bims-camemi Biomed News
on Mitochondrial metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2022‒10‒30
twenty-six papers selected by
Christian Frezza
University Hospital Cologne

  1. Cell Death Differ. 2022 Oct 28.
      Macrophages are essential players for the host response against pathogens, regulation of inflammation and tissue regeneration. The wide range of macrophage functions rely on their heterogeneity and plasticity that enable a dynamic adaptation of their responses according to the surrounding environmental cues. Recent studies suggest that metabolism provides synergistic support for macrophage activation and elicitation of desirable immune responses; however, the metabolic pathways orchestrating macrophage activation are still under scrutiny. Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is a mitochondria-shaping protein controlling mitochondrial fusion, cristae biogenesis and respiration; clear evidence shows that the lack or dysfunctional activity of this protein triggers the accumulation of metabolic intermediates of the TCA cycle. In this study, we show that OPA1 has a crucial role in macrophage activation. Selective Opa1 deletion in myeloid cells impairs M1-macrophage commitment. Mechanistically, Opa1 deletion leads to TCA cycle metabolite accumulation and defective NF-κB signaling activation. In an in vivo model of muscle regeneration upon injury, Opa1 knockout macrophages persist within the damaged tissue, leading to excess collagen deposition and impairment in muscle regeneration. Collectively, our data indicate that OPA1 is a key metabolic driver of macrophage functions.
  2. Cell Chem Biol. 2022 Oct 24. pii: S2451-9456(22)00360-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cancer cells need a steady supply of nutrients to evade cell death and proliferate. Depriving cancer cells of the amino acid cystine can trigger the non-apoptotic cell death process of ferroptosis. Here, we report that cancer cells can evade cystine deprivation-induced ferroptosis by uptake and catabolism of the cysteine-rich extracellular protein albumin. This protective mechanism is enhanced by mTORC1 inhibition and involves albumin degradation in the lysosome, predominantly by cathepsin B (CTSB). CTSB-dependent albumin breakdown followed by export of cystine from the lysosome via the transporter cystinosin fuels the synthesis of glutathione, which suppresses lethal lipid peroxidation. When cancer cells are grown under non-adherent conditions as spheroids, mTORC1 pathway activity is reduced, and albumin supplementation alone affords considerable protection against ferroptosis. These results identify the catabolism of extracellular protein within the lysosome as a mechanism that can inhibit ferroptosis in cancer cells.
    Keywords:  ROS; albumin; cancer; cathepsin; cell death; cysteine; ferroptosis; glutathione; lysosome; mTOR
  3. Nat Chem Biol. 2022 Oct 24.
      Glutamine synthetase (GS) activity is conserved from prokaryotes to humans, where the ATP-dependent production of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia is essential for neurotransmission and ammonia detoxification. Here, we show that mammalian GS uses glutamate and methylamine to produce a methylated glutamine analog, N5-methylglutamine. Untargeted metabolomics revealed that liver-specific GS deletion and its pharmacological inhibition in mice suppress hepatic and circulating levels of N5-methylglutamine. This alternative activity of GS was confirmed in human recombinant enzyme and cells, where a pathogenic mutation in the active site (R324C) promoted the synthesis of N5-methylglutamine over glutamine. N5-Methylglutamine is detected in the circulation, and its levels are sustained by the microbiome, as demonstrated by using germ-free mice. Finally, we show that urine levels of N5-methylglutamine correlate with tumor burden and GS expression in a β-catenin-driven model of liver cancer, highlighting the translational potential of this uncharacterized metabolite.
  4. J Cell Biol. 2022 Dec 05. pii: e202208103. [Epub ahead of print]221(12):
      The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a multi-subunit protein kinase complex, interrogates growth factor signaling with cellular nutrient and energy status to control metabolic homeostasis. Activation of mTORC1 promotes biosynthesis of macromolecules, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, and simultaneously suppresses catabolic processes such as lysosomal degradation of self-constituents and extracellular components. Metabolic regulation has emerged as a critical determinant of various cellular death programs, including apoptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis. In this article, we review the expanding knowledge on how mTORC1 coordinates metabolic pathways to impinge on cell death regulation. We focus on the current understanding on how nutrient status and cellular signaling pathways connect mTORC1 activity with ferroptosis, an iron-dependent cell death program that has been implicated in a plethora of human diseases. In-depth understanding of the principles governing the interaction between mTORC1 and cell death pathways can ultimately guide the development of novel therapies for the treatment of relevant pathological conditions.
  5. Cell Rep. 2022 10 25. pii: S2211-1247(22)01366-3. [Epub ahead of print]41(4): 111516
      Natural killer T (NKT) cells operate distinctly different metabolic programming from CD4 T cells, including a strict requirement for glutamine to regulate cell homeostasis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we report that at a steady state, NKT cells have higher glutamine levels than CD4 T cells and that NKT cells increase glutaminolysis on activation. Activated NKT cells use glutamine to fuel the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glutathione synthesis. In addition, glutamine-derived nitrogen enables protein glycosylation via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). Each of these branches of glutamine metabolism seems to be critical for NKT cell homeostasis and mitochondrial functions. Glutaminolysis and HBP differentially regulate interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon γ (IFNγ) production. Glutamine metabolism appears to be controlled by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. These findings highlight a distinct metabolic requirement of NKT cells compared with CD4 T cells, which may have therapeutic implications in the treatment of certain nutrient-restricted diseases.
    Keywords:  CP: Immunology; HBP; PPP; ROS; glutathione; glycosylation; metabolism
  6. Nat Commun. 2022 Oct 26. 13(1): 6360
      Chromosomal instability is a major challenge to patient stratification and targeted drug development for high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). Here we show that somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) in frequently amplified HGSOC cancer genes significantly correlate with gene expression and methylation status. We identify five prevalent clonal driver SCNAs (chromosomal amplifications encompassing MYC, PIK3CA, CCNE1, KRAS and TERT) from multi-regional HGSOC data and reason that their strong selection should prioritise them as key biomarkers for targeted therapies. We use primary HGSOC spheroid models to test interactions between in vitro targeted therapy and SCNAs. MYC chromosomal copy number is associated with in-vitro and clinical response to paclitaxel and in-vitro response to mTORC1/2 inhibition. Activation of the mTOR survival pathway in the context of MYC-amplified HGSOC is statistically associated with increased prevalence of SCNAs in genes from the PI3K pathway. Co-occurrence of amplifications in MYC and genes from the PI3K pathway is independently observed in squamous lung cancer and triple negative breast cancer. In this work, we show that identifying co-occurrence of clonal driver SCNA genes could be used to tailor therapeutics for precision medicine.
  7. EMBO J. 2022 Oct 24. e111239
      Bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in a hypoxic niche that maintains their differentiation potential. While hypoxia (low oxygen concentration) was reported to critically support stem cell function and osteogenesis, the molecular events triggering changes in stem cell fate decisions in response to normoxia (high oxygen concentration) remain elusive. Here, we study the impact of normoxia on mitochondrial-nuclear communication during stem cell differentiation. We show that normoxia-cultured murine MSCs undergo profound transcriptional alterations which cause irreversible osteogenesis defects. Mechanistically, high oxygen promotes chromatin compaction and histone hypo-acetylation, particularly on promoters and enhancers of osteogenic genes. Although normoxia induces metabolic rewiring resulting in elevated acetyl-CoA levels, histone hypo-acetylation occurs due to the trapping of acetyl-CoA inside mitochondria owing to decreased citrate carrier (CiC) activity. Restoring the cytosolic acetyl-CoA pool remodels the chromatin landscape and rescues the osteogenic defects. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the metabolism-chromatin-osteogenesis axis is perturbed upon exposure to high oxygen levels and identifies CiC as a novel, oxygen-sensitive regulator of the MSC function.
    Keywords:  histone acetylation; hypoxia; mesenchymal stem cells; metabolism; osteogenesis
  8. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2022 ;pii: S1937-6448(22)00109-5. [Epub ahead of print]373 37-79
      Metabolic rewiring is a characteristic hallmark of cancer cells. This phenomenon sustains uncontrolled proliferation and resistance to apoptosis by increasing nutrients and energy supply. However, reprogramming comes together with vulnerabilities that can be used against tumor and can be applied in targeted therapy. In the last years, the genetic background of tumors has been identified thoroughly and new therapies targeting those mutations tested. Nevertheless, we propose that targeting the phenotype of cancer cells could be another way of treatment aiming to avoid drug resistance and non-responsiveness of cancer patients. Amino acid metabolism is part of the altered processes in cancer cells. Amino acids are building blocks and also sensors of signaling pathways regulating main biological processes. In this comprehensive review, we described four amino acids (asparagine, arginine, methionine, and cysteine) which have been actively investigated as potential targets for anti-tumor therapy. Asparagine depletion is successfully used for decades in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and there is a strong implication to apply it to other types of tumors. Arginine auxotrophic tumors are great candidates for arginine-starvation therapy. Higher requirement for essential amino acids such as methionine and cysteine point out promising targetable weaknesses of cancer cells.
    Keywords:  Amino acid metabolism; Arginine; Asparagine; Cancer; Cysteine; Methionine; Targeted therapy
  9. iScience. 2022 Oct 21. 25(10): 105244
      Mitochondria are major organelles responsible for cellular energy and metabolism, and their dysfunction is tightly linked to cancer. The mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome) is a protein complex consisting of 82 mitoribosomal proteins (MRPs) encoded by nuclear genes and is essential for mitochondrial protein synthesis. However, their roles in tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. We performed pan-cancer analyses of 18,177 tumors representing 28 cancer types to determine somatic alterations of MRP genes as a genetic basis for tumorigenesis. We identified a set of 20 altered MRPs known to be involved in early assembly of the mitoribosome complex. We found that tumors with affected MRPs were associated with impaired mitochondrial functions and TP53 mutations accompanied by increased genomic instability and intra-tumor heterogeneity. MRP deletions were associated with poor survival. Our results reveal a key role for mitochondrial ribosome biogenesis in tumor malignancy across cancer types.
    Keywords:  Bioinformatics; Biological database; Biological sciences; Cancer; Medical informatics
  10. Subcell Biochem. 2022 ;100 393-426
      Lysine acetylation is the second most well-studied post-translational modification after phosphorylation. While phosphorylation regulates signaling cascades, one of the most significant roles of acetylation is regulation of chromatin structure. Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) serves as the acetyl group donor for acetylation reactions mediated by lysine acetyltransferases (KATs). On the other hand, NAD+ serves as the cofactor for lysine deacetylases (KDACs). Both acetyl-CoA and NAD+ are metabolites integral to energy metabolism, and therefore, their metabolic flux can regulate the activity of KATs and KDACs impacting the epigenome. In this chapter, we review our current understanding of how metabolic pathways regulate lysine acetylation in normal and cancer cells.
    Keywords:  Acetyl-CoA; Acetylation; Epigenome; Metabolic reprogramming; Metabolism; NAD+; Oral cancer
  11. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Oct 27. 13(10): 902
      Ca2+-activated K+ channels of intermediate conductance (IK) are frequently overexpressed in breast cancer (BC) cells, while IK channel depletion reduces BC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. This raises the question, of whether and mechanistically how IK activity interferes with the metabolic activity and energy consumption rates, which are fundamental for rapidly growing cells. Using BC cells obtained from MMTV-PyMT tumor-bearing mice, we show that both, glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP-production are reduced in cells derived from IK-deficient breast tumors. Loss of IK altered the sub-/cellular K+- and Ca2+- homeostasis and mitochondrial membrane potential, ultimately resulting in reduced ATP-production and metabolic activity. Consequently, we find that BC cells lacking IK upregulate AMP-activated protein kinase activity to induce autophagy compensating the glycolytic and mitochondrial energy shortage. Our results emphasize that IK by modulating cellular Ca2+- and K+-dynamics contributes to the remodeling of metabolic pathways in cancer. Thus, targeting IK channel might disturb the metabolic activity of BC cells and reduce malignancy.
  12. EMBO J. 2022 Oct 28. e110595
      Mammalian SWI/SNF/BAF chromatin remodeling complexes influence cell lineage determination. While the contribution of these complexes to neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation and differentiation has been reported, little is known about the transcriptional profiles that determine neurogenesis or gliogenesis. Here, we report that BCL7A is a modulator of the SWI/SNF/BAF complex that stimulates the genome-wide occupancy of the ATPase subunit BRG1. We demonstrate that BCL7A is dispensable for SWI/SNF/BAF complex integrity, whereas it is essential to regulate Notch/Wnt pathway signaling and mitochondrial bioenergetics in differentiating NPCs. Pharmacological stimulation of Wnt signaling restores mitochondrial respiration and attenuates the defective neurogenic patterns observed in NPCs lacking BCL7A. Consistently, treatment with an enhancer of mitochondrial biogenesis, pioglitazone, partially restores mitochondrial respiration and stimulates neuronal differentiation of BCL7A-deficient NPCs. Using conditional BCL7A knockout mice, we reveal that BCL7A expression in NPCs and postmitotic neurons is required for neuronal plasticity and supports behavioral and cognitive performance. Together, our findings define the specific contribution of BCL7A-containing SWI/SNF/BAF complexes to mitochondria-driven NPC commitment, thereby providing a better understanding of the cell-intrinsic transcriptional processes that connect metabolism, neuronal morphogenesis, and cognitive flexibility.
    Keywords:  BCL7A; SWI/SNF/BAF complex; cognitive function; mitochondrial OXPHOS; neural progenitor cells (NPCs)
  13. Nat Commun. 2022 Oct 28. 13(1): 6435
      During erythroid differentiation, the maintenance of genome integrity is key for the success of multiple rounds of cell division. However, molecular mechanisms coordinating the expression of DNA repair machinery in erythroid progenitors are poorly understood. Here, we discover that an RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methyltransferase, METTL16, plays an essential role in proper erythropoiesis by safeguarding genome integrity via the control of DNA-repair-related genes. METTL16-deficient erythroblasts exhibit defective differentiation capacity, DNA damage and activation of the apoptotic program. Mechanistically, METTL16 controls m6A deposition at the structured motifs in DNA-repair-related transcripts including Brca2 and Fancm mRNAs, thereby upregulating their expression. Furthermore, a pairwise CRISPRi screen revealed that the MTR4-nuclear RNA exosome complex is involved in the regulation of METTL16 substrate mRNAs in erythroblasts. Collectively, our study uncovers that METTL16 and the MTR4-nuclear RNA exosome act as essential regulatory machinery to maintain genome integrity and erythropoiesis.
  14. JCI Insight. 2022 Oct 25. pii: e162207. [Epub ahead of print]
      Oncogenic FOXO1 gene fusions drive a subset of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) with poor survival and to date these cancer drivers are therapeutically intractable. To identify new therapies for this disease, we undertook an isogenic CRISPR-interference screen to define PAX3-FOXO1 specific genetic dependencies and identified genes in the GATOR2 complex. GATOR2 loss in RMS abrogated amino acid-induced lysosomal localization of mTORC1 and consequent downstream signaling, slowing G1-S cell cycle transition. In vivo suppression of GATOR2 impaired the growth of tumor xenografts and favored the outgrowth of cells lacking PAX3-FOXO1. Loss of a subset of GATOR2 members can be compensated by direct genetic activation of mTORC1. RAS mutations are also sufficient to decouple mTORC1 activation from GATOR2, and indeed fusion negative RMS harboring such mutations exhibit amino acid-independent mTORC1 activity. A bi-steric, mTORC1-selective small molecule induced tumor regressions in fusion positive patient-derived tumor xenografts. These findings highlight a vulnerability in FOXO1 fusion positive RMS and provide rationale for the clinical evaluation of bi-steric mTORC1 inhibitors, currently in phase 1 testing, to treat this disease. Isogenic genetic screens can thus identify potentially exploitable vulnerabilities in fusion driven pediatric cancers which otherwise remain mostly undruggable.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Drug therapy; Genetics; Oncology; Signal transduction
  15. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2022 ;pii: S1937-6448(22)00022-3. [Epub ahead of print]373 159-197
      Therapeutically interfering with metabolic pathways has great merit to curtail tumor growth because the demand for copious amounts of energy for growth-supporting biomass production is common to all cancer entities. A major impediment to a straight implementation of metabolic cancer therapy is the metabolic flexibility and plasticity of cancer cells (and their microenvironment) resulting in therapy resistance and evasion. Metabolic combination therapies, therefore, are promising as they are designed to target several energetic routes simultaneously and thereby diminish the availability of alternative substrates. Thus, dietary restrictions, specific nutrient limitations, and/or pharmacological interventions impinging on metabolic pathways can be combined to improve cancer treatment efficacy, to overcome therapy resistance, or even act as a preventive measure. Here, we review the most recent developments in metabolic combination therapies particularly highlighting in vivo reports of synergistic effects and available clinical data. We close with identifying the challenges of the field (metabolic tumor heterogeneity, immune cell interactions, inter-patient variabilities) and suggest a "metabo-typing" strategy to tailor evidence-based metabolic combination therapies to the energetic requirements of the tumors and the patient's nutritional habits and status.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Combination therapy; Dietary restriction; Metabolic flexibility
  16. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Oct 27.
      Autophagy is a process that targets various intracellular elements for degradation. Autophagy can be non-selective - associated with the indiscriminate engulfment of cytosolic components - occurring in response to nutrient starvation and is commonly referred to as bulk autophagy. By contrast, selective autophagy degrades specific targets, such as damaged organelles (mitophagy, lysophagy, ER-phagy, ribophagy), aggregated proteins (aggrephagy) or invading bacteria (xenophagy), thereby being importantly involved in cellular quality control. Hence, not surprisingly, aberrant selective autophagy has been associated with various human pathologies, prominently including neurodegeneration and infection. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding mechanisms governing selective cargo engulfment in mammals, including the identification of ubiquitin-dependent selective autophagy receptors such as p62, NBR1, OPTN and NDP52, which can bind cargo and ubiquitin simultaneously to initiate pathways leading to autophagy initiation and membrane recruitment. This progress opens the prospects for enhancing selective autophagy pathways to boost cellular quality control capabilities and alleviate pathology.
  17. iScience. 2022 Nov 18. 25(11): 105266
      Reducing the rate of translation promotes longevity in multiple organisms, representing a conserved mechanism for lifespan extension. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) catalyze the loading of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs, thereby playing an essential role in translation. Mutations in ARS genes are associated with various human diseases. However, little is known about the role of ARSs in aging, particularly whether and how these genes regulate lifespan. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we systematically characterized the role of all three types of ARS genes in lifespan regulation, including mitochondrial, cytoplasmic, and cyto-mito bifunctional ARS genes. We found that, as expected, RNAi knockdown of mitochondrial ARS genes extended lifespan. Surprisingly, knocking down cytoplasmic or cyto-mito bifunctional ARS genes shortened lifespan, though such treatment reduced the rate of translation. These results reveal opposing roles of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic ARSs in lifespan regulation, demonstrating that inhibiting translation may not always extend lifespan.
    Keywords:  Cell biology; Molecular biology
  18. JCI Insight. 2022 Oct 24. pii: e162138. [Epub ahead of print]7(20):
      Patients with the renal phosphate-wasting disease X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and Hyp mice, the murine homolog of XLH, are characterized by loss-of-function mutations in phosphate-regulating endopeptidase homolog X-linked (PHEX), leading to excessive secretion of the bone-derived phosphotropic hormone FGF23. The mineralization defect in patients with XLH and Hyp mice is caused by a combination of hypophosphatemia and local accumulation of mineralization-inhibiting molecules in bone. However, the mechanism by which PHEX deficiency regulates bone cell metabolism remains elusive. Here, we used spatial metabolomics by employing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of undecalcified bone cryosections to characterize in situ metabolic changes in bones of Hyp mice in a holistic, unbiased manner. We found complex changes in Hyp bone metabolism, including perturbations in pentose phosphate, purine, pyrimidine, and phospholipid metabolism. Importantly, our study identified an upregulation of several biochemical pathways involved in intra- and extracellular production of the mineralization inhibitor pyrophosphate in the bone matrix of Hyp mice. Our data emphasize the utility of MSI-based spatial metabolomics in bone research and provide holistic in situ insights as to how Phex deficiency-induced changes in biochemical pathways in bone cells are linked to impaired bone mineralization.
    Keywords:  Bone Biology; Bone disease; Mouse models
  19. Life Sci Alliance. 2023 Jan;pii: e202201598. [Epub ahead of print]6(1):
      Obesity and elevated circulating lipids may impair metabolism by disrupting the molecular circadian clock. We tested the hypothesis that lipid overload may interact with the circadian clock and alter the rhythmicity of gene expression through epigenomic mechanisms in skeletal muscle. Palmitate reprogrammed the circadian transcriptome in myotubes without altering the rhythmic mRNA expression of core clock genes. Genes with enhanced cycling in response to palmitate were associated with post-translational modification of histones. The cycling of histone 3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac), a marker of active gene enhancers, was modified by palmitate treatment. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing confirmed that palmitate exposure altered the cycling of DNA regions associated with H3K27ac. The overlap between mRNA and DNA regions associated with H3K27ac and the pharmacological inhibition of histone acetyltransferases revealed novel cycling genes associated with lipid exposure of primary human myotubes. Palmitate exposure disrupts transcriptomic rhythmicity and modifies enhancers through changes in histone H3K27 acetylation in a circadian manner. Thus, histone acetylation is responsive to lipid overload and may redirect the circadian chromatin landscape, leading to the reprogramming of circadian genes and pathways involved in lipid biosynthesis in skeletal muscle.
  20. J Clin Invest. 2022 Oct 25. pii: e160767. [Epub ahead of print]
      Targeting lineage-defined transcriptional dependencies has emerged as an effective therapeutic strategy in cancer treatment. Through screening for molecular vulnerabilities of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), we identified a set of transcription factors (TFs) including FOXO1, EBF1, PAX5, and IRF4 that are essential for MCL propagation. Integrated chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) with transcriptional network reconstruction analysis revealed FOXO1 as a master regulator that acts upstream in the regulatory TF hierarchy. FOXO1 is both necessary and sufficient to drive MCL lineage commitment through supporting the lineage-specific transcription programs. We further show that FOXO1, but not its close paralog FOXO3, can reprogram myeloid leukemia cells and induce B-lineage gene expression. Finally, we demonstrate that cpd10, a small molecule identified from an enriched FOXO1 inhibitor library, induces a robust cytotoxic response of MCL cells in vitro and suppresses MCL progression in vivo. Our findings establish FOXO1 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy targeting lineage-driven transcriptional addiction in MCL.
    Keywords:  Lymphomas; Oncology
  21. Nat Immunol. 2022 Oct 26.
      Chronic antigen exposure during viral infection or cancer promotes an exhausted T cell (Tex) state with reduced effector function. However, whether all antigen-specific T cell clones follow the same Tex differentiation trajectory remains unclear. Here, we generate a single-cell multiomic atlas of T cell exhaustion in murine chronic viral infection that redefines Tex phenotypic diversity, including two late-stage Tex subsets with either a terminal exhaustion (Texterm) or a killer cell lectin-like receptor-expressing cytotoxic (TexKLR) phenotype. We use paired single-cell RNA and T cell receptor sequencing to uncover clonal differentiation trajectories of Texterm-biased, TexKLR-biased or divergent clones that acquire both phenotypes. We show that high T cell receptor signaling avidity correlates with Texterm, whereas low avidity correlates with effector-like TexKLR fate. Finally, we identify similar clonal differentiation trajectories in human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. These findings reveal clonal heterogeneity in the T cell response to chronic antigen that influences Tex fates and persistence.
  22. Biochem Soc Trans. 2022 Oct 28. pii: BST20220519. [Epub ahead of print]
      Advances in public health have nearly doubled life expectancy over the last century, but this demographic shift has also changed the landscape of human illness. Today, chronic and age-dependent diseases dominate the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Targeting the underlying molecular, genetic and cell biological drivers of the aging process itself appears to be an increasingly viable strategy for developing therapeutics against these diseases of aging. Towards this end, one of the most exciting developments in cell biology over the last decade is the explosion of research into organelle contact sites and related mechanisms of inter-organelle communication. Identification of the molecular mediators of inter-organelle tethering and signaling is now allowing the field to investigate the consequences of aberrant organelle interactions, which frequently seem to correlate with age-onset pathophysiology. This review introduces the major cellular roles for inter-organelle interactions, including the regulation of organelle morphology, the transfer of ions, lipids and other metabolites, and the formation of hubs for nutrient and stress signaling. We explore how these interactions are disrupted in aging and present findings that modulation of inter-organelle communication is a promising avenue for promoting longevity. Through this review, we propose that the maintenance of inter-organelle interactions is a pillar of healthy aging. Learning how to target the cellular mechanisms for sensing and controlling inter-organelle communication is a key next hurdle for geroscience.
    Keywords:  aging; endoplasmic reticulum; inter-organelle; longevity; mitochondria