bims-cesiha Biomed News
on Cell signalling in the heart
Issue of 2021‒03‒14
twenty-nine papers selected by
Danae Angelidaki
Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing

  1. Front Pharmacol. 2021 ;12 598959
      Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) has been confirmed to be responsive to oxidative stress and to negatively regulate the activity of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the effect of ATF3 on cardiac microvascular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. The GEO2R online tool was employed to obtain differentially expressed genes GSE4105 and GSE122020, in two rat I/R injury microarray datasets. We established a rat myocardial I/R model in vivo, and also generated an in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model of cardiomyoblast H9c2 cells. Overexpression of ATF3 was achieved by adenoviral-mediated gene transfer (Ad-ATF3). Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, I/R, I/R + Ad-Lacz (as a control), and I/R + Ad-ATF3. ELISA, CCK-8, DCFH-DA probe, qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of ATF3, oxidative indices, cellular injury and TLR4/NF-κB pathway-associated proteins. Transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to detect the leukocyte infiltration and the alteration of microvascular morphology and function in vivo. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic data were also obtained. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that ATF3 was upregulated in I/R myocardia in two independent rat myocardial I/R models. Cardiac microvascular I/R injury included leukocyte infiltration, microvascular integrity disruption, and microvascular perfusion defect, which eventually resulted in the deterioration of hemodynamic parameters and heart function. Ad-ATF3 significantly restored microvascular function, increased cardiac microvascular perfusion, and improved hemodynamic parameters and heart function. Mechanistically, Ad-ATF3 ameliorated oxidative stress, inhibited TLR4/NF-κB pathway activation and down-regulated the expression of downstream proinflammatory cytokines in I/R myocardium in vivo and in H/R H9c2 cells in vitro. ATF3 overexpression protects against cardiac microvascular I/R injury in part by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB pathway and oxidative stress.
    Keywords:  Ischemia/reperfusion; activating transcription factor 3; inflammatory response; microvascular injury; oxidative stress; toll-like receptor 4
  2. Life Sci. 2021 Mar 03. pii: S0024-3205(21)00284-8. [Epub ahead of print] 119299
      AIMS: Cardiac fibrosis is a pathological hallmark of progressive heart diseases currently lacking effective treatment. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a member of the vitamin B3 family, is a defined biosynthetic precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Its beneficial effects on cardiac diseases are known, but its effects on cardiac fibrosis and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. We aimed to elucidate the protective effect of NMN against cardiac fibrosis and its underlying mechanisms of action.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiac fibrosis was induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in mice. NMN was administered by intraperitoneal injection. In vitro, cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were stimulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) with or without NMN and sirtinol, a SIRT1 inhibitor. Levels of cardiac fibrosis, NAD+/SIRT1 alteration, oxidative stress, and Smad3 acetylation were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blots, immunohistochemistry staining, immunoprecipitation, and assay kits.
    KEY FINDINGS: ISO treatment induced cardiac dysfunction, fibrosis, and hypertrophy in vivo, whereas NMN alleviated these changes. Additionally, NMN suppressed CFs activation stimulated by TGF-β in vitro. Mechanistically, NMN restored the NAD+/SIRT1 axis and inhibited the oxidative stress and Smad3 acetylation induced by ISO or TGF-β. However, the protective effects of NMN were partly antagonized by sirtinol in vitro.
    SIGNIFICANCE: NMN could attenuate cardiac fibrosis in vivo and fibroblast activation in vitro by suppressing oxidative stress and Smad3 acetylation in a NAD+/SIRT1-dependent manner.
    Keywords:  Acetylation; Cardiac fibrosis; Nicotinamide mononucleotide; Oxidative stress; Smad signaling
  3. Front Pharmacol. 2020 ;11 624809
      Subject: Cardiovascular disease, as a very common and serious coexisting disease in diabetic patients, and is one of the risk factors that seriously affect the prognosis and complications of surgical patients. Previous studies have shown that sevoflurane post-conditioning (SPostC) exerts a protective effect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by HIF-1α, but the protective effect is weakened or even disappeared under hyperglycemia. This study aims to explore whether regulating the HIF-1α/MIF/AMPK signaling pathway can restore the protective effect and reveal the mechanism of SPostC on cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation injury under high glucose conditions. Methods: H9c2 cardiomyocytes were cultured in normal and high-concentration glucose medium to establish a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model of cardiomyocytes. SPostC was performed with 2.4% sevoflurane for 15 min before reoxygenation. Cell damage was determined by measuring cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and apoptosis; Testing cell energy metabolism by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential; Analysis of the change of HIF-1α, MIF and AMPKα mRNA expression by RT-PCR. Western blotting was used to examine the expression of HIF-1α, MIF, AMPKα and p-AMPKα proteins. HIF-1α and MIF inhibitors and agonists were administered 40 min before hypoxia. Results: 1) SPostC exerts a protective effect by increasing cell viability, reducing LDH levels and cell apoptosis under low glucose (5 μM) after undergoing H/R injury; 2) High glucose concentration (35 μM) eliminated the cardioprotective effect of SPostC, which is manifested by a significantly decrease in the protein and mRNA expression level of the HIF-1α/MIF/AMPK signaling pathway, accompanied by decreased cell viability, increased LDH levels and apoptosis, increased ROS production, decreased ATP synthesis, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential; 3. Under high glucose (35 μM), the expression levels of HIF-1α and MIF were up-regulated by using agonists, which can significantly increase the level of p-AMPKα protein, and the cardioprotective effect of SPostC was restored. Conclusion: The signal pathway of HIF-1α/MIF/AMPK of H9c2 cardiomyocytes may be the key point of SPostC against H/R injure. The cardioprotective of SPostC could be restored by upregulating the protein expression of HIF-1α and MIF under hyperglycemia.
    Keywords:  diabetes; hypoxia inducible factor-1α; hypoxia/reoxygenation injury; myocardial protection; sevoflurane post-conditioning
  4. Hypertension. 2021 Mar 08. HYPERTENSIONAHA12016808
      Chronic cardiac pressure overload, caused by conditions, such as hypertension, induces pathological hypertrophic growth of myocardium and vascular rarefaction, with largely unknown mechanisms. Here, we described that expression of the PKR2 (prokineticin-2 receptor) is increased in the cardiomyocytes of mice following transaortic constriction pressure overload-mediated pathological hypertrophy. To identify PKR2-induced pathways, we performed microarray analysis on TG-PKR2 (transgenic mice overexpressing cardiomyocyte-restricted human PKR2) hearts and cytokine analyses in hPKR2 overexpressing H9c2-lines (PKR2-cardiomyocytes). An enrichment of activin pathway gene sets was found in both TG-PKR2 and transaortic constriction-operated hearts. Elevated levels of 2 cytokines activin A and its coreceptor, sENG (soluble Endoglin), were found in both PKR2-cardiomyocytes and in PKR2-cardiomyocytes conditioned medium. ELISA analyses of the cardiomyocytes derived from both TG-PKR2 and transaortic constriction hearts revealed high levels of these cardiokines that were repressed with antibodies blocking PKR2, indicating a PKR2-dependent event. The conditioned medium of PKR2-cardiomyocytes induced fenestration of endothelial cells and inhibited tube-like formations. These endotheliopathies were blocked by either depleting activin A or sENG from conditioned medium or by using 2 pharmacological inhibitors, follistatin, and TRC105. In addition, similar endotheliopathies were produced by exogenous administration of activin A and ENG. Prolonged exposure to prokineticin-2 in PKR2-cardiomyocytes increased cell volume by the PKR2/Gα12/13/ERK5-pathway. Activation of the PKR2/Gα12/13/matrix metalloprotease-pathway promoted both activin A and sENG release. This study reveals that pressure overload-mediated PKR2 signaling in cardiomyocytes contributes to cardiac hypertrophy through autocrine signaling, and vascular rarefaction via cardiac cytokine-mediated cardiomyocyte-endothelial cell communications. Our results may contribute to the development of potential therapeutic targets for heart failure.
    Keywords:  activin A; cardiomyopathy; endoglin; heart failure; hypertrophy
  5. Cardiovasc Res. 2021 Mar 10. pii: cvab077. [Epub ahead of print]
      AIMS: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterised by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and disarray, and myocardial stiffness due to interstitial fibrosis, which result in impaired left ventricular filling and diastolic dysfunction. The latter manifests as exercise intolerance, angina, and dyspnoea. There is currently no specific treatment for improving diastolic function in HCM. Here, we investigated whether myeloperoxidase (MPO) is expressed in cardiomyocytes and provides a novel therapeutic target for alleviating diastolic dysfunction in HCM.METHODS AND RESULTS: Human cardiomyocytes derived from control induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-CMs) were shown to express MPO, with MPO levels being increased in iPSC-CMs generated from two HCM patients harbouring sarcomeric mutations in the MYBPC3 and MYH7 genes. The presence of cardiomyocyte MPO was associated with higher chlorination and peroxidation activity, increased levels of 3-chlorotyrosine-modified cardiac myosin binding protein-C (MYBPC3), attenuated phosphorylation of MYBPC3 at Ser-282, perturbed calcium signalling, and impaired cardiomyocyte relaxation. Interestingly, treatment with the MPO inhibitor, AZD5904, reduced 3-chlorotyrosine-modified MYBPC3 levels, restored MYBPC3 phosphorylation, and alleviated the calcium signalling and relaxation defects. Finally, we found that MPO protein was expressed in healthy adult murine and human cardiomyocytes, and MPO levels were increased in diseased hearts with left ventricular hypertrophy.
    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that MPO inhibition alleviates the relaxation defect in hypertrophic iPSC-CMs through MYBPC3 phosphorylation. These findings highlight cardiomyocyte MPO as a novel therapeutic target for improving myocardial relaxation associated with HCM, a treatment strategy which can be readily investigated in the clinical setting, given that MPO inhibitors are already available for clinical testing.
    TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: There are currently no specific therapies for improving diastolic function in patients with HCM. We show for the first time that myeloperoxidase (MPO) is present in and is up-regulated in cardiomyocytes derived from human iPSCs obtained from HCM patients, where it impairs cardiomyocyte relaxation by reducing phosphorylation of cardiac MYBPC3. Treatment with the MPO inhibitor, AZD5904, restored MYBPC3 phosphorylation and alleviated the relaxation defect, demonstrating cardiomyocyte MPO to be a novel therapeutic target for improving diastolic function in HCM, a treatment strategy which can be evaluated in HCM patients given that MPO inhibitors are already available for clinical testing.
    Keywords:  Myeloperoxidase; cardiac myosin binding protein-C (MYBPC3); diastolic dysfunction; human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs); hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); oxidative stress
  6. J Biol Chem. 2021 Mar 03. pii: S0021-9258(21)00283-0. [Epub ahead of print] 100507
      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the most common cause of adult morbidity and mortality in developed nations. As a result, predisposition for CVD is increasingly important to understand. Ankyrins are intracellular proteins required for the maintenance of membrane domains. Canonical ankyrin-G (AnkG) has been shown to be vital for normal cardiac function, specifically cardiac excitability, via targeting and regulation of the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel. Non-canonical (giant) AnkG isoforms play a key role in neuronal membrane biogenesis and excitability, with evidence for human neurologic disease when aberrant. However, the role of giant AnkG in cardiovascular tissue has yet to be explored. Here, we identify giant AnkG in the myocardium and identify that it is enriched in 1-week old mice. Using a new mouse model lacking giant AnkG expression in myocytes, we identify that young mice displayed a dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype with aberrant electrical conduction and enhanced arrhythmogenicity. Structural and electrical dysfunction occurred at 1-week of age, when giant AnkG was highly expressed, and did not appreciably change in adulthood until advanced age. At a cellular level, loss of giant AnkG results in delayed and early afterdepolarizations. However, surprisingly, giant AnkG cKO myocytes display normal INa, but abnormal myocyte contractility, suggesting unique roles of the large isoform in heart. Finally, transcript analysis provided evidence for unique pathways that may contribute to the structural and electrical findings shown in giant AnkG cKO animals. In summary, we identify a critical role for giant AnkG that adds to the diversity of ankyrin function in heart.
    Keywords:  Ankyrin-G; Nav1.5; animal model; arrhythmia; cardiovascular disease; cytoskeleton; giant ankyrin-G; myocytes
  7. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2021 Mar 04. pii: gmab012. [Epub ahead of print]
      Resveratrol (RES) protects myocardial cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-caused injury. However, the mechanism of this effect has not been clarified. Thus, in this study, we aimed to determine whether RES attenuates H/R-induced cell necroptosis by inhibiting the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)/receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1)/RIP3/mixed-lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) signaling pathway. Rat myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models and H/R-injured cell models were constructed. Our study showed that myocardial H/R injury significantly increased the levels of TNF-α, RIP1, RIP3, and p-MLKL/MLKL by western blot analysis. Cell viability assay and 4,6-dianmidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-propidium iodide staining showed that the cell viability was decreased, and necroptosis was increased after myocardial H/R injury. The expressions of TNF-α, RIP1, RIP3, and p-MLKL/MLKL in H/R myocardial cells treated with different concentrations of RES were significantly downregulated. In addition, we also found that the cell viability was increased and necroptosis was decreased in dose-dependent manners when H/R-injured cells were treated with RES. In addition, the enhanced effect of TNF-α on necroptosis in myocardial H/R-injured cells was improved by RES, and the effect of RES was confirmed in vivo in I/R rats. This study also showed that RES suppresses necroptosis in H9c2 cells, which may occur through the inhibition of the TNF-α/RIP1/RIP3/MLKL signaling pathway. Our data suggest that necroptosis is a promising therapeutic target and may be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of myocardial I/R injury.
    Keywords:  TNF-α/RIP1/RIP3/MLKL; myocardial hypoxia; necroptosis; reoxygenation injury; resveratrol
  8. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Mar 04. pii: S0891-5849(21)00145-3. [Epub ahead of print]166 238-254
      Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Left ventricle remodeling, fibrosis, and ischemia/reperfusion injury all contribute to the deterioration of cardiac function and predispose to the onset of heart failure. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the universally recognized energy sensor which responds to low ATP levels and restores cellular metabolism. AMPK activation controls numerous cellular processes and, in the heart, it plays a pivotal role in preventing onset and progression of disease. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, known as oxidative stress, can activate AMPK, conferring an additional role of AMPK as a redox-sensor. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the crosstalk between ROS and AMPK. We describe the molecular mechanisms by which ROS activate AMPK and how AMPK signaling can further prevent heart failure progression. Ultimately, we review the potential therapeutic approaches to target AMPK for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and prevention of heart failure.
    Keywords:  AMPK; Cardiac hypertrophy; HFpEF; HFrEF; Heart failure; Ischemia; Ischemia/reperfusion injury; Nox; ROS; Reperfusion
  9. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Mar 08. pii: S0891-5849(21)00100-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Oversupply of fatty acids (FAs) to cardiomyocytes (CMs) is associated with increased ceramide content and elevated the risk of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. Here we investigate the role of ceramide accumulation on mitochondrial function and mitophagy in cardiac lipotoxicity using CMs derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC). Mature CMs derived from hiPSC exposed to the diabetic-like environment or transfected with plasmids overexpressing serine-palmitoyltransferase long chain base subunit 1 (SPTLC1), a subunit of the serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT) complex, resulted in increased intracellular ceramide levels. Accumulation of ceramides impaired insulin-dependent phosphorylation of Akt through activating protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and disturbed gene and protein levels of key metabolic enzymes including GLUT4, AMPK, PGC-1α, PPARα, CD36, PDK4, and PPARγ compared to controls. Analysis of CMs oxidative metabolism using a Seahorse analyzer showed a significant reduction in ATP synthesis-related O2 consumption, mitochondrial β-oxidation and respiratory capacity, indicating an impaired mitochondrial function under diabetic-like conditions or SPTLC1-overexpression. Further, ceramide accumulation increased mitochondrial fission regulators such as dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) and mitochondrial fission factor (MFF) as well as auto/mitophagic proteins LC3B and PINK-1 compared to control. Incubation of CMs with the specific SPT inhibitor (myriocin) showed a significant increase in mitochondrial fusion regulators the mitofusin 2 (MFN2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) as well as p-Akt, PGC-1 α, GLUT-4, and ATP production. In addition, a significant decrease in auto/mitophagy and apoptosis was found in CMs treated with myriocin. Our results suggest that ceramide accumulation has important implications in driving insulin resistance, oxidative stress, increased auto/mitophagy, and mitochondrial dysfunction in the setting of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. Therefore, modulation of the de novo ceramide synthesis pathway may serve as a novel therapeutic target to treat metabolic cardiomyopathy.
    Keywords:  HiPSC; cardiotoxicity; ceramide; mitochondrial dysfunction; oxidative stress
  10. Circulation. 2021 Mar 08.
      Background: Despite in-depth knowledge of the molecular mechanisms controlling embryonic heart development, little is known about the signals governing postnatal maturation of the human heart. Methods: Single nucleus RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) of 54,140 nuclei from 9 human donors was used to profile transcriptional changes in diverse cardiac cell types during maturation from fetal stages to adulthood. Bulk RNA-sequencing and the assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) were used to further validate transcriptional changes and to profile alterations in the chromatin accessibility landscape in purified cardiomyocyte nuclei from 21 human donors. Functional validation studies of sex steroids implicated in cardiac maturation were performed in human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac organoids and mice. Results: Our data identify the progesterone receptor as a key mediator of sex-dependent transcriptional programs during cardiomyocyte maturation. Functional validation studies in human cardiac organoids and mice demonstrate the progesterone receptor drives sex-specific metabolic programs and maturation of cardiac contractile properties. Conclusions: These data provide a blueprint for understanding human heart maturation in both sexes and reveal an important role for the progesterone receptor in human heart development.
    Keywords:  Human development; chromatin accessibility; maturation; progesterone; transcriptional regulation
  11. Front Immunol. 2021 ;12 584538
      The cardiovascular and immune systems undergo profound and intertwined alterations with aging. Recent studies have reported that an accumulation of memory and terminally differentiated T cells in elderly subjects can fuel myocardial aging and boost the progression of heart diseases. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether the immunological senescence profile is sufficient to cause age-related cardiac deterioration or merely acts as an amplifier of previous tissue-intrinsic damage. Herein, we sought to decompose the causality in this cardio-immune crosstalk by studying young mice harboring a senescent-like expanded CD4+ T cell compartment. Thus, immunodeficient NSG-DR1 mice expressing HLA-DRB1*01:01 were transplanted with human CD4+ T cells purified from matching donors that rapidly engrafted and expanded in the recipients without causing xenograft reactions. In the donor subjects, the CD4+ T cell compartment was primarily composed of naïve cells defined as CCR7+CD45RO-. However, when transplanted into young lymphocyte-deficient mice, CD4+ T cells underwent homeostatic expansion, upregulated expression of PD-1 receptor and strongly shifted towards effector/memory (CCR7- CD45RO+) and terminally-differentiated phenotypes (CCR7-CD45RO-), as typically seen in elderly. Differentiated CD4+ T cells also infiltrated the myocardium of recipient mice at comparable levels to what is observed during physiological aging. In addition, young mice harboring an expanded CD4+ T cell compartment showed increased numbers of infiltrating monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells in the heart. Bulk mRNA sequencing analyses further confirmed that expanding T-cells promote myocardial inflammaging, marked by a distinct age-related transcriptomic signature. Altogether, these data indicate that exaggerated CD4+ T-cell expansion and differentiation, a hallmark of the aging immune system, is sufficient to promote myocardial alterations compatible with inflammaging in juvenile healthy mice.
    Keywords:  CD4+ T-cells; NSG animals; immunosenescence; inflammaging; lymphocytes; myocardial aging
  12. Cell Death Dis. 2021 Mar 12. 12(3): 267
      Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent and chronic conditions that are closely linked by complex molecular and pathological changes. Such adverse effects often arise from changes in the expression of genes that control essential cellular functions, but the factors that drive such effects are not fully understood. Since tissue-specific transcription factors control the expression of multiple genes, which affect cell fate under different conditions, then identifying such regulators can provide valuable insight into the molecular basis of such diseases. This review explores emerging evidence that supports novel and important roles for the POU4F2/Brn-3b transcription factor (TF) in controlling cellular genes that regulate cardiometabolic function. Brn-3b is expressed in insulin-responsive metabolic tissues (e.g. skeletal muscle and adipose tissue) and is important for normal function because constitutive Brn-3b-knockout (KO) mice develop profound metabolic dysfunction (hyperglycaemia; insulin resistance). Brn-3b is highly expressed in the developing hearts, with lower levels in adult hearts. However, Brn-3b is re-expressed in adult cardiomyocytes following haemodynamic stress or injury and is necessary for adaptive cardiac responses, particularly in male hearts, because male Brn-3b KO mice develop adverse remodelling and reduced cardiac function. As a TF, Brn-3b regulates the expression of multiple target genes, including GLUT4, GSK3β, sonic hedgehog (SHH), cyclin D1 and CDK4, which have known functions in controlling metabolic processes but also participate in cardiac responses to stress or injury. Therefore, loss of Brn-3b and the resultant alterations in the expression of such genes could potentially provide the link between metabolic dysfunctions with adverse cardiovascular responses, which is seen in Brn-3b KO mutants. Since the loss of Brn-3b is associated with obesity, type II diabetes (T2DM) and altered cardiac responses to stress, this regulator may provide a new and important link for understanding how pathological changes arise in such endemic diseases.
  13. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 625020
      The most common aging-associated diseases are cardiovascular diseases which affect 40% of elderly people. Elderly people are prone to suffer aging-associated diseases which are not only related to health and medical cost but also to labor, household productivity and mortality cost. Aging is becoming a world problem and it is estimated that 21.8% of global population will be older than 65 years old in 2050; and for the first time in human history, there will be more elderly people than children. It is well accepted that the origin of aging-associated cardiovascular diseases is mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria have their own genome (mtDNA) that is circular, double-stranded, and 16,569 bp long in humans. There are between 500 to 6000 mtDNA copies per cell which are tissue-specific. As a by-product of ATP production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated which damage proteins, lipids, and mtDNA. ROS-mutated mtDNA co-existing with wild type mtDNA is called mtDNA heteroplasmy. The progressive increase in mtDNA heteroplasmy causes progressive mitochondrial dysfunction leading to a loss in their bioenergetic capacity, disruption in the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission events (mitochondrial dynamics, MtDy) and decreased mitophagy. This failure in mitochondrial physiology leads to the accumulation of depolarized and ROS-generating mitochondria. Thus, besides attenuated ATP production, dysfunctional mitochondria interfere with proper cellular metabolism and signaling pathways in cardiac cells, contributing to the development of aging-associated cardiovascular diseases. In this context, there is a growing interest to enhance mitochondrial function by decreasing mtDNA heteroplasmy. Reduction in mtDNA heteroplasmy is associated with increased mitophagy, proper MtDy balance and mitochondrial biogenesis; and those processes can delay the onset or progression of cardiovascular diseases. This has led to the development of mitochondrial therapies based on the application of nutritional, pharmacological and genetic treatments. Those seeking to have a positive impact on mtDNA integrity, mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and mitophagy in old and sick hearts. This review covers the current knowledge of mitochondrial physiopathology in aging, how disruption of OXPHOS or mitochondrial life cycle alter mtDNA and cardiac cell function; and novel mitochondrial therapies to protect and rescue our heart from cardiovascular diseases.
    Keywords:  OXPHOS; ROS; aging; biogenesis; cardiac; heart failure; mitophagy; mtDNA heteroplasmy
  14. Nat Commun. 2021 Mar 12. 12(1): 1648
      Cardiomyocytes undergo significant structural and functional changes after birth, and these fundamental processes are essential for the heart to pump blood to the growing body. However, due to the challenges of isolating single postnatal/adult myocytes, how individual newborn cardiomyocytes acquire multiple aspects of the mature phenotype remains poorly understood. Here we implement large-particle sorting and analyze single myocytes from neonatal to adult hearts. Early myocytes exhibit wide-ranging transcriptomic and size heterogeneity that is maintained until adulthood with a continuous transcriptomic shift. Gene regulatory network analysis followed by mosaic gene deletion reveals that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 signaling, which is active in vivo but inactive in pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, mediates the shift. This signaling simultaneously regulates key aspects of cardiomyocyte maturation through previously unrecognized proteins, including YAP1 and SF3B2. Our study provides a single-cell roadmap of heterogeneous transitions coupled to cellular features and identifies a multifaceted regulator controlling cardiomyocyte maturation.
  15. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2021 Mar 12.
      Mitochondria are extraordinarily dynamic organelles that have a variety of morphologies, the status of which are controlled by the opposing processes of fission and fusion. Our recent study shows that inhibition of excessive mitochondrial fission by Drp1 inhibitor (Mdivi-1) leads to a reduction in infarct size and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction following cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in high fat-fed induced pre-diabetic rats. In the present study, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of a mitochondrial fusion promoter (M1) and a combined treatment (M1 and Mdivi-1) in pre-diabetic rats. Wistar rats were given a high-fat diet for 12 weeks to induce prediabetes. The rats then subjected to 30 min-coronary occlusions followed by reperfusion for 120 min. These rats were intravenously administered M1 (2 mg/kg) or M1 (2 mg/kg) combined with Mdivi-1 (1.2 mg/kg) prior to ischemia, during ischemia or at the onset of reperfusion. We showed that administration of M1 alone or in combination with Mdivi-1 prior to ischemia, during ischemia or at the onset of reperfusion all significantly attenuated cardiac mitochondrial ROS production, membrane depolarization, swelling and dynamic imbalance, leading to reduced arrhythmias and infarct size, resulting in improved LV function in pre-diabetic rats. In conclusion, the promotion of mitochondrial fusion at any time-points during cardiac I/R injury attenuated cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and dynamic imbalance, leading to decreased infarct size and improved LV function in pre-diabetic rats.
    Keywords:  M1; Mdivi-1; cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury; mitochondrial dynamics; obesity; prediabetes
  16. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2021 Mar 11. 23(5): 38
      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart development is a meticulously coordinated process that involves the specification of two distinct populations of cardiac progenitor cells, namely the first and the second heart field. Disruption of heart field progenitors can result in congenital heart defects. In this review, we aim to describe the signaling pathways and transcription factors that link heart field development and congenital heart disease.RECENT FINDINGS: Single-cell transcriptomics, lineage-tracing mouse models, and stem cell-based in vitro modeling of cardiogenesis have significantly improved the spatiotemporal characterization of cardiac progenitors. Additionally, novel functional genomic studies have now linked more genetic variants with congenital heart disease. Dysregulation of cardiac progenitor cells causes malformations that can be lethal. Ongoing research will continue to shed light on cardiac morphogenesis and help us better understand and treat patients with congenital heart disease.
    Keywords:  Cardiac progenitors; Congenital heart disease; Genetic variants; Heart defects; Heart development; Heart fields
  17. Circulation. 2021 Mar 08.
      Background: Diastolic dysfunction (DD) is associated with the development of heart failure (HF) and contributes to the pathogenesis of other cardiac maladies, including atrial fibrillation (AF). Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has been shown to prevent DD by enhancing myofibril relaxation. Here, we addressed the therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibition in a model of established DD with preserved ejection fraction (EF). Methods: Four weeks following uninephrectomy (UNX) and implantation with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) pellets, when DD was clearly evident, one cohort of mice was administered the clinical-stage HDAC inhibitor ITF2357/Givinostat. Echocardiography, blood pressure measurements, and endpoint invasive hemodynamic analyses were performed. Myofibril mechanics and intact cardiomyocyte relaxation were assessed ex vivo. Cardiac fibrosis was evaluated by picrosirius red (PSR) staining and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy of left ventricular (LV) sections, RNA-sequencing of LV mRNA, mass spectrometry-based evaluation of decellularized LV biopsies, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) determination of LV stiffness. Mechanistic studies were performed with primary rat and human cardiac fibroblasts. Results: HDAC inhibition normalized DD without lowering blood pressure in this model of systemic hypertension. Surprisingly, in contrast to prior models, myofibril relaxation was unimpaired in UNX/DOCA mice. Furthermore, cardiac fibrosis was not evident in any mouse cohorts based on PSR staining or SHG microscopy. However, mass spectrometry revealed induction in the expression of more than one hundred extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in LVs of UNX/DOCA mice, which correlated with profound tissue stiffening based on AFM. Remarkably, ITF2357/Givinostat treatment blocked ECM expansion and LV stiffening. The HDAC inhibitor was subsequently shown to suppress cardiac fibroblast activation, at least in part, by blunting recruitment of the pro-fibrotic chromatin reader protein, BRD4, to key gene regulatory elements. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the potential of HDAC inhibition as a therapeutic intervention to reverse existing DD, and establish blockade of ECM remodeling as a second mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors improve ventricular filling. Additionally, our data reveal the existence of pathophysiologically relevant 'covert' or 'hidden' cardiac fibrosis that is below the limit of detection of histochemical stains such as PSR, highlighting the need to evaluate fibrosis of the heart using diverse methodologies.
    Keywords:  BRD4; atomic force microscopy; cardiac fibroblast; histone deacetylase
  18. Nat Commun. 2021 03 11. 12(1): 1547
      Hypertension, exercise, and pregnancy are common triggers of cardiac remodeling, which occurs primarily through the hypertrophy of individual cardiomyocytes. During hypertrophy, stress-induced signal transduction increases cardiomyocyte transcription and translation, which promotes the addition of new contractile units through poorly understood mechanisms. The cardiomyocyte microtubule network is also implicated in hypertrophy, but via an unknown role. Here, we show that microtubules are indispensable for cardiac growth via spatiotemporal control of the translational machinery. We find that the microtubule motor Kinesin-1 distributes mRNAs and ribosomes along microtubule tracks to discrete domains within the cardiomyocyte. Upon hypertrophic stimulation, microtubules redistribute mRNAs and new protein synthesis to sites of growth at the cell periphery. If the microtubule network is disrupted, mRNAs and ribosomes collapse around the nucleus, which results in mislocalized protein synthesis, the rapid degradation of new proteins, and a failure of growth, despite normally increased translation rates. Together, these data indicate that mRNAs and ribosomes are actively transported to specific sites to facilitate local translation and assembly of contractile units, and suggest that properly localized translation - and not simply translation rate - is a critical determinant of cardiac hypertrophy. In this work, we find that microtubule based-transport is essential to couple augmented transcription and translation to productive cardiomyocyte growth during cardiac stress.
  19. Mol Cell Biochem. 2021 Mar 07.
      Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. Chrysin (Chy) is reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous, anti-oxidative, anti-aging, and anti-atherogenic properties. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether Chy would mediate the cardioprotective effect against hypercholesterolemia-triggered myocardial oxidative stress. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into different groups as control and fed with high-fat diet (HFD) followed by oral administration of Chy (100 mg/kg b.wt), atorvastatin (Atv) (10 mg/kg b.wt), and L-NAME (10 mg/kg b.wt) for 30 days. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed and tissues were harvested. Biochemical results showed a significant increase of cardiac disease marker enzymes (ALT, AST, and CKMB), lipid peroxidation, and lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL) in HFD-fed rat tissues when compared to control, whereas oral administration of Chy significantly reduced the activities of these marker enzymes and controlled the lipid profile. qRT-PCR studies revealed that Chy administration significantly increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and Nrf2 target genes such as SOD, catalase, and GCL3 in left ventricular heart tissue of HFD-challenged rats. Immunohistochemistry results also showed that Chy treatment increased myocardial protein expression of eNOS and Nrf2 in HFD-challenged rats. Concluding the results of the present study, the Chy could mediate the cardioprotective effect through the activation of eNOS and Nrf2 signaling against hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress. Thus, the administration of Chy would provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention of HFD-induced oxidative stress-mediated myocardial complications.
    Keywords:  Chrysin; Hypercholesterolemia; Nitric oxide; Nrf2; Oxidative Stress
  20. Clin Sci (Lond). 2021 Mar 09. pii: CS20201408. [Epub ahead of print]
      Posttranslational modification by SUMO is a key regulator of cell proliferation and can be readily reversed by a family of SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs), making SUMOylation an ideal regulatory mechanism for developing novel therapeutic strategies for promoting a cardiac regenerative response. However, the role of SUMOylation in cardiac regeneration remains unknown. In the present study, we assessed whether targeting Akt SUMOylation can promote cardiac regeneration. Quantitative PCR and western blotting results showed that SENP2 is upregulated during postnatal heart development. SENP2 deficiency promoted P7 and adult cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Mice with SENP2 deficiency exhibited improved cardiac function after MI due to cardiomyocyte proliferation and angiogenesis. Mechanistically, the loss of SENP2 upregulated Akt SUMOylation levels and increased Akt kinase activity, leading to a decrease in GSK3β levels and subsequently promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation and angiogenesis. In summary, inhibition of SENP2-mediated Akt deSUMOylation promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation and proliferation by activating the Akt pathway. Our results provide new insights into the role of SUMOylation in cardiac regeneration.
    Keywords:  Akt pathway; Cardiac regeneration; SENP2; SUMOylation
  21. PLoS One. 2021 ;16(3): e0248203
      BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a severe type of coronary artery disease, caused by coronary occlusion and followed by cardiac ischaemia. GATA binding protein 5 (GATA5) is an important member of GATA family and plays an important role in vascular inflammation, endothelial function, oxidative stress and cell metabolism. Previous studies have shown that the DNA sequence variants (DSVs) in GATA4 and GATA6 promoter can increase susceptibility to AMI. In this study, we explored the relationship between GATA5 promoter and AMI for the first time, hoping to provide a new genetic basis for understanding the pathogenesis of AMI.METHODS: GATA5 promoter was sequenced in 683 individuals (332 AMI patients and 351 controls). The transcriptional activity of the GATA5 promoter with or without DSVs in HEK-293 cells, H9c2 cells and primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were examined by Promega Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay system. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was performed to explore whether the DSVs interfered with the binding of transcription factors (TFs).
    RESULTS: Nine mutations have been found in GATA5 promoter, eight of them evidently altered the transcriptional activity of the GATA5 promoter, five of them disrupted the binding of TFs (such as farnesoid X receptor). Furthermore, haplotype AT (across rs80197101 and rs77067995) is a dangerous haplotype of AMI. Genotype GA and allele A of rs80197101 and genotype CT and allele T of rs77067995 are the risk factors of AMI.
    CONCLUSIONS: DSVs in GATA5 promoter can increase susceptibility to AMI. But the mechanism remains to be verified in vivo.
  22. Endocr Rev. 2021 Mar 08. pii: bnab006. [Epub ahead of print]
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) hosts linear polypeptides and fosters natural folding of proteins through ER-residing chaperones and enzymes. Failure of the ER to align and compose proper protein architecture leads to accumulation of misfolded/unfolded proteins in the ER lumen, which disturbs ER homeostasis to provoke ER stress. Presence of ER stress initiates the cytoprotective unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore ER homeostasis or instigates a rather maladaptive UPR to promote cell death. Although a wide array of cellular processes such as persistent autophagy, dysregulated mitophagy, and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines may contribute to the onset and progression of cardiometabolic diseases, it is well perceived that ER stress also evokes onset and development of cardiometabolic diseases, particularly, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and chronic kidney disease. Meanwhile, these pathological conditions further aggravate ER stress, creating a rather vicious cycle. Here in this review, we aimed at summarizing and updating the available information on ER stress in cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and chronic kidney disease, hoping to offer novel insights for the management of these cardiometabolic comorbidities through regulation of ER stress.
    Keywords:  ER stress; cardiometabolic disease; chronic kidney disease; diabetes; obesity
  23. Acta Biomater. 2021 Mar 08. pii: S1742-7061(21)00148-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      The level of circulating interferon-γ (IFNγ) is elevated in various clinical conditions including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, sepsis, acute coronary syndrome, and viral infections. As these conditions are associated with high risk of myocardial dysfunction, we investigated the effects of IFNγ on 3D fibrin-based engineered human cardiac tissues ("cardiobundles"). Cardiobundles were fabricated from human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, exposed to 0-20ng/ml of IFNγ on culture days 7-14, and assessed for changes in tissue structure, viability, contractile force and calcium transient generation, action potential propagation, cytokine secretion, and expression of select genes and proteins. We found that application of IFNγ induced a dose-dependent reduction in contractile force generation, deterioration of sarcomeric organization, and cardiomyocyte disarray, without significantly altering cell viability, action potential propagation, or calcium transient amplitude. At molecular level, the IFNγ-induced structural and functional deficits could be attributed to altered balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, upregulation of JAK/STAT signaling pathway (JAK1, JAK2, and STAT1), and reduced expression of myosin heavy chain, myosin light chain-2v, and sarcomeric α-actinin. Application of clinically used JAK/STAT inhibitors, tofacitinib and baricitinib, fully prevented IFNγ-induced cardiomyopathy, confirming the critical roles of this signaling pathway in inflammatory cardiac disease. Taken together, our in vitro studies in engineered myocardial tissues reveal direct adverse effects of pro-inflammatory cytokine IFNγ on human cardiomyocytes and establish the foundation for a potential use of cardiobundle platform in modeling of inflammatory myocardial disease and therapy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, lupus erythematosus, Chagas disease, and others, as well as viral infections including H1N1 influenza and COVID-19 show increased systemic levels of a pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ) and are associated with high risk of heart disease. Here we explored for the first time if chronically elevated levels of IFNγ can negatively affect structure and function of engineered human heart tissues in vitro. Our studies revealed IFNγ-induced deterioration of myofibrillar organization and contractile force production in human cardiomyocytes, attributed to decreased expression of multiple sarcomeric proteins and upregulation of JAK/STAT signaling pathway. FDA-approved JAK inhibitors fully blocked the adverse effects of IFNγ, suggesting a potentially effective strategy against human inflammatory cardiomyopathy.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; fibrin hydrogel; hiPSC; inflammation; secretome
  24. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Mar 03. pii: S0891-5849(21)00138-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      When faced with increased workload the heart undergoes remodelling, where it increases its muscle mass in an attempt to preserve normal function. This is referred to as cardiac hypertrophy and if sustained, can lead to impaired contractile function. Experimental evidence supports oxidative stress as a critical inducer of both genetic and acquired forms of cardiac hypertrophy, a finding which is reinforced by elevated levels of circulating oxidative stress markers in patients with cardiac hypertrophy. These observations formed the basis for using antioxidants as a therapeutic means to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and improve clinical outcomes. However, the use of antioxidant therapies in the clinical setting has been associated with inconsistent results, despite antioxidants having been shown to exert protection in several animal models of cardiac hypertrophy. This has forced us to revaluate the mechanisms, both upstream and downstream of oxidative stress, where recent studies demonstrate that apart from conventional mediators of oxidative stress, metabolic disturbances, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation as well as dysregulated autophagy and protein homeostasis contribute to disease pathophysiology through mechanisms involving oxidative stress. Importantly, novel therapeutic targets have been identified to counteract oxidative stress and attenuate cardiac hypertrophy but more interestingly, the repurposing of drugs commonly used to treat metabolic disorders, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, sleep disorders and arthritis have also been shown to improve cardiac function through suppression of oxidative stress. Here, we review the latest literature on these novel mechanisms and intervention strategies with the aim of better understanding the complexities of oxidative stress for more precise targeted therapeutic approaches to prevent cardiac hypertrophy.
    Keywords:  Antioxidants; Cardiac hypertrophy; Diabetes; Drug repurposing; Hypertension; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  25. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Mar 03. pii: S0891-5849(21)00139-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria are essential signaling organelles that regulate a broad range of cellular processes and thereby heart function. Multiple mechanisms participate in the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus that maintain cardiomyocyte homeostasis, including mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and metabolic shifts in TCA cycle metabolite availability. An increased rate of ROS generation can cause irreversible damage to the cell and proposed to be a leading cause of many pathologies, including accelerated aging and heart disease. Myocardial impairments are also characterised by specific coordinated metabolic changes and dysregulated inflammatory responses. Hence, the mitochondrial respiratory chain is an important mediator between health and disease in the heart. This review will first outline the sources of ROS in the heart, mitochondrial metabolite dynamics, and provide an overview of their implications for heart disease. In addition, we will concentrate our discussion around current cardioprotective strategies relevant to mitochondrial ROS. Thorough understanding of mitochondrial signaling and the complex interplay with vital signaling pathways in the heart might allow us to develop novel therapeutic approaches to cardiovascular disease.
    Keywords:  Cardiovascular disease; ROS; metabolism; mitochondria; redox signaling
  26. Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 11. 11(1): 5654
      We hypothesized that an appropriate ratio of cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM) factors would be required for the development of three-dimensional cardiac tissues (3D-CTs) as drug screening systems. To verify this hypothesis, ECM-coated human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), ECM-coated cardiac fibroblasts (CFs), and uncoated cardiac endothelial cells (CEs) were mixed in the following ratios: 10:0:0 (10CT), 7:2:1 (7CT), 5:4:1 (5CT), and 2:7:1 (2CT). The expression of cardiac-, fibroblasts-, and endothelial-specific markers was assessed by FACS, qPCR, and immunostaining while that of ECM-, cell adhesion-, and ion channel-related genes was examined by qPCR. Finally, the contractile properties of the tissues were evaluated in the absence or presence of E-4031 and isoproterenol. The expression of ECM- and adhesion-related genes significantly increased, while that of ion channel-related genes significantly decreased with the CF proportion. Notably, 7CT showed the greatest contractility of all 3D-CTs. When exposed to E-4031 (hERG K channel blocker), 7CT and 5CT showed significantly decreased contractility and increased QT prolongation. Moreover, 10CT and 7CT exhibited a stronger response to isoproterenol than did the other 3D-CTs. Finally, 7CT showed the highest drug sensitivity among all 3D-CTs. In conclusion, 3D-CTs with an appropriate amount of fibroblasts/endothelial cells (7CT in this study) are suitable drug screening systems, e.g. for the detection of drug-induced arrhythmia.
  27. Physiol Rep. 2021 Mar;9(5): e14738
      BACKGROUND: Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is the major feature of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, well-known to induce cardiometabolic complications. We previously demonstrated that IH induces hyperinsulinemia and associated altered insulin signaling in adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle, but impact of IH on cardiac insulin signaling and functional/structural consequences remains unknown. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate in both lean and obese mice the effects of chronic IH on the following: (1) cardiac insulin signaling and (2) cardiac remodeling and function.METHODS: C57BL/6 J male mice were fed low-fat (LFD) or high-fat (HFD) diet for 20 weeks, and exposed to IH (21-5% FiO2, 60 s cycle, 8 h/day) or normoxia (N) for the last 6 weeks. Systemic insulin sensitivity was evaluated by an insulin tolerance test. Cardiac remodeling and contractile function were assessed by cardiac ultrasonography. Ultimately, hearts were withdrawn for biochemical and histological analysis.
    RESULTS: In LFD mice, IH-induced hyperinsulinemia and systemic insulin resistance that were associated with increased phosphorylations of cardiac insulin receptor and Akt on Tyr1150 and Ser473 residues, respectively. In addition, IH significantly increased cardiac interstitial fibrosis and cardiac contractility. In the HFD group, IH did not exert any additional effect, nor on insulin/Akt signaling, nor on cardiac remodeling and function.
    CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that, despite systemic insulin resistance, IH exposure mediates an adaptive cardiac response in lean but not in obese mice. Further studies are needed to investigate which specific mechanisms are involved and to determine the long-term evolution of cardiac responses to IH.
    Keywords:  cardiac function; cardiac remodeling; hyperinsulinemia; intermittent hypoxia; obstructive sleep apnea
  28. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2021 Mar 10. 1-13
      We investigated how oxidative stress (OS) alters Ca2+ handling in ventricular myocytes in early metabolic syndrome (MetS) in sucrose-fed rats. The effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or dl-Dithiothreitol (DTT) on systolic Ca2+ transients (SCaTs), diastolic Ca2+ sparks (CaS) and Ca2+ waves (CaW), recorded by confocal techniques, and L-type Ca2+ current (ICa), assessed by whole-cell patch clamp, were evaluated in MetS and Control cells. MetS myocytes exhibited decreased SCaTs and CaS frequency but unaffected CaW propagation. In Control cells, NAC/DTT reduced RyR2/SERCA2a activity blunting SCaTs, CaS frequency and CaW propagation, suggesting that basal ROS optimised Ca2+ signalling by maintaining RyR2/SERCA2a function and that these proteins facilitate CaW propagation. Conversely, NAC/DTT in MetS recovered RyR2/SERCA2a function, improving SCaTs and CaS frequency, but unexpectedly decreasing CaW propagation. We hypothesised that OS decreases RyR2/SERCA2a activity at early MetS, and while decreased SERCA2a favours CaW propagation, diminished RyR2 restrains it.
    Keywords:  Cardiac metabolic syndrome; L-type Ca2+ channels (LCC); reactive oxygen species; ryanodine receptors (RyR2); sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2a (SERCA2a)
  29. Integr Biol (Camb). 2021 Mar 11. pii: zyab003. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mixed populations of cardiosphere-derived stem and progenitor cells containing proliferative and cardiomyogenically committed cells were obtained from adult rat hearts. The cells were cultured in either static 2D monolayers or dynamic 3D scaffold systems with fluid flow. Cardiomyocyte lineage commitment in terms of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 expression was significantly enhanced in the dynamic 3D cultures compared with static 2D conditions. Treatment of the cells with 5-azacytidine (5-aza) produced different responses in the two culture systems, as activity of this chemical epigenetic conditioning agent depended on the cell attachment and hydrodynamic conditions provided during culture. Cell growth was unaffected by 5-aza in the static 2D cultures but was significantly reduced under dynamic 3D conditions relative to untreated controls. Myogenic differentiation measured as Mef2c expression was markedly upregulated by 5-aza in the dynamic 3D cultures but downregulated in the static 2D cultures. The ability of the physical environment to modulate the cellular cardiomyogenic response to 5-aza underscores the interactivity of biochemical and physical stimuli applied for cell differentiation. Accordingly, observations about the efficacy of 5-aza as a cardiomyocyte induction agent may not be applicable across different culture systems. Overall, use of dynamic 3D rather than static 2D culture was more beneficial for cardio-specific myogenesis than 5-aza treatment, which generated a more ambiguous differentiation response.
    Keywords:  5-Azacytidine; PGA scaffold; cardiac progenitor cells; cardiomyocyte differentiation; cardiosphere; dynamic 3D culture