bims-chumac Biomed News
on Context effects on human mate choice
Issue of 2019‒11‒10
nine papers selected by
Jay Dixit

  1. Behav Sci (Basel). 2019 Nov 05. pii: E112. [Epub ahead of print]9(11):
    Ciorciari J, Gountas J, Johnston P, Crewther D, Hughes M.
      This study examines the blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation of the brain associated with the four distinctive thinking styles associated with the four personality orientations of the Gountas Personality Orientations (GPO) survey: Emotion/Feeling-Action, Material/Pragmatic, Intuitive/Imaginative, and Thinking/Logical. The theoretical postulation is that each of the four personality orientations has a dominant (primary) thinking style and a shadow (secondary) thinking style/trait. The participants (N = 40) were initially surveyed to determine their dominant (primary) and secondary thinking styles. Based on participant responses, equal numbers of each dominant thinking style were selected for neuroimaging using a unique fMRI cognitive activation paradigm. The neuroimaging data support the general theoretical hypothesis of the existence of four different BOLD activation patterns, associated with each of the four thinking styles. The fMRI data analysis suggests that each thinking style may have its own cognitive activation system, involving the frontal ventromedial, posterior medial, parietal, motor, and orbitofrontal cortex. The data also suggest that there is a left hemisphere relationship for the Material/Pragmatic and Thinking/Logical styles and a right activation relationship for Emotional/Feeling and Intuitive/Imaginative styles. Additionally, the unique self-reflection paradigm demonstrated that perception of self or self-image, may be influenced by personality type; a finding of potentially far-reaching implications.
    Keywords:  fMRI; neuroimaging; orientations; personality; self-reflection; thinking styles
  2. Front Psychol. 2019 ;10 2029
    Valentova JV, Tureček P, Varella MAC, Šebesta P, Mendes FDC, Pereira KJ, Kubicová L, Stolařová P, Havlíček J.
      Perceived vocal attractiveness and measured sex-dimorphic vocal parameters are both associated with underlying individual qualities. Research tends to focus on speech but singing is another highly evolved communication system that has distinct and universal features with analogs in other species, and it is relevant in mating. Both speaking and singing voice provides relevant information about its producer. We tested whether speech and singing function as "backup signals" that indicate similar underlying qualities. Using a sample of 81 men and 86 women from Brazil and the Czech Republic, we investigated vocal attractiveness rated from speech and singing and its association with fundamental frequency (F0), apparent vocal tract length (VTL), body characteristics, and sociosexuality. F0, VTL, and rated attractiveness of singing and speaking voice strongly correlated within the same individual. Lower-pitched speech in men, higher-pitched speech and singing in women, individuals who like to sing more, and singing of individuals with a higher pitch modulation were perceived as more attractive. In men, physical size positively predicted speech and singing attractiveness. Male speech but not singing attractiveness was associated with higher sociosexuality. Lower-pitched male speech was related to higher sociosexuality, while lower-pitched male singing was linked to lower sociosexuality. Similarly, shorter speech VTL and longer singing VTL predicted higher sociosexuality in women. Different vocal displays function as "backup signals" cueing to attractiveness and body size, but their relation to sexual strategies in men and women differs. Both singing and speech may indicate evolutionarily relevant individual qualities shaped by sexual selection.
    Keywords:  fitness indicators; fundamental frequency; human voice; music; sociosexuality; song; vocal attractiveness; voice modulation
  3. J Sex Marital Ther. 2019 Nov 05. 1-14
    Bergeron S, Brassard A, Mondor J, Péloquin K.
      Using a new multidimensional model of relationship commitment, this study examined the association among attachment insecurities (avoidance and anxiety) and commitment (optimal, over, and under) in 159 relationally distressed, monogamous and mainly heterosexual couples. Dyadic analyses revealed that avoidant individuals reported less optimal and less over-commitment, as well as more under-commitment. Their partners also reported less over-commitment. Moreover, whereas anxious individuals reported more over-commitment, their partners reported less optimal commitment and more under-commitment. Moderation analyses showed that anxious individuals reported more optimal commitment when their partners reported very high levels of avoidance. The findings suggest nuanced implications for couple therapy.
  4. J Pers Assess. 2019 Nov 04. 1-14
    Lämmle L, Nussbeck FW, Ziegler M.
      The current study builds on research concerning self-other agreement, specifically the Trait-Reputation-Identity (TRI) Model, and combines this theoretical approach and recent advances from multitrait-multimethod research, specifically the CTC(M-1) and the latent difference model. This combination was applied to avoid statistical problems associated with latent trait models of the type previously used in TRI Model research. A further aim was to fully exploit the TRI Model's potential by simultaneously modeling more than one trait in one psychometric model. This makes it possible to explore whether raters use similar information to assess different traits or whether this information is observer-specific, as well as whether the traits themselves can shape an individual's Reputation. All analyses were based on a data set capturing the Dark Triad. As the Dark Triad has only rarely been examined from different rater perspectives before, the study also provides new insights into this network of maladaptive traits. A sample of 290 students, their best friends, and one parent were asked to fill out the NPI, Mach IV, and SRP-III. The results suggest that accuracy is high only for narcissism. Moreover, a dark halo could be observed among each of the other-raters for Machiavellianism and psychopathy; target's standings on these two traits were also underestimated by the other-raters. The study's combined use of the TRI Model and modern structural equation methods highlights the usefulness of the TRI Model and adds to the debate about the specific nature of Dark Triad traits.
  5. J Sex Res. 2019 Nov 06. 1-10
    Lucas A, Boislard MA, Poulin F.
      Socially withdrawn children are more likely to be heterosexually inactive in early adulthood. This study aimed to test a three-mediator model. We hypothesized that social withdrawal during childhood would hinder a sense of social competence in early adolescence, limiting other-gender friendships in mid-adolescence, in turn limiting involvement in romantic relationships in late adolescence, and thus favoring a later transition into sexual activity. This mediation model was tested on a sample of 332 participants assessed annually between the ages of 12 and 22. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant indirect effect of social withdrawal on late transition into heterosexual activity through the three tested mediators. The direct effect of social withdrawal on late transition into heterosexual activity was also significant, suggesting a partial mediation.
  6. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2019 Nov 03. pii: S0001-6918(19)30012-5. [Epub ahead of print]200 102946
    Stróżak P, Zielińska M.
      Assessing facial attractiveness is a central aspect of the human ability to process the visual properties of faces. Recent studies have demonstrated that disrupting the upright orientation of faces by rotation can lead to enhanced attractiveness ratings, especially for unattractive faces, which might indicate that attractiveness assessments are mainly based on the absence of unattractive facial characteristics. Other studies have shown that shorter exposure times can result in greater facial attractiveness ratings. In the present experiment, we tested the influence of both rotation (0°, ±90°, 180°) and presentation duration (40ms, 100ms, 250ms, 2000ms) on attractiveness ratings for faces, while also controlling for their pre-rated attractiveness (which was assessed in upright orientation during a pre-test). We found that unattractive faces were rated as most attractive when observed for 40ms, but presentation duration had no effect on ratings for highly attractive faces. Unattractive faces rotated by ±90° or inverted (rotated by 180°) were rated as more attractive than in the upright orientation and these effects were found under various presentation durations (40ms, 250ms, 2000ms). Importantly, a contrary relationship was found for highly attractive faces, which were rated as less attractive when inverted, but only under intermediate presentation durations (100ms or 250ms). Our results support the notion that facial attractiveness can be assessed on the basis of both the absence of unattractive characteristics and the presence of attractive features, depending on the initial attractiveness of the face and its exposure time.
    Keywords:  Face inversion; Facial attractiveness; Presentation duration; Rotation
  7. Int J Psychol. 2019 Nov 06.
    Gu Z, Liu L, Tan X, Liang Y, Dang J, Wei C, Ren D, Su Q, Wang G.
      Findings on the effect of power on corruption are mixed. To make sense of these mixed results, three studies were conducted to examine the moderating role of status on this effect. In Study 1, corrupt intent was measured using a corruption scenario that contained manipulations of power and status. In Study 2, corrupt behaviour was measured in a corruption game that contained manipulations of power and status. Study 3 was conducted in real organisational settings, and aimed to expand the external validity of Studies 1 and 2. The results of all three studies consistently indicated that the effect of power was moderated by status. Specifically, power increased corruption when status was low, whereas this effect disappeared when status was high. The implications of reducing the facilitating effect of power on corruption by considering status from the perspective of social hierarchy are discussed.
    Keywords:  Corruption; Moderation; Power; Status
  8. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Oct 31. pii: E4224. [Epub ahead of print]16(21):
    Sorokowski P, Żelaźniewicz A, Nowak J, Groyecka A, Kaleta M, Lech W, Samorek S, Stachowska K, Bocian K, Pulcer A, Sorokowska A, Kowal M, Pisanski K.
      Increased reproductive success is among the most commonly proposed adaptive functions of romantic love. Here, we tested if hormonal changes associated with falling in love may co-vary with hormonal profiles that predict increased fecundity in women. We compared blood serum levels of estradiol (E2, E2/T), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), free testosterone (fT), and cortisol (CT), measured in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in single women (N = 69) and in women at the beginning of a romantic heterosexual relationship who reported being in love with their partner (N = 47). Participants were healthy, regularly cycling women aged 24 to 33 who did not use hormonal contraception. We found that women in love had higher levels of gonadotropins (FSH, LH) and lower testosterone levels compared to single women who were not in love. These groups of women did not, however, differ in terms of estradiol, prolactin, or cortisol levels.
    Keywords:  fecundity; follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); love; luteinizing hormone (LH); sex hormones; testosterone (T)
  9. J Adolesc. 2019 Nov 03. pii: S0140-1971(19)30174-5. [Epub ahead of print]77 90-97
    Stewart JL, Spivey LA, Widman L, Choukas-Bradley S, Prinstein MJ.
      INTRODUCTION: Adolescents are heterogeneous in how they define and experience their sexual orientation, which can include specific identity labels, romantic attractions, and other- and/or same-sex sexual behavior. These three components of sexual orientation are not always concordant, and studies suggest adolescents-particularly girls-are fluid in these dimensions of orientation over time. The current study examined: 1) fluidity in adolescent girls' and boys' self-labeled identities and romantic attractions over time, and 2) patterns of adolescent girls' and boys' self-labeled identities and romantic attractions as they coincide with sexual behavior.METHODS: Surveys were administered to adolescents in three low-income high schools in the rural Southeastern U.S. at three yearly intervals (n = 744; Mage = 15.0; 54.3% girls; 48% White, 24% Hispanic/Latinx, 21% Black/African American). Participants reported their self-labeled sexual identity and romantic attraction at each time point and their lifetime sexual behavior with girls and boys at year 3.
    RESULTS: Results revealed 26% of girls and 11% of boys reported fluidity in identity and 31% of girls and 10% of boys reported fluidity in attractions. At each time point, up to 20% of girls and 6% of boys reported a sexual minority identity label with concurrent same-sex attraction; the majority of these participants also reported same-sex behavior. Among heterosexual-identified participants reporting some degree of same-sex attraction at year 3, approximately 66% of girls and 10% of boys reported same-sex behavior.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that many adolescents are nuanced and dynamic in how they identify and experience their developing sexualities.
    Keywords:  LGBTQ youth; Sexual behavior; Sexual development; Sexual fluidity; Sexual minority youth; Sexual orientation