males in relationships, or in females in relationship. Single males seem to be motivated by mating opportunity and, thus, unlike single females or males and females in relationships, devote high attentional resources to processing faces of the opposite gender.
    Keywords:  evolutionary theory; face recognition; gender differences; relationship status