bims-chumac Biomed News
on Context effects on human mate choice
Issue of 2020‒01‒19
seven papers selected by
Jay Dixit
Storytelling.NYC


  1. J Sex Med. 2020 Jan 08. pii: S1743-6095(19)31872-7. [Epub ahead of print]
    Mark KP, Vowels LM, Leistner CE.
      INTRODUCTION: Sexual activity is an important aspect of most romantic relationships. However, many couples report declines in sexual activity over time and report many reasons for not engaging in sexual activity on a daily basis.AIM: To investigate the reasons for not engaging in sexual activity in couples over a month and whether these reasons are associated with sexual and relationship satisfaction and sexual desire.
    METHODS: We collected 30-day daily electronic report data from 174 individuals (87 mixed-sex couples). The responses between men and women were analyzed using chi-squared tests, and we used multilevel modeling to examine the association between the reasons and satisfaction and desire.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure includes daily sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, and sexual desire. Daily reported reasons for not engaging in sexual activity are categorized into joint reason, self-based reason, partner-based reason, and other reasons.
    RESULTS: Men and women were equally likely to endorse joint reasons for not engaging in sexual activity (eg, "It just didn't happen"), whereas women were more likely to endorse self-based reasons (eg "I wasn't in the mood") and men partner-based reasons (eg "My partner was tired"). The reasons for not engaging in sexual activity were associated with daily sexual and relationship satisfaction and daily sexual desire. Higher baseline sexual desire was associated with a greater likelihood of endorsing partner-related reasons and smaller likelihood of endorsing self-related reasons. Higher baseline sexual satisfaction was associated with a decreased likelihood of reporting partner-based reasons, and higher baseline relationship satisfaction was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting joint reasons. Some of the other associations were significant only for men or women.
    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Results inform couples' therapy and other clinical interventions and highlight the importance of addressing the reasons for not engaging in sexual activity to find ways of mitigating some of these reasons.
    STRENGTH & LIMITATIONS: The study was the first to date to address reasons for not engaging in sexual activity in a sample of couples in an experience-sampling study. However, our scope was limited to mixed-sex couples who were primarily white and heterosexual, and we only addressed reasons for not engaging in partnered sex (not solitary sex).
    CONCLUSION: The reasons for not engaging in sexual activity seem different for men and women and are associated with sexual and relationship satisfaction and sexual desire, and this link appears to be bidirectional. Mark KP, Vowels LM, Leistner CE. "Not Tonight, Honey:" Reasons Couples Do Not Engage in Sex and Their Impact on Satisfaction and Desire. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX-XXX.
    Keywords:  Dyadic Research; Reasons for Not Engaging in Sexual Activity; Sexual Desire; Sexual Satisfaction
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.12.011
  2. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2020 Jan 16.
    Stavrova O, Ehlebracht D, Vohs KD.
      We tested how cynicism emerges and what maintains it. Cynicism is the tendency to believe that people are morally bankrupt and behave treacherously to maximize self-interest. Drawing on literatures on norms of respectful treatment, we proposed that being the target of disrespect gives rise to cynical views, which predisposes people to further disrespect. The end result is a vicious cycle: cynicism and disrespect fuel one another. Study 1's nationally representative survey showed that disrespect and cynicism are positively related to each other in 28 of 29 countries studied, and that cynicism's associations with disrespect were independent of (and stronger than) associations with lacking social support. Study 2 used a nationally representative longitudinal dataset, spanning 4 years. In line with the vicious cycle hypothesis, feeling disrespected and holding cynical views gave rise to each other over time. Five preregistered experiments (including 2 in the online supplemental materials) provided causal evidence. Study 3 showed that bringing to mind previous experiences of being disrespected heightened cynical beliefs subsequently. Studies 4 and 5 showed that to the extent that people endorsed cynical beliefs, others were inclined to treat them disrespectfully. Study 6's weeklong daily diary study replicated the vicious cycle pattern. Everyday experiences of disrespect elevated cynical beliefs and vice versa. Moreover, cynical individuals tended to treat others with disrespect, which in turn predicted more disrespectful treatment by others. In short, experiencing disrespect gives rise to cynicism and cynicism elicits disrespect from others, thereby reinforcing the worldview that caused these negative reactions in the first place. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000738
  3. China Q. 2019 Dec;240 990-1017
    Attané I, Eklund L, Merli MG, Bozon M, Angeloff T, Yang B, Li S, Pairault T, Wang S, Yang X, Zhang Q.
      Coupled with the social practice of female hypergamy, the male surplus within the never-married population means that today's Chinese marriage market is extremely tight in particular for men from a rural background and the least privileged socio-economic categories. Drawing on quantitative data from a survey conducted in 2014-2015, this article sheds light on the situation of single men who are past prime marriage age in three rural districts of Shaanxi particularly affected by this phenomenon. It compares single men's characteristics to those of their married counterparts and offers insights into the heterogeneity of single men with the aim of challenging some commonly accepted assumptions about bachelorhood in rural China. Results suggest a strong internalization of the various characteristics, centred on being able to offer social mobility to a potential wife, that a man is expected to have to be attractive to women in a context where women have more choice in mate selection. We conclude that mate selection is highly marked by class, social norms, social interactions, health, generation and age, and requires the mobilization of certain amounts of individual, social and economic resources. Unwanted bachelorhood would thus be better understood using an intersectional approach rather than mainly in numeric terms.
    Keywords:  bachelorhood; living conditions; mate selection; normative pressure; rural China; sex ratio; sexual behavior; social relations
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305741019000390
  4. Psychol Bull. 2020 Jan 16.
    Anglim J, Horwood S, Smillie LD, Marrero RJ, Wood JK.
      This study reports the most comprehensive assessment to date of the relations that the domains and facets of Big Five and HEXACO personality have with self-reported subjective well-being (SWB: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being (PWB: positive relations, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, self-acceptance, and personal growth). It presents a meta-analysis (n = 334,567, k = 462) of the correlations of Big Five and HEXACO personality domains with the dimensions of SWB and PWB. It provides the first meta-analysis of personality and well-being to examine (a) HEXACO personality, (b) PWB dimensions, and (c) a broad range of established Big Five measures. It also provides the first robust synthesis of facet-level correlations and incremental prediction by facets over domains in relation to SWB and PWB using 4 large data sets comprising data from prominent, long-form hierarchical personality frameworks: NEO PI-R (n = 1,673), IPIP-NEO (n = 903), HEXACO PI-R (n = 465), and Big Five Aspect Scales (n = 706). Meta-analytic results highlighted the importance of Big Five neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. The pattern of correlations between Big Five personality and SWB was similar across personality measures (e.g., BFI, NEO, IPIP, BFAS, Adjectives). In the HEXACO model, extraversion was the strongest well-being correlate. Facet-level analyses provided a richer description of the relationship between personality and well-being, and clarified differences between the two trait frameworks. Prediction by facets was typically around 20% better than domains, and this incremental prediction was larger for some well-being dimensions than others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000226
  5. Int J Psychol. 2020 Jan 15.
    Vijayakumar PB, Cunningham CJL.
      Our understanding of the challenges and the broader role of spouses of expatriates is extremely limited. This study examined the impact of spousal work restrictions on expatriates' work life and overall life satisfaction using qualitative and quantitative analyses based on data from a sample of 409 Indian Information Technology professionals working in USA. Furthermore, hypothesised conditional process model (tested with PROCESS analysis tool) was supported, showing that spousal work restrictions created complications in personal lives of expatriates, which interfered with work lives resulting in lower overall life satisfaction. We identified six core classes of challenges faced by spouses of expatriates: wasted skills, financial issues, boredom, social isolation, quality time and domestic tension. Our mixed method approach also helps to provide a more comprehensive picture of these complications. This study may help organisational leaders and policy makers to more fully consider the implications of visa-related policy changes on expatriate families.
    Keywords:  H-1B visa; H4-dependent visa; Trailing spouse; Visa policy; Women
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12655
  6. J Fam Psychol. 2020 Jan 16.
    Lenger KA, Roberson PNE, Amer Z, Gray T, Cordova JV, Gordon KC.
      Interventions for couples that can be flexibly delivered (e.g., home) are gaining traction in the field of couple therapy, particularly for underserved couples who experience barriers to accessing traditional methods of care. However, questions remain regarding what types of couples prefer the home over traditional clinic settings and whether there are differences in treatment effectiveness in the home versus a clinic setting. The present study sought to address these gaps in the literature. Using a secondary data analysis approach, data from 339 couples who participated in a brief, relationship intervention were examined. Couples were able to select where they wanted to participate (i.e., their home or a local clinic). Logistic regression analyses revealed that parents were significantly more likely to choose to participate in the intervention at their home relative to nonparents. No differences in intervention setting emerged as a function of marital status, racial/ethnic minority status, or poverty status. Three 2-level multilevel models indicated that, at baseline, couples presented with similar attitudes toward relationship help seeking and relationship satisfaction across settings as well as established a similar alliance with the facilitator at 1 month after the intervention. Additionally, a series of 3-level multilevel models found that rates of change did not significantly differ between groups on attitudes toward relationship help seeking and relationship satisfaction across the intervention. Thus, despite the potential chaos of the home, home settings appear to be an equally effective delivery setting relative to traditional settings for this brief relationship intervention and may be particularly useful for reaching parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000622
  7. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2020 Jan 16.
    Vogel T, Silva RR, Thomas A, Wänke M.
      The eminent role of processing fluency in judgment and decision-making is undisputed. Not only is fluency affected by sources as diverse as stimulus repetition or visual clarity, but it also has an impact on outcomes as diverse as liking for a stimulus or the subjective validity of a statement. Although several studies indicate that sources and outcomes are widely interchangeable, recent research suggests that judgments are differentially affected by conceptual and perceptual fluency, with stronger effects of conceptual (vs. perceptual) fluency on judgments of truth. Here, we propose a fluency-specificity hypothesis according to which conceptual fluency is more informative for content-related judgments, but perceptual fluency is more informative for judgments related to perception. Two experimental studies in which perceptual and conceptual fluency were manipulated orthogonally show the superiority of content repetition on judgments of truth but the superiority of visual contrast on aesthetic evaluations. The theoretical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000731