bims-camemi Biomed News
on Mitochondrial metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2023‒01‒29
thirty-six papers selected by
Christian Frezza
University Hospital Cologne

  1. Cell Rep. 2023 Jan 27. pii: S2211-1247(23)00052-9. [Epub ahead of print]42(2): 112041
      Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a heterotetrameric enzyme complex belonging to the mitochondrial respiratory chain and uniquely links the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with oxidative phosphorylation. Cancer-related SDH mutations promote succinate accumulation, which is regarded as an oncometabolite. Post-translational modifications of SDH complex components are known to regulate SDH activity, although the contribution of SUMOylation remains unclear. Here, we show that SDHA is SUMOylated by PIAS3 and deSUMOylated by SENP2, events dictating the assembly and activity of the SDH complex. Moreover, CBP acetylation of SENP2 negatively regulates its deSUMOylation activity. Under glutamine deprivation, CBP levels decrease, and the ensuing SENP2 activation and SDHA deSUMOylation serve to concurrently dampen the TCA cycle and electron transport chain (ETC) activity. Along with succinate accumulation, this mechanism avoids excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to promote cancer cell survival. This study elucidates a major function of mitochondrial-localized SENP2 and expands our understanding of the role of SUMOylation in resolving metabolic stress.
    Keywords:  CP: Cancer; CP: Metabolism; PTMs; SENP2; SUMOylation; TCA cycle; acetylation; metabolic stress; mitochondria; oxidative phosphorylation; succinate dehydrogenase
  2. Cell Death Dis. 2023 Jan 23. 14(1): 54
      The mitochondrial protein IF1 binds to the catalytic domain of the ATP synthase and inhibits ATP hydrolysis in ischemic tissues. Moreover, IF1 is overexpressed in many tumors and has been shown to act as a pro-oncogenic protein, although its mechanism of action is still debated. Here, we show that ATP5IF1 gene disruption in HeLa cells decreases colony formation in soft agar and tumor mass development in xenografts, underlining the role of IF1 in cancer. Notably, the lack of IF1 does not affect proliferation or oligomycin-sensitive mitochondrial respiration, but it sensitizes the cells to the opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP). Immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation analysis show that IF1 binds to the ATP synthase OSCP subunit in HeLa cells under oxidative phosphorylation conditions. The IF1-OSCP interaction is confirmed by NMR spectroscopy analysis of the recombinant soluble proteins. Overall, our results suggest that the IF1-OSCP interaction protects cancer cells from PTP-dependent apoptosis under normoxic conditions.
  3. Nature. 2023 Jan 25.
    Keywords:  Biochemistry; Cell biology; Metabolism; Proteomics
  4. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2023 Jan 23. 15353702221147567
      Succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit C (SDHC) is a subunit of mitochondrial complex II (MCII), which is also known as succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase. Mitochondrial complex II is the smallest respiratory complex in the respiratory chain and contains four subunits. SDHC is a membrane-anchored subunit of SDH, which connects the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the electron transport chain. SDH regulates several physiological processes within cells, plays an important role in generating energy to maintain normal cell growth, and is involved in apoptosis. Currently, SDHC is generally recognized as a tumor-suppressor gene. SDHC mutations can cause oxidative damage in the body. It is closely related to the occurrence and development of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging-related diseases. Here, we review studies on the structure, biological function, related diseases of SDHC, and the mev-1 Animal Model of SDHC Mutation and its potential use as a therapeutic target of certain human diseases.
    Keywords:  SDHC; animal models; electron transport; mitochondrial complex II; neurodegenerative diseases; oxidative stress; therapeutic target; tumorigenesis
  5. Autophagy. 2023 Jan 24.
      Mitophagy and its variants are considered important salvage pathways to remove dysfunctional mitochondria. Non-canonical mitophagy, independent of autophagosome formation and including endosomal-dependent mitophagy, operate upon specific injury. In a recent paper, we describe a new mechanism where, upon mtDNA damage, mitochondrial nucleoids are eliminated via an endosomal-mitophagy pathway. Using proximity proteomics, we identified the proteins required for elimination of mutated mitochondrial nucleoids from the mitochondrial matrix. Among them, ATAD3 and SAMM50 control cristae architecture and nucleoid interaction, necessary for mtDNA extraction. In the mitochondrial outer membrane, SAMM50 coordinates with the retromer protein VPS35 to sequester mtDNA in endosomes and guide them towards elimination, thus avoiding the activation of an exacerbated immune response. Here, we summarize our findings and examine how this newly described pathway contributes to our understanding of mtDNA quality control.
    Keywords:  - mitophagy; endosomes; mtDNA
  6. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2023 Jan 20. pii: S1367-5931(22)00146-6. [Epub ahead of print]73 102261
      Purine nucleotides, generated by de novo synthesis and salvage pathways, are essential for metabolism and act as building blocks of genetic material. To avoid an imbalance in the nucleotide pool, nature has devised several strategies to regulate/tune the catalytic performance of key purine metabolic enzymes. Here, we discuss some recent examples, such as stress-regulating alarmones that bind to select pathway enzymes, huge ensembles like dynamic metabolons and self-assembled filaments that highlight the layered fine-control prevalent in the purine metabolic pathway to fulfill requisite purine demands. Examples of enzymes that turn-on only under allosteric control, are regulated via long-distance communication that facilitates transient conduits have additionally been explored.
    Keywords:  Alarmones; Conformational flexibility; Filaments; Purine metabolism; Purine salvage pathway; Purinosome; de novo purine biosynthetic pathway
  7. Trends Biochem Sci. 2023 Jan 24. pii: S0968-0004(22)00334-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a remarkably hydrophobic, redox-active lipid that empowers diverse cellular processes. Although most known for shuttling electrons between mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, the roles for CoQ are far more wide-reaching and ever-expanding. CoQ serves as a conduit for electrons from myriad pathways to enter the ETC, acts as a cofactor for biosynthetic and catabolic reactions, detoxifies damaging lipid species, and engages in cellular signaling and oxygen sensing. Many open questions remain regarding the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of CoQ, which hinders our ability to treat human CoQ deficiency. Here, we recount progress in filling these knowledge gaps, highlight unanswered questions, and underscore the need for novel tools to enable discoveries and improve the treatment of CoQ-related diseases.
    Keywords:  coenzyme Q; complex Q; lipids; mitochondria; oxidative phosphorylation; ubiquinone
  8. Nature. 2023 Jan 25.
      Mitochondria have crucial roles in cellular energetics, metabolism, signalling and quality control1-4. They contain around 1,000 different proteins that often assemble into complexes and supercomplexes such as respiratory complexes and preprotein translocases1,3-7. The composition of the mitochondrial proteome has been characterized1,3,5,6; however, the organization of mitochondrial proteins into stable and dynamic assemblies is poorly understood for major parts of the proteome1,4,7. Here we report quantitative mapping of mitochondrial protein assemblies using high-resolution complexome profiling of more than 90% of the yeast mitochondrial proteome, termed MitCOM. An analysis of the MitCOM dataset resolves >5,200 protein peaks with an average of six peaks per protein and demonstrates a notable complexity of mitochondrial protein assemblies with distinct appearance for respiration, metabolism, biogenesis, dynamics, regulation and redox processes. We detect interactors of the mitochondrial receptor for cytosolic ribosomes, of prohibitin scaffolds and of respiratory complexes. The identification of quality-control factors operating at the mitochondrial protein entry gate reveals pathways for preprotein ubiquitylation, deubiquitylation and degradation. Interactions between the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase Pth2 and the entry gate led to the elucidation of a constitutive pathway for the removal of preproteins. The MitCOM dataset-which is accessible through an interactive profile viewer-is a comprehensive resource for the identification, organization and interaction of mitochondrial machineries and pathways.
  9. EMBO J. 2023 Jan 27. e112309
      Hundreds of nucleus-encoded mitochondrial precursor proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported into mitochondria in a post-translational manner. However, the early processes associated with mitochondrial protein targeting remain poorly understood. Here, we show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the cytosol has the capacity to transiently store mitochondrial matrix-destined precursors in dedicated deposits that we termed MitoStores. Competitive inhibition of mitochondrial protein import via clogging of import sites greatly enhances the formation of MitoStores, but they also form during physiological cell growth on nonfermentable carbon sources. MitoStores are enriched for a specific subset of nucleus-encoded mitochondrial proteins, in particular those containing N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequences. Our results suggest that MitoStore formation suppresses the toxic potential of aberrantly accumulating mitochondrial precursor proteins and is controlled by the heat shock proteins Hsp42 and Hsp104. Thus, the cytosolic protein quality control system plays an active role during the early stages of mitochondrial protein targeting through the coordinated and localized sequestration of mitochondrial precursor proteins.
    Keywords:  chaperones; mitochondria; proteasome; protein aggregates; protein translocation
  10. Redox Biol. 2023 Jan 18. pii: S2213-2317(23)00014-9. [Epub ahead of print]60 102613
      Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), a co-enzyme and an electron carrier, plays crucial roles in numerous biological functions, including cellular metabolism and antioxidation. Because NADP is subcellular-membrane impermeable, eukaryotes compartmentalize NAD kinases (NADKs), the NADP biosynthetic enzymes. Mitochondria are fundamental organelles for energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. Ten years after the discovery of the mitochondrial NADK (known as MNADK or NADK2), a significant amount of knowledge has been obtained regarding its functions, mechanism of action, human biology, mouse models, crystal structures, and post-translation modifications. NADK2 phosphorylates NAD(H) to generate mitochondrial NADP(H). NADK2-deficient patients suffered from hyperlysinemia, elevated plasma C10:2-carnitine (due to the inactivity of relevant NADP-dependent enzymes), and neuronal development defects. Nadk2-deficient mice recapitulate key features of NADK2-deficient patients, including metabolic and neuronal abnormalities. Crystal structures of human NADK2 show a dimer, with the NADP+-binding site located at the dimer interface. NADK2 activity is highly regulated by post-translational modifications, including S188 phosphorylation, K76 and K304 acetylation, and C193 S-nitrosylation; mutations in each site affect NADK2 activity and function. In mice, hepatic Nadk2 functions as a major metabolic regulator upon increased energy demands by regulating sirtuin 3 activity and fatty acid oxidation. Hopefully, future research on NADK2 will not only elucidate its functional roles in health and disease but will also pave the way for novel therapeutics for both rare and common diseases, including NADK2 deficiency and metabolic syndrome.
    Keywords:  Antioxidation; MNADK; Mitochondria; NAD; NADK; NADK2; NADP
  11. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2023 Jan 19. pii: S1043-2760(23)00014-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      We propose a two-mode (pursuit/maintenance) model of metabolism defined by usable resource availability. Pursuit, consisting of anabolism and catabolism, dominates when usable resources are plentiful and leads to the generation of metabolic waste. In turn, maintenance of a system is activated by elevated metabolic waste during resource depletion. Interaction with the environment results in pendulum-like swings between these metabolic states in thriveless attempts to maintain the least deleterious organismal state - ephemeral homeostasis. Imperfectness of biological processes during these attempts supports the accumulation of the deleteriome, driving organismal aging. We discuss how metabolic adjustment by the environment and resource stabilization may modulate healthspan and lifespan.
    Keywords:  aging; homeostasis; maintenance; metabolism; pursuit
  12. Cell Metab. 2023 Jan 14. pii: S1550-4131(22)00577-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Proteins are secreted from cells to send information to neighboring cells or distant tissues. Because of the highly integrated nature of energy balance systems, there has been particular interest in myokines and adipokines. These are challenging to study through proteomics because serum or plasma contains highly abundant proteins that limit the detection of proteins with lower abundance. We show here that extracellular fluid (EF) from muscle and fat tissues of mice shows a different protein composition than either serum or tissues. Mass spectrometry analyses of EFs from mice with physiological perturbations, like exercise or cold exposure, allowed the quantification of many potentially novel myokines and adipokines. Using this approach, we identify prosaposin as a secreted product of muscle and fat. Prosaposin expression stimulates thermogenic gene expression and induces mitochondrial respiration in primary fat cells. These studies together illustrate the utility of EF isolation as a discovery tool for adipokines and myokines.
    Keywords:  PGC1α; cold adaptation; exercise; extracellular fluid; prosaposin; proteomics; secreted proteins; secretome
  13. Cell. 2023 Jan 19. pii: S0092-8674(22)01579-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Whole-genome duplication (WGD) is a frequent event in cancer evolution and an important driver of aneuploidy. The role of the p53 tumor suppressor in WGD has been enigmatic: p53 can block the proliferation of tetraploid cells, acting as a barrier to WGD, but can also promote mitotic bypass, a key step in WGD via endoreduplication. In wild-type (WT) p53 tumors, WGD is frequently associated with activation of the E2F pathway, especially amplification of CCNE1, encoding cyclin E1. Here, we show that elevated cyclin E1 expression causes replicative stress, which activates ATR- and Chk1-dependent G2 phase arrest. p53, via its downstream target p21, together with Wee1, then inhibits mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase activity sufficiently to activate APC/CCdh1 and promote mitotic bypass. Cyclin E expression suppresses p53-dependent senescence after mitotic bypass, allowing cells to complete endoreduplication. Our results indicate that p53 can contribute to cancer evolution through the promotion of WGD.
    Keywords:  DNA replication; aneuploidy; cancer biology; cell cycle; cyclin E; mitotic bypass; whole-genome duplication
  14. FEBS Lett. 2023 Jan 24.
      Polyphosphate (polyP) is a conserved polymer of inorganic phosphate residues that can reach thousands of moieties in length. PolyP has been implicated in cellular functions ranging from energy and phosphate homeostasis to cell signalling in eukaryotes from yeast to humans. Despite the interest in the role of polyP as a signalling molecule, the spatiotemporal regulation of polyP itself remains poorly understood. This knowledge gap limits our ability to understand how polyP impacts the physiology of normal and diseased cells and how this might be exploited in a therapeutic context. Polyphosphatases, enzymes that degrade polyP to generate shorter chains and free inorganic phosphate, are ideally positioned to mediate polyP dynamics. However, little is known about how the activities of these enzymes are linked to specific cellular functions and how they might be regulated. Here, we provide an in-depth overview of polyphosphatase enzymes in budding yeast, which has served as a workhorse for polyP research, and in mammalian cells where the enzymes that make and degrade polyP have remained elusive. We identify critical open questions in both systems and propose strategies to guide future work.
    Keywords:  Polyphosphatases; endopolyphosphatases; exopolyphosphatases; mammalian cells; polyphosphate; yeast cells
  15. Nature. 2023 Jan 25.
      The transcription factor TFEB is a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy1. The phosphorylation of TFEB by the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)2-5 is unique in its mTORC1 substrate recruitment mechanism, which is strictly dependent on the amino acid-mediated activation of the RagC GTPase activating protein FLCN6,7. TFEB lacks the TOR signalling motif responsible for the recruitment of other mTORC1 substrates. We used cryogenic-electron microscopy to determine the structure of TFEB as presented to mTORC1 for phosphorylation, which we refer to as the 'megacomplex'. Two full Rag-Ragulator complexes present each molecule of TFEB to the mTOR active site. One Rag-Ragulator complex is bound to Raptor in the canonical mode seen previously in the absence of TFEB. A second Rag-Ragulator complex (non-canonical) docks onto the first through a RagC GDP-dependent contact with the second Ragulator complex. The non-canonical Rag dimer binds the first helix of TFEB with a RagCGDP-dependent aspartate clamp in the cleft between the Rag G domains. In cellulo mutation of the clamp drives TFEB constitutively into the nucleus while having no effect on mTORC1 localization. The remainder of the 108-amino acid TFEB docking domain winds around Raptor and then back to RagA. The double use of RagC GDP contacts in both Rag dimers explains the strong dependence of TFEB phosphorylation on FLCN and the RagC GDP state.
  16. EMBO J. 2023 Jan 24. e112344
      Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) promotes biogenesis and inhibits the degradation of ribosomes in response to nutrient availability. To ensure a basal supply of ribosomes, cells are known to preserve a small pool of dormant ribosomes under nutrient-limited conditions. However, the regulation of these dormant ribosomes is poorly characterized. Here, we show that upon inhibition of yeast TORC1 by rapamycin or nitrogen starvation, the ribosome preservation factor Stm1 mediates the formation of nontranslating, dormant 80S ribosomes. Furthermore, Stm1-bound 80S ribosomes are protected from proteasomal degradation. Upon nutrient replenishment, TORC1 directly phosphorylates and inhibits Stm1 to reactivate translation. Finally, we find that SERBP1, a mammalian ortholog of Stm1, is likewise required for the formation of dormant 80S ribosomes upon mTORC1 inhibition in mammalian cells. These data suggest that TORC1 regulates ribosomal dormancy in an evolutionarily conserved manner by directly targeting a ribosome preservation factor.
    Keywords:  SERBP1; Stm1; TORC1; dormant ribosomes; proteasome
  17. Science. 2023 Jan 27. 379(6630): 351-357
      The molecular mode of action of biguanides, including the drug metformin, which is widely used in the treatment of diabetes, is incompletely characterized. Here, we define the inhibitory drug-target interaction(s) of a model biguanide with mammalian respiratory complex I by combining cryo-electron microscopy and enzyme kinetics. We interpret these data to explain the selectivity of biguanide binding to different enzyme states. The primary inhibitory site is in an amphipathic region of the quinone-binding channel, and an additional binding site is in a pocket on the intermembrane-space side of the enzyme. An independent local chaotropic interaction, not previously described for any drug, displaces a portion of a key helix in the membrane domain. Our data provide a structural basis for biguanide action and enable the rational design of medicinal biguanides.
  18. Dev Cell. 2023 Jan 23. pii: S1534-5807(22)00875-9. [Epub ahead of print]58(2): 94-109.e6
      The development of the mouse salivary gland involves a tip-driven process of branching morphogenesis that takes place in concert with differentiation into acinar, myoepithelial, and ductal (basal and luminal) sub-lineages. By combining clonal lineage tracing with a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the branched epithelial network and single-cell RNA-seq analysis, we show that in tips, a heterogeneous population of renewing progenitors transition from a Krt14+ multipotent state to unipotent states via two transcriptionally distinct bipotent states, one restricted to the Krt14+ basal and myoepithelial lineage and the other to the Krt8+ acinar and luminal lineage. Using genetic perturbations, we show how the differential expression of Notch signaling correlates with spatial segregation, exits from multipotency, and promotes the Krt8+ lineage, whereas Kras activation promotes proacinar fate. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for how positional cues within growing tips regulate the process of lineage segregation and ductal patterning.
    Keywords:  Kras; Krt14; Notch; acini; branching; development; differentiation; duct; potency; salivary gland
  19. Mol Cell. 2023 Jan 14. pii: S1097-2765(22)01217-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      The protection of DNA replication forks under stress is essential for genome maintenance and cancer suppression. One mechanism of fork protection involves an elevation in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), which in turn activates CaMKK2 and AMPK to prevent uncontrolled fork processing by Exo1. How replication stress triggers [Ca2+]i elevation is unclear. Here, we report a role of cytosolic self-DNA (cytosDNA) and the ion channel TRPV2 in [Ca2+]i induction and fork protection. Replication stress leads to the generation of ssDNA and dsDNA species that, upon translocation into cytoplasm, trigger the activation of the sensor protein cGAS and the production of cGAMP. The subsequent binding of cGAMP to STING causes its dissociation from TRPV2, leading to TRPV2 derepression and Ca2+ release from the ER, which in turn activates the downstream signaling cascade to prevent fork degradation. This Ca2+-dependent genome protection pathway is also activated in response to replication stress caused by oncogene activation.
    Keywords:  AMPK; CaMKK2; STING; TREX1; TRPV2; cGAS; cytosolic DNA; fork resection; intracellular Ca(2+); replication stress
  20. Sci Rep. 2023 Jan 23. 13(1): 1273
      Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumour in children. High-risk MB patients harbouring MYC amplification or overexpression exhibit a very poor prognosis. Aberrant activation of MYC markedly reprograms cell metabolism to sustain tumorigenesis, yet how metabolism is dysregulated in MYC-driven MB is not well understood. Growing evidence unveiled the potential of BET-bromodomain inhibitors (BETis) as next generation agents for treating MYC-driven MB, but whether and how BETis may affect tumour cell metabolism to exert their anticancer activities remains unknown. In this study, we explore the metabolic features characterising MYC-driven MB and examine how these are altered by BET-bromodomain inhibition. To this end, we employed an NMR-based metabolomics approach applied to the MYC-driven MB D283 and D458 cell lines before and after the treatment with the BETi OTX-015. We found that OTX-015 triggers a metabolic shift in both cell lines resulting in increased levels of myo-inositol, glycerophosphocholine, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, glycine, serine, pantothenate and phosphocholine. Moreover, we show that OTX-015 alters ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, inositol phosphate metabolism, phosphatidylinositol signalling system, glycerophospholipid metabolism, ether lipid metabolism, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, and glycine, serine and threonine metabolism pathways in both cell lines. These insights provide a metabolic characterisation of MYC-driven childhood MB cell lines, which could pave the way for the discovery of novel druggable pathways. Importantly, these findings will also contribute to understand the downstream effects of BETis on MYC-driven MB, potentially aiding the development of new therapeutic strategies to combat medulloblastoma.
  21. Oncogene. 2023 Jan 23.
      NAD+ levels decline with age and in certain disease conditions. NAD+ precursors have been shown to stimulate NAD+ biosynthesis and ameliorate various age-associated diseases in mouse models. However, NAD+ metabolism is complicated in cancer and its role in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains elusive. Here, we show that NAD+ supplement suppresses tumor metastasis in a TNBC orthotopic patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. Sirtuin1 lysine deacetylase (SIRT1) is required for the effects since SIRT1 knockdown blocks NAD+-suppressed tumor metastasis. Overexpression of SIRT1 effectively impairs the metastatic potential of TNBC. Importantly, the interaction between SIRT1 and p66Shc causes the deacetylation and functional inactivation of p66Shc, which inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Overall, we demonstrate that NAD+ supplementation executes its anti-tumor function via activating the SIRT1-p66Shc axis, which highlights the preventive and therapeutic potential of SIRT1 activators as effective interventions for TNBC.
  22. Nature. 2023 Jan 25.
      Diabetes represents a spectrum of disease in which metabolic dysfunction damages multiple organ systems including liver, kidneys and peripheral nerves1,2. Although the onset and progression of these co-morbidities are linked with insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia3-7, aberrant non-essential amino acid (NEAA) metabolism also contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes8-10. Serine and glycine are closely related NEAAs whose levels are consistently reduced in patients with metabolic syndrome10-14, but the mechanistic drivers and downstream consequences of this metabotype remain unclear. Low systemic serine and glycine are also emerging as a hallmark of macular and peripheral nerve disorders, correlating with impaired visual acuity and peripheral neuropathy15,16. Here we demonstrate that aberrant serine homeostasis drives serine and glycine deficiencies in diabetic mice, which can be diagnosed with a serine tolerance test that quantifies serine uptake and disposal. Mimicking these metabolic alterations in young mice by dietary serine or glycine restriction together with high fat intake markedly accelerates the onset of small fibre neuropathy while reducing adiposity. Normalization of serine by dietary supplementation and mitigation of dyslipidaemia with myriocin both alleviate neuropathy in diabetic mice, linking serine-associated peripheral neuropathy to sphingolipid metabolism. These findings identify systemic serine deficiency and dyslipidaemia as novel risk factors for peripheral neuropathy that may be exploited therapeutically.
  23. Mol Syst Biol. 2023 Jan 27. e11099
      Metabolic flux is the final output of cellular regulation and has been extensively studied for carbon but much less is known about nitrogen, which is another important building block for living organisms. For the tuberculosis pathogen, this is particularly important in informing the development of effective drugs targeting the pathogen's metabolism. Here we performed 13 C15 N dual isotopic labeling of Mycobacterium bovis BCG steady state cultures, quantified intracellular carbon and nitrogen fluxes and inferred reaction bidirectionalities. This was achieved by model scope extension and refinement, implemented in a multi-atom transition model, within the statistical framework of Bayesian model averaging (BMA). Using BMA-based 13 C15 N-metabolic flux analysis, we jointly resolve carbon and nitrogen fluxes quantitatively. We provide the first nitrogen flux distributions for amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis in mycobacteria and establish glutamate as the central node for nitrogen metabolism. We improved resolution of the notoriously elusive anaplerotic node in central carbon metabolism and revealed possible operation modes. Our study provides a powerful and statistically rigorous platform to simultaneously infer carbon and nitrogen metabolism in any biological system.
    Keywords:  Bayesian metabolic flux analysis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; carbon metabolism; isotope labeling; nitrogen metabolism
  24. Cell Rep. 2023 Jan 27. pii: S2211-1247(23)00057-8. [Epub ahead of print]42(2): 112046
    ImmGen Consortium
      The diversity of mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) subpopulations across tissues is one of the key physiological characteristics of the immune system. Here, we focus on understanding the metabolic variability of MNPs through metabolic network analysis applied to three large-scale transcriptional datasets: we introduce (1) an ImmGen MNP open-source dataset of 337 samples across 26 tissues; (2) a myeloid subset of ImmGen Phase I dataset (202 MNP samples); and (3) a myeloid mouse single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) dataset (51,364 cells) assembled based on Tabula Muris Senis. To analyze such large-scale datasets, we develop a network-based computational approach, genes and metabolites (GAM) clustering, for unbiased identification of the key metabolic subnetworks based on transcriptional profiles. We define 9 metabolic subnetworks that encapsulate the metabolic differences within MNP from 38 different tissues. Obtained modules reveal that cholesterol synthesis appears particularly active within the migratory dendritic cells, while glutathione synthesis is essential for cysteinyl leukotriene production by peritoneal and lung macrophages.
    Keywords:  CP: Immunology; CP: Metabolism; ImmGen; immunometabolism; mononuclear phagocytes; myeloid cells; network analysis; single-cell RNA-seq
  25. Nat Cell Biol. 2023 Jan 23.
      Mitochondria are complex organelles with different compartments, each harbouring their own protein quality control factors. While chaperones of the mitochondrial matrix are well characterized, it is poorly understood which chaperones protect the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Here we show that cytosolic small heat shock proteins are imported under basal conditions into the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where they operate as molecular chaperones. Protein misfolding in the mitochondrial intermembrane space leads to increased recruitment of small heat shock proteins. Depletion of small heat shock proteins leads to mitochondrial swelling and reduced respiration, while aggregation of aggregation-prone substrates is countered in their presence. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-causing mutations disturb the mitochondrial function of HSPB1, potentially linking previously observed mitochondrial dysfunction in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2F to its role in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Our results reveal that small heat shock proteins form a chaperone system that operates in the mitochondrial intermembrane space.
  26. Sci Adv. 2023 Jan 25. 9(4): eadd6097
      Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) regulates cell death and inflammation. Here, we show that T cell-specific RIPK1 deficiency in mice leads to the premature senescence of T cells and induces various age-related diseases, resulting in premature death. RIPK1 deficiency causes higher basal activation of mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1) that drives enhanced cytokine production, induction of senescence-related genes, and increased activation of caspase-3/7, which are restored by inhibition of mTORC1. Critically, normal aged T cells exhibit similar phenotypes and responses. Mechanistically, a combined deficiency of RIPK3 and caspase-8 inhibition restores the impaired proliferative responses; the elevated activation of Akt, mTORC1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and caspase-3/7; and the increased expression of senescence-related genes in RIPK1-deficient CD4 T cells. Last, we revealed that the senescent phenotype of RIPK1-deficient and aged CD4 T cells is restored in the normal tissue environment. Thus, we have clarified the function of RIPK3 and caspase-8 in inducing CD4 T cell senescence, which is modulated by environmental signals.
  27. EMBO Rep. 2023 Jan 27. e55536
      The cGAS-STING (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes) axis is the predominant DNA sensing system in cells of the innate immune system. However, human T cells also express high levels of STING, while its role and physiological trigger remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the cGAS-STING pathway is indeed functional in human primary T cells. In the presence of a TCR-engaging signal, both cGAS and STING activation switches T cells into type I interferon-producing cells. However, T cell function is severely compromised following STING activation, as evidenced by increased cell death, decreased proliferation, and impaired metabolism. Interestingly, these different phenotypes bifurcate at the level of STING. While antiviral immunity and cell death require the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), decreased proliferation is mediated by STING independently of IRF3. In summary, we demonstrate that human T cells possess a functional cGAS-STING signaling pathway that can contribute to antiviral immunity. However, regardless of its potential antiviral role, the activation of the cGAS-STING pathway negatively affects T cell function at multiple levels. Taken together, these results could help inform the future development of cGAS-STING-targeted immunotherapies.
    Keywords:  STING; T cell; T cell dysfunction; antiviral immune response; cGAS
  28. Mol Cell. 2023 Jan 14. pii: S1097-2765(23)00003-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      Replication protein A (RPA) is a major regulator of eukaryotic DNA metabolism involved in multiple essential cellular processes. Maintaining appropriate RPA dynamics is crucial for cells to prevent RPA exhaustion, which can lead to replication fork breakage and replication catastrophe. However, how cells regulate RPA availability during unperturbed replication and in response to stress has not been well elucidated. Here, we show that HNRNPA2B1SUMO functions as an endogenous inhibitor of RPA during normal replication. HNRNPA2B1SUMO associates with RPA through recognizing the SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) of RPA to inhibit RPA accumulation at replication forks and impede local ATR activation. Declining HNRNPA2SUMO induced by DNA damage will release nuclear soluble RPA to localize to chromatin and enable ATR activation. Furthermore, we characterize that HNRNPA2B1 hinders homologous recombination (HR) repair via limiting RPA availability, thus conferring sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. These findings establish HNRNPA2B1 as a critical player in RPA-dependent surveillance networks.
    Keywords:  ATR; ATRIP; DNA damage; HNRNPA2B1; RPA; SUMOylation; breast cancer; homologous recombination; replication stress
  29. Science. 2023 Jan 27. eabn4705
      Neuronal development in the human cerebral cortex is considerably prolonged compared to that of other mammals. We explored whether mitochondria influence the species-specific timing of cortical neuron maturation. By comparing human and mouse cortical neuronal maturation at high temporal and cell resolution, we found a slower mitochondria development in human cortical neurons compared with that in the mouse, together with lower mitochondria metabolic activity, particularly that of oxidative phosphorylation. Stimulation of mitochondria metabolism in human neurons resulted in accelerated development in vitro and in vivo, leading to maturation of cells weeks ahead of time, whereas its inhibition in mouse neurons led to decreased rates of maturation. Mitochondria are thus important regulators of the pace of neuronal development underlying human-specific brain neoteny.
  30. Nat Commun. 2023 Jan 27. 14(1): 448
      Chromatin regulators are frequently mutated in human cancer and are attractive drug targets. They include diverse proteins that share functional domains and assemble into related multi-subunit complexes. To investigate functional relationships among these regulators, here we apply combinatorial CRISPR knockouts (KOs) to test over 35,000 gene-gene pairings in leukemia cells, using a library of over 300,000 constructs. Top pairs that demonstrate either compensatory non-lethal interactions or synergistic lethality enrich for paralogs and targets that occupy the same protein complex. The screen highlights protein complex dependencies not apparent in single KO screens, for example MCM histone exchange, the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex, and HBO1 (KAT7) complex. We explore two approaches to NuRD complex inactivation. Paralog and non-paralog combinations of the KAT7 complex emerge as synergistic lethal and specifically nominate the ING5 PHD domain as a potential therapeutic target when paired with other KAT7 complex member losses. These findings highlight the power of combinatorial screening to provide mechanistic insight and identify therapeutic targets within redundant networks.
  31. Nature. 2023 Jan 25.
    Keywords:  Diabetes; Metabolism; Physiology
  32. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2023 Jan 23.
      Circadian rhythms in physiology and behaviour allow organisms to anticipate the daily environmental changes imposed by the rotation of our planet around its axis. Although these rhythms eventually manifest at the organismal level, a cellular basis for circadian rhythms has been demonstrated. Significant contributors to these cell-autonomous rhythms are daily cycles in gene expression and protein translation. However, recent data revealed cellular rhythms in other biological processes, including ionic currents, ion transport, and cytosolic ion abundance. Circadian rhythms in ion currents sustain circadian variation in action potential firing rate, which coordinates neuronal behaviour and activity. Circadian regulation of metal ions abundance and dynamics is implicated in distinct cellular processes, from protein translation to membrane activity and osmotic homeostasis. In turn, studies showed that manipulating ion abundance affects the expression of core clock genes and proteins, suggestive of a close interplay. However, the relationship between gene expression cycles, ion dynamics and cellular function is still poorly characterised. In this review, I will discuss the mechanisms that generate ion rhythms, the cellular functions they govern and how they feed back to regulate the core clock machinery.
    Keywords:  action potential firing; circadian rhythms; ion currents; metal ions; osmotic homeostasis
  33. Annu Rev Pathol. 2023 Jan 24. 18 439-466
      Hepatocytes are the main workers in the hepatic factory, managing metabolism of nutrients and xenobiotics, production and recycling of proteins, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. Division of labor between hepatocytes is critical to coordinate complex complementary or opposing multistep processes, similar to distributed tasks at an assembly line. This so-called metabolic zonation has both spatial and temporal components. Spatial distribution of metabolic function in hepatocytes of different lobular zones is necessary to perform complex sequential multistep metabolic processes and to assign metabolic tasks to the right environment. Moreover, temporal control of metabolic processes is critical to align required metabolic processes to the feeding and fasting cycles. Disruption of this complex spatiotemporal hepatic organization impairs key metabolic processes with both local and systemic consequences. Many metabolic diseases, such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetes, are associated with impaired metabolic liver zonation. Recent technological advances shed new light on the spatiotemporal gene expression networks controlling liver function and how their deregulation may be involved in a large variety of diseases. We summarize the current knowledge about spatiotemporal metabolic liver zonation and consequences on liver pathobiology.
    Keywords:  WNT signaling; chronopharmacology; circadian rhythm; hepatic detoxification; liver monogenic diseases; liver pathology; liver pathophysiology; liver zonation; metabolism; spatial lobular organization
  34. Curr Biol. 2023 Jan 20. pii: S0960-9822(23)00008-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Germline mutations upregulating RAS signaling are associated with multiple developmental disorders. A hallmark of these conditions is that the same mutation may present vastly different phenotypes in different individuals, even in monozygotic twins. Here, we demonstrate how the origins of such largely unexplained phenotypic variations may be dissected using highly controlled studies in Drosophila that have been gene edited to carry activating variants of MEK, a core enzyme in the RAS pathway. This allowed us to measure the small but consistent increase in signaling output of such alleles in vivo. The fraction of mutation carriers reaching adulthood was strongly reduced, but most surviving animals had normal RAS-dependent structures. We rationalize these results using a stochastic signaling model and support it by quantifying cell fate specification errors in bilaterally symmetric larval trachea, a RAS-dependent structure that allows us to isolate the effects of mutations from potential contributions of genetic modifiers and environmental differences. We propose that the small increase in signaling output shifts the distribution of phenotypes into a regime, where stochastic variation causes defects in some individuals, but not in others. Our findings shed light on phenotypic heterogeneity of developmental disorders caused by deregulated RAS signaling and offer a framework for investigating causal effects of other pathogenic alleles and mild mutations in general.
  35. Urology. 2023 Jan 21. pii: S0090-4295(23)00052-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      The human body was evolutionarily programmed to run on cycles, termed circadian rhythms, which integrate human behavior and bodily function with the environment. Disruption to these rhythms via desynchronization have been deemed a probable carcinogen by the WHO. Subsequent research has identified alterations in multiple core clock genes when comparing tumor and benign tissues. This review will discuss core clock genes associated with urogenital malignancies and highlight impactful research regarding circadian biology use in treatment. Chronotherapy, treatment alignment with an individual's biological rhythm, remains a relatively untouched field within urology that should be explored to possibly enhance therapeutic outcomes.
    Keywords:  bladder cancer; chronotherapy; circadian clock; prostate cancer; renal cancer; urology