bims-camemi Biomed News
on Mitochondrial metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2022‒02‒13
fifty-four papers selected by
Christian Frezza
University of Cambridge, MRC Cancer Unit


  1. Nat Commun. 2022 Feb 08. 13(1): 750
      Mitochondria host key metabolic processes vital for cellular energy provision and are central to cell fate decisions. They are subjected to unique genetic control by both nuclear DNA and their own multi-copy genome - mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mutations in mtDNA often lead to clinically heterogeneous, maternally inherited diseases that display different organ-specific presentation at any stage of life. For a long time, genetic manipulation of mammalian mtDNA has posed a major challenge, impeding our ability to understand the basic mitochondrial biology and mechanisms underpinning mitochondrial disease. However, an important new tool for mtDNA mutagenesis has emerged recently, namely double-stranded DNA deaminase (DddA)-derived cytosine base editor (DdCBE). Here, we test this emerging tool for in vivo use, by delivering DdCBEs into mouse heart using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors and show that it can install desired mtDNA edits in adult and neonatal mice. This work provides proof-of-concept for use of DdCBEs to mutagenize mtDNA in vivo in post-mitotic tissues and provides crucial insights into potential translation to human somatic gene correction therapies to treat primary mitochondrial disease phenotypes.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-28358-w
  2. Nat Methods. 2022 Feb;19(2): 223-230
      Isotope tracing has helped to determine the metabolic activities of organs. Methods to probe metabolic heterogeneity within organs are less developed. We couple stable-isotope-labeled nutrient infusion to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (iso-imaging) to quantitate metabolic activity in mammalian tissues in a spatially resolved manner. In the kidney, we visualize gluconeogenic flux and glycolytic flux in the cortex and medulla, respectively. Tricarboxylic acid cycle substrate usage differs across kidney regions; glutamine and citrate are used preferentially in the cortex and fatty acids are used in the medulla. In the brain, we observe spatial gradations in carbon inputs to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glutamate under a ketogenic diet. In a carbohydrate-rich diet, glucose predominates throughout but in a ketogenic diet, 3-hydroxybutyrate contributes most strongly in the hippocampus and least in the midbrain. Brain nitrogen sources also vary spatially; branched-chain amino acids contribute most in the midbrain, whereas ammonia contributes in the thalamus. Thus, iso-imaging can reveal the spatial organization of metabolic activity.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41592-021-01378-y
  3. Cell Metab. 2022 Feb 01. pii: S1550-4131(22)00022-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      Metabolism of cancer cells is geared toward biomass production and proliferation. Since the metabolic resources within the local tissue are finite, this can lead to nutrient depletion and accumulation of metabolic waste. To maintain growth in these conditions, cancer cells employ a variety of metabolic adaptations, the nature of which is collectively determined by the physiology of their cell of origin, the identity of transforming lesions, and the tissue in which cancer cells reside. Furthermore, select metabolites not only serve as substrates for energy and biomass generation, but can also regulate gene and protein expression and influence the behavior of non-transformed cells in the tumor vicinity. As they grow and metastasize, tumors can also affect and be affected by the nutrient distribution within the body. In this hallmark update, recent advances are incorporated into a conceptual framework that may help guide further research efforts in exploring cancer cell metabolism.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2022.01.007
  4. Biochem Pharmacol. 2022 Feb 04. pii: S0006-2952(22)00037-5. [Epub ahead of print] 114943
      Advances in cell metabolism over the past few decades have demonstrated glutamine as an essential nutrient for cancer cell survival and proliferation. Glutamine offers a remarkable capacity to fuel diverse metabolic pathways in cancer cells including the Krebs cycle, maintenance of redox homeostasis, and synthesis of cellular building blocks such as nucleic acids, fatty acids, glutathione, and other amino acids. The increase in glutaminolysis has further been linked to the accumulation of oncometabolites such as 2HG (2-Hydroxyglutarate), succinate, fumarate, etc., thereby contributing to tumorigenesis via regulating epigenetic modification of imprinted genes. Therefore, therapeutic targeting of glutaminolysis in cancer cells is worth exploring for possible treatment strategies for cancer management. In this review, we have discussed the detailed mechanism of glutamine uptake, transport, and its instrumental role in rewiring the metabolic adaptation of cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment under nutrient deprivation and hypoxia. Furthermore, we have attempted to provide an updated therapeutic intervention of glutamine metabolism as a treatment strategy for cancer management.
    Keywords:  Cancer Cell Metabolism; Glutamine; Glutaminolysis; Tumor Microenvironment, Chemotherapy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2022.114943
  5. Cancer Res. 2022 Feb 08. pii: canres.0914.2021. [Epub ahead of print]
      Lactate is an abundant oncometabolite in the tumor environment. In prostate cancer (PCa), cancer-associated fibroblasts are major contributors of secreted lactate, which can be taken up by cancer cells to sustain mitochondrial metabolism. However, how lactate impacts transcriptional regulation in tumors has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we describe a mechanism by which CAF-secreted lactate is able to increase the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in PCa cells.This regulation enhanced intracellular lipid accumulation in lipid droplets (LD) and provided acetyl moieties for histone acetylation, establishing a regulatory loop between metabolites and epigenetic modification. Inhibition of this loop by targeting the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein family of histone acetylation readers suppressed the expression of perilipin-2 (PLIN2), a crucial component of LDs, disrupting lactate-dependent lipid metabolic rewiring. Inhibition of this CAF-induced metabolic-epigenetic regulatory loop in vivo reduced growth and metastasis of prostate cancer cells, demonstrating its translational relevance as a therapeutic target in PCa. Clinically, PLIN2 expression was elevated in tumors with a higher Gleason grade and in castration resistant prostate cancer compared to primary PCa. Overall, these findings show that lactate has both a metabolic and an epigenetic role in promoting PCa progression.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-21-0914
  6. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2022 Feb 04. pii: S0167-4889(22)00024-6. [Epub ahead of print] 119233
      Mitochondrion is a double membrane organelle that is responsible for cellular respiration and production of most of the ATP in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material carried by mitochondria, which encodes some essential subunits of respiratory complexes independent of nuclear DNA. Normally, mtDNA binds to certain proteins to form a nucleoid that is stable in mitochondria. Nevertheless, a variety of physiological or pathological stresses can cause mtDNA damage, and the accumulation of damaged mtDNA in mitochondria leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, which triggers the occurrence of mitochondrial diseases in vivo. In response to mtDNA damage, cell initiates multiple pathways including mtDNA repair, degradation, clearance and release, to recover mtDNA, and maintain mitochondrial quality and cell homeostasis. In this review, we provide our current understanding of the fate of damaged mtDNA, focus on the pathways and mechanisms of removing damaged mtDNA in the cell.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria DNA (mtDNA); Mitocytosis; Mitophagy; mtDNA release
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2022.119233
  7. EMBO J. 2022 Feb 11. e109169
      Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) has key signaling roles at physiological levels, while causing molecular damage at elevated concentrations. H2 O2 production by mitochondria is implicated in regulating processes inside and outside these organelles. However, it remains unclear whether and how mitochondria in intact cells release H2 O2 . Here, we employed a genetically encoded high-affinity H2 O2 sensor, HyPer7, in mammalian tissue culture cells to investigate different modes of mitochondrial H2 O2 release. We found substantial heterogeneity of HyPer7 dynamics between individual cells. We further observed mitochondria-released H2 O2 directly at the surface of the organelle and in the bulk cytosol, but not in the nucleus or at the plasma membrane, pointing to steep gradients emanating from mitochondria. Gradient formation is controlled by cytosolic peroxiredoxins, which act redundantly and with a substantial reserve capacity. Dynamic adaptation of cytosolic thioredoxin reductase levels during metabolic changes results in improved H2 O2 handling and explains previously observed differences between cell types. Our data suggest that H2 O2 -mediated signaling is initiated only in close proximity to mitochondria and under specific metabolic conditions.
    Keywords:  HyPer7; hydrogen peroxide release; mitochondria; peroxiredoxin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2021109169
  8. PLoS One. 2022 ;17(2): e0262364
      Research into the metabolism of the non-essential amino acid (NEAA) proline in cancer has gained traction in recent years. The last step in the proline biosynthesis pathway is catalyzed by pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (PYCR) enzymes. There are three PYCR enzymes: mitochondrial PYCR1 and 2 and cytosolic PYCR3 encoded by separate genes. The expression of the PYCR1 gene is increased in numerous malignancies and correlates with poor prognosis. PYCR1 expression sustains cancer cells' proliferation and survival and several mechanisms have been implicated to explain its oncogenic role. It has been suggested that the biosynthesis of proline is key to sustain protein synthesis, support mitochondrial function and nucleotide biosynthesis. However, the links between proline metabolism and cancer remain ill-defined and are likely to be tissue specific. Here we use a combination of human dataset, human tissue and mouse models to show that the expression levels of the proline biosynthesis enzymes are significantly increased during colorectal tumorigenesis. Functionally, the expression of mitochondrial PYCRs is necessary for cancer cells' survival and proliferation. However, the phenotypic consequences of PYCRs depletion could not be rescued by external supplementation with either proline or nucleotides. Overall, our data suggest that, despite the mechanisms underlying the role of proline metabolism in colorectal tumorigenesis remain elusive, targeting the proline biosynthesis pathway is a suitable approach for the development of novel anti-cancer therapies.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0262364
  9. Cancer Res. 2022 Feb 11. pii: canres.2062.2021. [Epub ahead of print]
      Despite being the leading cause of cancer deaths, metastasis remains a poorly understood process. To identify novel regulators of metastasis in melanoma, we performed a large-scale RNA-sequencing screen of 48 samples from patient-derived xenograft (PDX) subcutaneous melanomas and their associated metastases. In comparison to primary tumors, expression of glycolytic genes was frequently decreased in metastases while expression of some TCA cycle genes was increased in metastases. Consistent with these transcriptional changes, melanoma metastases underwent a metabolic switch characterized by decreased levels of glycolytic metabolites and increased abundance of TCA cycle metabolites. A short isoform of glyceraldehye-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spermatogenic (GAPDHS) lacking the N-terminal domain suppressed metastasis and regulated this metabolic switch. GAPDHS was downregulated in metastatic nodules from PDX models as well as in human patients. Overexpression of GAPDHS was sufficient to block melanoma metastasis, while its inhibition promoted metastasis, decreased glycolysis, and increased levels of certain TCA cycle metabolites and their derivatives including citrate, fumarate, malate, and aspartate. Isotope tracing studies indicated that GADPHS mediates this shift through changes in pyruvate carboxylase activity and aspartate synthesis, both metabolic pathways critical for cancer survival and metastasis. Together these data identify a short isoform of GAPDHS that limits melanoma metastasis and regulates central carbon metabolism.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-21-2062
  10. Front Oncol. 2021 ;11 794735
      Glutamine, like glucose, is a major nutrient consumed by cancer cells, yet these cells undergo glutamine starvation in the cores of tumors, forcing them to evolve adaptive metabolic responses. Pharmacologically targeting glutamine metabolism or withdrawal has been exploited for therapeutic purposes, but does not always induce cancer cell death. The mechanism by which cancer cells adapt to resist glutamine starvation in cisplatin-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) also remains uncertain. Here, we report the potential metabolic vulnerabilities of A549/DDP (drug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines) cells, which were more easily killed by the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) during glutamine deprivation than their parental cisplatin-sensitive A549 cells. We demonstrate that phenotype resistance to cisplatin is accompanied by adaptive responses during glutamine deprivation partly via higher levels of autophagic activity and apoptosis resistance characteristics. Moreover, this adaptation could be explained by sustained glucose instead of glutamine-dominant complex II-dependent oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Further investigation revealed that cisplatin-resistant cells sustain OXPHOS partly via iron metabolism reprogramming during glutamine deprivation. This reprogramming might be responsible for mitochondrial iron-sulfur [Fe-S] cluster biogenesis, which has become an "Achilles' heel," rendering cancer cells vulnerable to DFO-induced autophagic cell death and apoptosis through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Finally, in vivo studies using xenograft mouse models also confirmed the growth-slowing effect of DFO. In summary, we have elucidated the adaptive responses of cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells, which balanced stability and plasticity to overcome metabolic reprogramming and permitted them to survive under stress induced by chemotherapy or glutamine starvation. In addition, for the first time, we show that suppressing the growth of cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells via iron chelator-induced autophagic cell death and apoptosis was possible with DFO treatment. These findings provide a solid basis for targeting mitochondria iron metabolism in cisplatin-resistant NSCLC for therapeutic purposes, and it is plausible to consider that DFO facilitates in the improvement of treatment responses in cisplatin-resistant NSCLC patients.
    Keywords:  NSCLC; cell death; cisplatin resistance; deferoxamine; glutamine deprivation; metabolic reprogramming
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.794735
  11. Nat Cell Biol. 2022 Feb 10.
      Many cancers have an unusual dependence on glutamine. However, most previous studies have focused on the contribution of glutamine to metabolic building blocks and the energy supply. Here, we report that cancer cells with aberrant expression of glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) rewire glutamine metabolism for the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-a prominent neurotransmitter-in non-nervous tissues. An analysis of clinical samples reveals that increased GABA levels predict poor prognosis. Mechanistically, we identify a cancer-intrinsic pathway through which GABA activates the GABAB receptor to inhibit GSK-3β activity, leading to enhanced β-catenin signalling. This GABA-mediated β-catenin activation both stimulates tumour cell proliferation and suppresses CD8+ T cell intratumoural infiltration, such that targeting GAD1 or GABABR in mouse models overcomes resistance to anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade therapy. Our findings uncover a signalling role for tumour-derived GABA beyond its classic function as a neurotransmitter that can be targeted pharmacologically to reverse immunosuppression.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00820-9
  12. Curr Biol. 2022 Jan 28. pii: S0960-9822(22)00027-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mutations in the tumor-suppressor Hippo pathway lead to activation of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki), which enhances cell proliferation autonomously and causes cell death non-autonomously. While Yki-induced cell proliferation has extensively been studied, the mechanism by which Yki causes cell death in nearby wild-type cells, a phenomenon called supercompetition, and its role in tumorigenesis remained unknown. Here, we show that Yki-induced supercompetition is essential for tumorigenesis and is driven by non-autonomous induction of autophagy. Clones of cells mutant for a Hippo pathway component fat activate Yki and cause autonomous tumorigenesis and non-autonomous cell death in Drosophila eye-antennal discs. Through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we find that mutations in autophagy-related genes or NF-κB genes in surrounding wild-type cells block both fat-induced tumorigenesis and supercompetition. Mechanistically, fat mutant cells upregulate Yki-target microRNA bantam, which elevates protein synthesis levels via activation of TOR signaling. This induces elevation of autophagy in neighboring wild-type cells, which leads to downregulation of IκB Cactus and thus causes NF-κB-mediated induction of the cell death gene hid. Crucially, upregulation of bantam is sufficient to make cells to be supercompetitors and downregulation of endogenous bantam is sufficient for cells to become losers of cell competition. Our data indicate that cells with elevated Yki-bantam signaling cause tumorigenesis by non-autonomous induction of autophagy that kills neighboring wild-type cells.
    Keywords:  Yorkie; autophagy; bantam; cell death; supercompetition; tumorigenesis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2022.01.016
  13. PLoS Comput Biol. 2022 Feb 11. 18(2): e1009841
      While aerobic glycolysis, or the Warburg effect, has for a long time been considered a hallmark of tumor metabolism, recent studies have revealed a far more complex picture. Tumor cells exhibit widespread metabolic heterogeneity, not only in their presentation of the Warburg effect but also in the nutrients and the metabolic pathways they are dependent on. Moreover, tumor cells can switch between different metabolic phenotypes in response to environmental cues and therapeutic interventions. A framework to analyze the observed metabolic heterogeneity and plasticity is, however, lacking. Using a mechanistic model that includes the key metabolic pathways active in tumor cells, we show that the inhibition of phosphofructokinase by excess ATP in the cytoplasm can drive a preference for aerobic glycolysis in fast-proliferating tumor cells. The differing rates of ATP utilization by tumor cells can therefore drive heterogeneity with respect to the presentation of the Warburg effect. Building upon this idea, we couple the metabolic phenotype of tumor cells to their migratory phenotype, and show that our model predictions are in agreement with previous experiments. Next, we report that the reliance of proliferating cells on different anaplerotic pathways depends on the relative availability of glucose and glutamine, and can further drive metabolic heterogeneity. Finally, using treatment of melanoma cells with a BRAF inhibitor as an example, we show that our model can be used to predict the metabolic and gene expression changes in cancer cells in response to drug treatment. By making predictions that are far more generalizable and interpretable as compared to previous tumor metabolism modeling approaches, our framework identifies key principles that govern tumor cell metabolism, and the reported heterogeneity and plasticity. These principles could be key to targeting the metabolic vulnerabilities of cancer.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009841
  14. Semin Cancer Biol. 2022 Feb 02. pii: S1044-579X(22)00023-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) takes place in mitochondria and is the process whereby cells use carbon fuels and oxygen to generate ATP. Formerly OXPHOS was thought to be reduced in tumours and that glycolysis was the critical pathway for generation of ATP but it is now clear that OXPHOS, at least in many tumour types, plays a critical role in delivering the bioenergetic and macromolecular anabolic requirements of cancer cells. There is now great interest in targeting the OXPHOS and the electron transport chain for cancer therapy and in this review article we describe current therapeutic approaches and challenges.
    Keywords:  OXPHOS; cancer drugs; cancer metabolism; complex I; electron transport chain
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2022.02.002
  15. STAR Protoc. 2022 Mar 18. 3(1): 101135
      The assembly of mitochondrial respiratory complexes into supercomplexes has significant implications for mitochondrial function. This protocol details mitochondrial isolation from mouse tissues and the use of blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) to separate pre-identified mitochondrial supercomplexes into different gel bands. We then describe the excision of the individual bands, followed by in-gel protein digestion and peptide desalting for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. This protocol provides a time-efficient measurement of the abundance and distribution of proteins within known supercomplexes. For complete details on the use and execution of this profile, please refer to Gonzalez-Franquesa et al. (2021).
    Keywords:  Mass Spectrometry; Metabolism; Protein Biochemistry; Proteomics
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2022.101135
  16. Front Oncol. 2021 ;11 778761
      Prostate cancer invokes major shifts in gene transcription and metabolic signaling to mediate alterations in nutrient acquisition and metabolic substrate selection when compared to normal tissues. Exploiting such metabolic reprogramming is proposed to enable the development of targeted therapies for prostate cancer, yet there are several challenges to overcome before this becomes a reality. Herein, we outline the role of several nutrients known to contribute to prostate tumorigenesis, including fatty acids, glucose, lactate and glutamine, and discuss the major factors contributing to variability in prostate cancer metabolism, including cellular heterogeneity, genetic drivers and mutations, as well as complexity in the tumor microenvironment. The review draws from original studies employing immortalized prostate cancer cells, as well as more complex experimental models, including animals and humans, that more accurately reflect the complexity of the in vivo tumor microenvironment. In synthesizing this information, we consider the feasibility and potential limitations of implementing metabolic therapies for prostate cancer management.
    Keywords:  lipid metabolism; metabolic heterogeneity; metabolic targeting; metabolism; obesity; patient-derived xenograft; prostate neoplasia
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.778761
  17. Nat Commun. 2022 Feb 10. 13(1): 801
      When conditions change, unicellular organisms rewire their metabolism to sustain cell maintenance and cellular growth. Such rewiring may be understood as resource re-allocation under cellular constraints. Eukaryal cells contain metabolically active organelles such as mitochondria, competing for cytosolic space and resources, and the nature of the relevant cellular constraints remain to be determined for such cells. Here, we present a comprehensive metabolic model of the yeast cell, based on its full metabolic reaction network extended with protein synthesis and degradation reactions. The model predicts metabolic fluxes and corresponding protein expression by constraining compartment-specific protein pools and maximising growth rate. Comparing model predictions with quantitative experimental data suggests that under glucose limitation, a mitochondrial constraint limits growth at the onset of ethanol formation-known as the Crabtree effect. Under sugar excess, however, a constraint on total cytosolic volume dictates overflow metabolism. Our comprehensive model thus identifies condition-dependent and compartment-specific constraints that can explain metabolic strategies and protein expression profiles from growth rate optimisation, providing a framework to understand metabolic adaptation in eukaryal cells.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-28467-6
  18. Cancer Res. 2022 Feb 11. pii: canres.1168.2021. [Epub ahead of print]
      MYC family oncoproteins are regulators of metabolic reprogramming that sustains cancer cell anabolism. Normal cells adapt to nutrient-limiting conditions by activating autophagy, which is required for amino acid (AA) homeostasis. Here we report that the autophagy pathway is suppressed by Myc in normal B cells, in premalignant and neoplastic B cells of Eμ-Myc transgenic mice, and in human MYC-driven Burkitt lymphoma. Myc suppresses autophagy by antagonizing the expression and function of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of autophagy. Mechanisms that sustained AA pools in MYC-expressing B cells include coordinated induction of the proteasome and increases in AA transport. Reactivation of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway by TFEB disabled the malignant state by disrupting mitochondrial functions, proteasome activity, amino acid transport, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, leading to metabolic anergy, growth arrest and apoptosis. This phenotype provides therapeutic opportunities to disable MYC-driven malignancies, including AA restriction and treatment with proteasome inhibitors.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-21-1168
  19. Neuron. 2022 Jan 31. pii: S0896-6273(22)00056-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      The term autophagy encompasses different pathways that route cytoplasmic material to lysosomes for degradation and includes macroautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy, and microautophagy. Since these pathways are crucial for degradation of aggregate-prone proteins and dysfunctional organelles such as mitochondria, they help to maintain cellular homeostasis. As post-mitotic neurons cannot dilute unwanted protein and organelle accumulation by cell division, the nervous system is particularly dependent on autophagic pathways. This dependence may be a vulnerability as people age and these processes become less effective in the brain. Here, we will review how the different autophagic pathways may protect against neurodegeneration, giving examples of both polygenic and monogenic diseases. We have considered how autophagy may have roles in normal CNS functions and the relationships between these degradative pathways and different types of programmed cell death. Finally, we will provide an overview of recently described strategies for upregulating autophagic pathways for therapeutic purposes.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2022.01.017
  20. J Biol Chem. 2022 Feb 08. pii: S0021-9258(22)00143-0. [Epub ahead of print] 101703
      Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent mode of cell death caused by excessive oxidative damage to lipids. Lipid peroxidation is normally suppressed by glutathione peroxidase 4, which requires reduced glutathione. Cystine is a major resource for glutathione synthesis, especially in cancer cells. Therefore, cystine deprivation or inhibition of cystine uptake promotes ferroptosis in cancer cells. However, the roles of other molecules involved in cysteine deprivation-induced ferroptosis are unexplored. We report here that the expression of gamma-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1), an enzyme that cleaves extracellular glutathione, determines the sensitivity of glioblastoma cells to cystine deprivation-induced ferroptosis at high cell density. In glioblastoma cells expressing GGT1, pharmacological inhibition or deletion of GGT1 suppressed the cell density-induced increase in intracellular glutathione levels and cell viability under cystine deprivation, which were restored by the addition of cysteinylglycine, the GGT product of glutathione cleavage. On the other hand, cystine deprivation induced glutathione depletion and ferroptosis in GGT1-deficient glioblastoma cells even at a high cell density. Exogenous expression of GGT1 in GGT1-deficient glioblastoma cells inhibited cystine deprivation-induced glutathione depletion and ferroptosis at a high cell density. This suggests that GGT1 plays an important role in glioblastoma cell survival under cystine-limited, high-cell density conditions. We conclude that combining GGT inhibitors with ferroptosis inducers may provide an effective therapeutic approach for treating glioblastoma.
    Keywords:  amino acid; cell death; cell metabolism; cell surface enzyme; glioblastoma; glutathione
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2022.101703
  21. Cell Rep. 2022 Feb 08. pii: S2211-1247(22)00033-X. [Epub ahead of print]38(6): 110322
      RAS guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) are mutated in nearly 20% of human tumors, making them an attractive therapeutic target. Following our discovery that nucleotide-free RAS (apo RAS) regulates cell signaling, we selectively target this state as an approach to inhibit RAS function. Here, we describe the R15 monobody that exclusively binds the apo state of all three RAS isoforms in vitro, regardless of the mutation status, and captures RAS in the apo state in cells. R15 inhibits the signaling and transforming activity of a subset of RAS mutants with elevated intrinsic nucleotide exchange rates (i.e., fast exchange mutants). Intracellular expression of R15 reduces the tumor-forming capacity of cancer cell lines driven by select RAS mutants and KRAS(G12D)-mutant patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). Thus, our approach establishes an opportunity to selectively inhibit a subset of RAS mutants by targeting the apo state with drug-like molecules.
    Keywords:  PDX; anti-RAS biologics; apo-RAS; colon cancer; lung cancer; monobody; multiplex imaging; pancreatic cancer; protein engineering; tumorigenesis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2022.110322
  22. Nat Cell Biol. 2022 Feb 10.
      METTL16 has recently been identified as an RNA methyltransferase responsible for the deposition of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in a few transcripts. Whether METTL16 methylates a large set of transcripts, similar to METTL3 and METTL14, remains unclear. Here we show that METTL16 exerts both methyltransferase activity-dependent and -independent functions in gene regulation. In the cell nucleus, METTL16 functions as an m6A writer to deposit m6A into hundreds of its specific messenger RNA targets. In the cytosol, METTL16 promotes translation in an m6A-independent manner. More specifically, METTL16 directly interacts with the eukaryotic initiation factors 3a and -b as well as ribosomal RNA through its Mtase domain, thereby facilitating the assembly of the translation-initiation complex and promoting the translation of over 4,000 mRNA transcripts. Moreover, we demonstrate that METTL16 is critical for the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Collectively, our studies reveal previously unappreciated dual functions of METTL16 as an m6A writer and a translation-initiation facilitator, which together contribute to its essential function in tumorigenesis.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00835-2
  23. Hum Mol Genet. 2022 Feb 11. pii: ddac040. [Epub ahead of print]
    Care4Rare Canada Consortium
      Mitochondrial diseases are a group of inherited diseases with highly varied and complex clinical presentations. Here, we report four individuals, including two siblings, affected by a progressive mitochondrial encephalopathy with biallelic variants in the cardiolipin biosynthesis gene CRLS1. Three affected individuals had a similar infantile presentation comprising progressive encephalopathy, bull's eye maculopathy, auditory neuropathy, diabetes insipidus, autonomic instability, cardiac defects and early death. The fourth affected individual presented with chronic encephalopathy with neurodevelopmental regression, congenital nystagmus with decreased vision, sensorineural hearing loss, failure to thrive and acquired microcephaly. Using patient-derived fibroblasts, we characterised cardiolipin synthase 1 (CRLS1) dysfunction that impaired mitochondrial morphology and biogenesis, providing functional evidence that the CRLS1 variants cause a mitochondrial phenotype. Lipid profiling in fibroblasts from two patients further confirmed the functional defect demonstrating reduced cardiolipin levels, altered acyl-chain composition and significantly increased levels of phosphatidylglycerol, the substrate of CRLS1. Proteomic profiling of patient cells and mouse Crls1 knockout cell lines identified both endoplasmic reticular and mitochondrial stress responses, and key features that distinguish between varying degrees of cardiolipin insufficiency. These findings support that deleterious variants in CRLS1 cause an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disease, presenting as a severe encephalopathy with multisystemic involvement. Furthermore, we identify key signatures in cardiolipin and proteome profiles across various degrees of cardiolipin loss, facilitating the use of omics technologies to guide a diagnosis for this mitochondrial disease.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddac040
  24. Cell Calcium. 2022 Feb 04. pii: S0143-4160(22)00025-2. [Epub ahead of print]103 102550
      
    Keywords:  Calcium; Cancer; ER; MCU; Mitochondria; ROS; Redox
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceca.2022.102550
  25. BMC Biol. 2022 Feb 09. 20(1): 40
      BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is present at high copy numbers in animal cells, and though characterized by a single haplotype in each individual due to maternal germline inheritance, deleterious mutations and intact mtDNA molecules frequently co-exist (heteroplasmy). A number of factors, such as replicative segregation, mitochondrial bottlenecks, and selection, may modulate the exitance of heteroplasmic mutations. Since such mutations may have pathological consequences, they likely survive and are inherited due to functional complementation via the intracellular mitochondrial network. Here, we hypothesized that compromised mitochondrial fusion would hamper such complementation, thereby affecting heteroplasmy inheritance.RESULTS: We assessed heteroplasmy levels in three Caenorhabditis elegans strains carrying different heteroplasmic mtDNA deletions (ΔmtDNA) in the background of mutant mitofusin (fzo-1). Animals displayed severe embryonic lethality and developmental delay. Strikingly, observed phenotypes were relieved during subsequent generations in association with complete loss of ΔmtDNA molecules. Moreover, deletion loss rates were negatively correlated with the size of mtDNA deletions, suggesting that mitochondrial fusion is essential and sensitive to the nature of the heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations. Introducing the ΔmtDNA into a fzo-1;pdr-1;+/ΔmtDNA (PARKIN ortholog) double mutant resulted in a skewed Mendelian progeny distribution, in contrast to the normal distribution in the fzo-1;+/ΔmtDNA mutant, and severely reduced brood size. Notably, the ΔmtDNA was lost across generations in association with improved phenotypes.
    CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings show that when mitochondrial fusion is compromised, deleterious heteroplasmic mutations cannot evade natural selection while inherited through generations. Moreover, our findings underline the importance of cross-talk between mitochondrial fusion and mitophagy in modulating the inheritance of mtDNA heteroplasmy.
    Keywords:  C. elegans; Heteroplasmy inheritance; Mitofusin; PARKIN; fzo-1; mtDNA; pdr-1
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-022-01241-2
  26. Diabetes. 2022 Feb 08. pii: db210983. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM) is emerging as a novel insight into tubular injury in diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the precise mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2), a critical regulator of MAM formation, is significantly decreased in renal tubules of patients with DN, which is positively correlated with renal function and negatively correlated with degrees of tubulointerstitial lesions. Conditional deletion of Pacs-2 in proximal tubules (PT) aggravates albuminuria and tubular injury in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Mitochondrial fragmentation, MAM disruption and defective mitophagy accompanied by altered expression of mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagic protein including DRP1 and BECN1 are observed in tubules from diabetic mice, while these changes are more pronounced in PT-specific Pacs-2 knockout mice. In vitro, overexpression of PACS-2 in HK-2 cells alleviates excessive mitochondrial fission induced by high glucose through blocking mitochondrial recruitment of DRP1, and subsequently restores MAM integrity and enhances mitophagy. Mechanistically, PACS-2 binds to BECN1 and mediates the relocalization of BECN1 to MAM where it promotes the formation of mitophagosome. Together, these data highlight an important but previously unrecognized role of PACS-2 in ameliorating tubular injury in DN by facilitating MAM formation and mitophagy.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2337/db21-0983
  27. Nat Metab. 2022 Feb 10.
      Tumors can reprogram the functions of metabolic enzymes to fuel malignant growth; however, beyond their conventional functions, key metabolic enzymes have not been found to directly govern cell mitosis. Here, we report that glutamine synthetase (GS) promotes cell proliferation by licensing mitotic progression independently of its metabolic function. GS depletion, but not impairment of its enzymatic activity, results in mitotic arrest and multinucleation across multiple lung and liver cancer cell lines, patient-derived organoids and xenografted tumors. Mechanistically, GS directly interacts with the nuclear pore protein NUP88 to prevent its binding to CDC20. Such interaction licenses activation of the CDC20-mediated anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome to ensure proper metaphase-to-anaphase transition. In addition, GS is overexpressed in human non-small cell lung cancer and its depletion reduces tumor growth in mice and increases the efficacy of microtubule-targeted chemotherapy. Our findings highlight a moonlighting function of GS in governing mitosis and illustrate how an essential metabolic enzyme promotes cell proliferation and tumor development, beyond its main metabolic function.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00524-2
  28. Nat Commun. 2022 Feb 10. 13(1): 782
      Untargeted metabolomics via high-resolution mass spectrometry can reveal more than 100,000 molecular features in a single sample, many of which may represent unidentified metabolites, posing significant challenges to data analysis. We here introduce Metaboseek, an open-source analysis platform designed for untargeted comparative metabolomics and demonstrate its utility by uncovering biosynthetic functions of a conserved fat metabolism pathway, α-oxidation, using C. elegans as a model. Metaboseek integrates modules for molecular feature detection, statistics, molecular formula prediction, and fragmentation analysis, which uncovers more than 200 previously uncharacterized α-oxidation-dependent metabolites in an untargeted comparison of wildtype and α-oxidation-defective hacl-1 mutants. The identified metabolites support the predicted enzymatic function of HACL-1 and reveal that α-oxidation participates in metabolism of endogenous β-methyl-branched fatty acids and food-derived cyclopropane lipids. Our results showcase compound discovery and feature annotation at scale via untargeted comparative metabolomics applied to a conserved primary metabolic pathway and suggest a model for the metabolism of cyclopropane lipids.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-28391-9
  29. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2022 Feb 08. pii: S0303-7207(22)00041-7. [Epub ahead of print] 111594
      Germline mutations in more than 20 genes, including those encoding for the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), predispose to rare tumours, such as pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL). Despite encoding for the same enzymatic complex, SDHC and SDHD mutated PHEO/PGLs are generally benign, while up to 80% of SDHB mutated ones are malignant. In this study, we evaluated the different effects of tumour microenvironment on tumour cell migration/invasion, by co-culturing SDHB or SDHD silenced tumour spheroids with primary cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). We observed that SDHD silenced spheroids had an intermediate migration pattern, compared to the highest migration capability of SDHB and the lowest one of the wild type (Wt) spheroids. Interestingly, we noticed that co-culturing Wt, SDHB and SDHD silenced spheroids with CAFs in low glucose (1 g/l) medium, caused a decreased migration of all the spheroids, but only for SDHB silenced ones this reduction was significant. Moreover, the collective migration, observed in high glucose (4.5 g/l) and characteristic of the SDHB silenced cells, was completely lost in low glucose. Importantly, migration could not be recovered even adding glucose (3.5 g/l) to low glucose conditioned medium. When we investigated cell metabolism, we found that low glucose concentration led to a reduction of oxygen consumption rate (OCR), basal and maximal oxidative metabolism, and ATP production only in CAFs, but not in tumour cells. These results suggest that CAFs metabolism impairment was responsible for the decreased invasion process of tumour cells, most likely preventing the release of the pro-migratory factors produced by CAFs. In conclusion, the interplay between CAFs and tumour cells is distinctive depending on the gene involved, and highlights the possibility to inhibit CAF-induced migration by impairing CAFs metabolism, indicating new potential therapeutic scenarios for medical therapy.
    Keywords:  Pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma; Spheroids; Succinate dehydrogenase; Tumour microenvironment; Tumour migration
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2022.111594
  30. Cell Rep. 2022 Feb 08. pii: S2211-1247(22)00059-6. [Epub ahead of print]38(6): 110343
      Phenotype-based screening can identify small molecules that elicit a desired cellular response, but additional approaches are required to characterize their targets and mechanisms of action. Here, we show that a compound termed LCS3, which selectively impairs the growth of human lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) cells, induces oxidative stress. To identify the target that mediates this effect, we use thermal proteome profiling (TPP) and uncover the disulfide reductases GSR and TXNRD1 as targets. We confirm through enzymatic assays that LCS3 inhibits disulfide reductase activity through a reversible, uncompetitive mechanism. Further, we demonstrate that LCS3-sensitive LUAD cells are sensitive to the synergistic inhibition of glutathione and thioredoxin pathways. Lastly, a genome-wide CRISPR knockout screen identifies NQO1 loss as a mechanism of LCS3 resistance. This work highlights the ability of TPP to uncover targets of small molecules identified by high-throughput screens and demonstrates the potential therapeutic utility of inhibiting disulfide reductases in LUAD.
    Keywords:  glutathione; lung cancer; reactive oxygen species; redox homeostasis; small molecule screen; thermal proteome profiling; thioredoxin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2022.110343
  31. Stem Cell Reports. 2022 Feb 01. pii: S2213-6711(22)00055-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria are fundamental but complex determinants for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. However, the factors involved in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism in HSCs and the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we identify sterol regulatory element binding factor-1c (Srebf1c) as a key factor in maintaining HSC biology under both steady-state and stress conditions. Srebf1c knockout (Srebf1c-/-) mice display increased phenotypic HSCs and less HSC quiescence. In addition, Srebf1c deletion compromises the function and survival of HSCs in competitive transplantation or following chemotherapy and irradiation. Mechanistically, SREBF1c restrains the excessive activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and mitochondrial metabolism in HSCs by regulating the expression of tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1). Our study demonstrates that Srebf1c plays an important role in regulating HSC fate via the TSC1-mTOR-mitochondria axis.
    Keywords:  Srebf1c; TSC1; hematopoietic stem cell; mTOR; mitochondrial metabolism
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2022.01.011
  32. Dev Cell. 2022 Feb 07. pii: S1534-5807(22)00003-X. [Epub ahead of print]57(3): 387-397.e4
      Lipid droplets (LDs) are organelles of cellular lipid storage with fundamental roles in energy metabolism and cell membrane homeostasis. There has been an explosion of research into the biology of LDs, in part due to their relevance in diseases of lipid storage, such as atherosclerosis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hepatic steatosis. Consequently, there is an increasing need for a resource that combines datasets from systematic analyses of LD biology. Here, we integrate high-confidence, systematically generated human, mouse, and fly data from studies on LDs in the framework of an online platform named the "Lipid Droplet Knowledge Portal" (https://lipiddroplet.org/). This scalable and interactive portal includes comprehensive datasets, across a variety of cell types, for LD biology, including transcriptional profiles of induced lipid storage, organellar proteomics, genome-wide screen phenotypes, and ties to human genetics. This resource is a powerful platform that can be utilized to identify determinants of lipid storage.
    Keywords:  C16orf54; MSRB3; inflammation; proteasome; protein targeting; proximity labeling; sterol ester; triacylglycerol
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2022.01.003
  33. Brain. 2022 Feb 03. pii: awac037. [Epub ahead of print]
      Metabolism regulates neuronal activity and modulates the occurrence of epileptic seizures. Here, using two rodent models of absence epilepsy, we show that hypoglycemia increases the occurrence of spike-wave seizures. We then show that selectively disrupting glycolysis in the thalamus, a structure implicated in absence epilepsy, is sufficient to increase spike-wave seizures. We propose that activation of thalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a sensor of cellular energetic stress and potentiator of metabotropic GABAB receptor function, is a significant driver of hypoglycemia-induced spike-wave seizures. We show that AMPK augments postsynaptic GABAB receptor-mediated currents in thalamocortical neurons and strengthens epileptiform network activity evoked in thalamic brain slices. Selective thalamic AMPK activation also increases spike-wave seizures. Finally, systemic administration of metformin, an AMPK agonist and common diabetes treatment, profoundly increased spike-wave seizures. These results advance the decades-old observation that glucose metabolism regulates thalamocortical circuit excitability by demonstrating that AMPK and GABAB receptor cooperativity is sufficient to provoke spike-wave seizures.
    Keywords:  AMPK; GABA; epilepsy; metabolism; thalamocortical
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awac037
  34. Cell Chem Biol. 2022 Feb 05. pii: S2451-9456(22)00049-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Signal transduction pathways post-translationally regulating nucleotide metabolism remain largely unknown. Guanosine monophosphate reductase (GMPR) is a nucleotide metabolism enzyme that decreases GTP pools by converting GMP to IMP. We observed that phosphorylation of GMPR at Tyr267 is critical for its activity and found that this phosphorylation by ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase EPHA4 decreases GTP pools in cell protrusions and levels of GTP-bound RAC1. EPHs possess oncogenic and tumor-suppressor activities, although the mechanisms underlying switches between these two modes are poorly understood. We demonstrated that GMPR plays a key role in EPHA4-mediated RAC1 suppression. This supersedes GMPR-independent activation of RAC1 by EPHA4, resulting in a negative overall effect on melanoma cell invasion and tumorigenicity. Accordingly, EPHA4 levels increase during melanoma progression and inversely correlate with GMPR levels in individual melanoma tumors. Therefore, phosphorylation of GMPR at Tyr267 is a metabolic signal transduction switch controlling GTP biosynthesis and transformed phenotypes.
    Keywords:  EPHA4; GEVAL GTP sensors; GMPR; GTP; RAC1; RHOA; RHOC; invasion; melanoma
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2022.01.007
  35. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2022 Feb 09.
      Redox homeostasis is elemental for the normal physiology of all cell types. Cells use multiple mechanisms to regulate the redox balance tightly. The onset and progression of many metabolic and aging-associated diseases occur due to the dysregulation of redox homeostasis. Thus, it is critical to identify and therapeutically target mechanisms that precipitate abnormalities in redox balance. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced within the immune cells regulate homeostasis, hyperimmune and hypoimmune cell responsiveness, apoptosis, immune response to pathogens, and tumor immunity. Immune cells have both cytosolic and organelle-specific redox regulatory systems to maintain appropriate levels of ROS. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) is an essential mitochondrial redox regulatory protein. Dysregulation of NNT function prevents immune cells from mounting an adequate immune response to pathogens, promotes a chronic inflammatory state associated with aging and metabolic diseases, and initiates conditions related to a dysregulated immune system such as autoimmunity. While many studies have reported on NNT in different cell types, including cancer cells, relatively few studies have explored NNT in immune cells. This review provides an overview of NNT and focuses on the current knowledge of NNT in the immune cells.
    Keywords:  Inflammation; NADPH; NNT; ROS; immune cells
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00607.2020
  36. Annu Rev Physiol. 2022 Feb 10. 84 209-227
      Noncommunicable diseases are chronic diseases that contribute to death worldwide, but these diseases can be prevented and mitigated with regular exercise. Exercise activates signaling molecules and the transcriptional network to promote physiological adaptations, such as fiber type transformation, angiogenesis, and mitochondrial biogenesis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator that senses the energy state, promotes metabolism for glucose and fatty acid utilization, and mediates beneficial cellular adaptations in many vital tissues and organs. This review focuses on the current, integrative understanding of the role of exercise-induced activation of AMPK in the regulation of system metabolism and promotion of health benefits.
    Keywords:  AMPK; adaptive responses; exercise; fatty acid oxidation; glucose uptake; metabolism
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-physiol-060721-095517
  37. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Feb 15. pii: e2121491119. [Epub ahead of print]119(7):
      Mitochondrial inner NEET (MiNT) and the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) mitoNEET (mNT) proteins belong to the NEET protein family. This family plays a key role in mitochondrial labile iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. NEET proteins contain labile [2Fe-2S] clusters which can be transferred to apo-acceptor proteins. In eukaryotes, the biogenesis of [2Fe-2S] clusters occurs within the mitochondria by the iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) system; the clusters are then transferred to [2Fe-2S] proteins within the mitochondria or exported to cytosolic proteins and the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) system. The last step of export of the [2Fe-2S] is not yet fully characterized. Here we show that MiNT interacts with voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), a major OMM protein that connects the intermembrane space with the cytosol and participates in regulating the levels of different ions including mitochondrial labile iron (mLI). We further show that VDAC1 is mediating the interaction between MiNT and mNT, in which MiNT transfers its [2Fe-2S] clusters from inside the mitochondria to mNT that is facing the cytosol. This MiNT-VDAC1-mNT interaction is shown both experimentally and by computational calculations. Additionally, we show that modifying MiNT expression in breast cancer cells affects the dynamics of mitochondrial structure and morphology, mitochondrial function, and breast cancer tumor growth. Our findings reveal a pathway for the transfer of [2Fe-2S] clusters, which are assembled inside the mitochondria, to the cytosol.
    Keywords:  CISD3; VDAC1; [2Fe-2S] cluster; mitoNEET; mitochondrial inner NEET protein (MiNT)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2121491119
  38. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2022 Feb 10.
      Mammalian respiratory complex I (CI) is a 45-subunit, redox-driven proton pump that generates an electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane to power ATP synthesis in mitochondria. In the present study, we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of CI from Sus scrofa in six treatment conditions at a resolution of 2.4-3.5 Å, in which CI structures of each condition can be classified into two biochemical classes (active or deactive), with a notably higher proportion of active CI particles. These structures illuminate how hydrophobic ubiquinone-10 (Q10) with its long isoprenoid tail is bound and reduced in a narrow Q chamber comprising four different Q10-binding sites. Structural comparisons of active CI structures from our decylubiquinone-NADH and rotenone-NADH datasets reveal that Q10 reduction at site 1 is not coupled to proton pumping in the membrane arm, which might instead be coupled to Q10 oxidation at site 2. Our data overturn the widely accepted previous proposal about the coupling mechanism of CI.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41594-022-00722-w
  39. Elife. 2022 Feb 08. pii: e70518. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Adenylosuccinate Lyase (ADSL) functions in de novo purine biosynthesis (DNPS) and the purine nucleotide cycle. ADSL deficiency (ADSLD) causes numerous neurodevelopmental pathologies, including microcephaly and autism spectrum disorder. ADSLD patients have normal serum purine nucleotide levels but exhibit accumulation of dephosphorylated ADSL substrates, S-Ado and SAICAr, the latter being implicated in neurotoxic effects through unknown mechanisms. We examined the phenotypic effects of ADSL depletion in human cells and their relation to phenotypic outcomes. Using specific interventions to compensate for reduced purine levels or modulate SAICAr accumulation, we found that diminished AMP levels resulted in increased DNA damage signaling and cell cycle delays, while primary ciliogenesis was impaired specifically by loss of ADSL or administration of SAICAr. ADSL deficient chicken and zebrafish embryos displayed impaired neurogenesis and microcephaly. Neuroprogenitor attrition in zebrafish embryos was rescued by pharmacological inhibition of DNPS, but not increased nucleotide concentration. Zebrafish also displayed phenotypes commonly linked to ciliopathies. Our results suggest that both reduced purine levels and impaired DNPS contribute to neurodevelopmental pathology in ADSLD and that defective ciliogenesis may influence the ADSLD phenotypic spectrum.
    Keywords:  cell biology; chicken; developmental biology; human; zebrafish
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.70518
  40. J Clin Invest. 2022 Feb 10. pii: e155224. [Epub ahead of print]
      The functional integrity of CD8+ T cells is tightly coupled to metabolic reprogramming, but how oxidative stress directs CD8+ T cell metabolic fitness in the tumor microenvironment (TME) remains elusive. Here, we report that SUMO-specific protease 7 (SENP7) senses oxidative stress to maintain the CD8+ T cell metabolic state and antitumor functions. SENP7-deficient CD8+ T cells exhibited decreased glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in attenuated proliferation in vitro and dampened antitumor functions in vivo. Mechanistically, CD8+ T cell-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered cytosolic SENP7-mediated PTEN deSUMOylation, thereby promoting PTEN degradation and preventing PTEN-dependent metabolic defects. Importantly, lowering T cell-intrinsic ROS restricted SENP7 cytosolic translocation and repressed CD8+ T cell metabolic and functional activity in human colorectal cancer samples. Our findings reveal that SENP7, as an oxidative stress sensor, sustains CD8+ T cell metabolic fitness and effector functions and unveil an oxidative stress-sensing machinery in tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells.
    Keywords:  Adaptive immunity; Cancer immunotherapy; Immunology; Metabolism; T cells
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI155224
  41. Nat Commun. 2022 Feb 08. 13(1): 745
      Formaldehyde (FA) is a ubiquitous endogenous and environmental metabolite that is thought to exert cytotoxicity through DNA and DNA-protein crosslinking, likely contributing to the onset of the human DNA repair condition Fanconi Anaemia. Mutations in the genes coding for FA detoxifying enzymes underlie a human inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS), even in the presence of functional DNA repair, raising the question of whether FA causes relevant cellular damage beyond genotoxicity. Here, we report that FA triggers cellular redox imbalance in human cells and in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mechanistically, FA reacts with the redox-active thiol group of glutathione (GSH), altering the GSH:GSSG ratio and causing oxidative stress. FA cytotoxicity is prevented by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (ADH5/GSNOR), which metabolizes FA-GSH products, lastly yielding reduced GSH. Furthermore, we show that GSH synthesis protects human cells from FA, indicating an active role of GSH in preventing FA toxicity. These findings might be relevant for patients carrying mutations in FA-detoxification systems and could suggest therapeutic benefits from thiol-rich antioxidants like N-acetyl-L-cysteine.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-28242-7
  42. Nat Commun. 2022 Feb 11. 13(1): 835
      The majority of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSCs) are deficient in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair, most commonly due to mutations or hypermethylation of the BRCA1/2 genes. We aimed to discover how BRCA1/2 mutations shape the cellular phenotypes and spatial interactions of the tumor microenvironment. Using a highly multiplex immunofluorescence and image analysis we generate spatial proteomic data for 21 markers in 124,623 single cells from 112 tumor cores originating from 31 tumors with BRCA1/2 mutation (BRCA1/2mut), and from 13 tumors without alterations in HR genes. We identify a phenotypically distinct tumor microenvironment in the BRCA1/2mut tumors with evidence of increased immunosurveillance. Importantly, we report a prognostic role of a proliferative tumor-cell subpopulation, which associates with enhanced spatial tumor-immune interactions by CD8+ and CD4 + T-cells in the BRCA1/2mut tumors. The single-cell spatial landscapes indicate distinct patterns of spatial immunosurveillance with the potential to improve immunotherapeutic strategies and patient stratification in HGSC.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-28389-3
  43. J Biol Chem. 2022 Feb 08. pii: S0021-9258(22)00139-9. [Epub ahead of print] 101699
      Evolution of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is guided by dysregulation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) pathways following loss of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein. RCC-associated polymorphisms influence HIF-DNA interactions at enhancers of important oncogenes thereby modulating the risk of developing renal cancer. A strong signal of genome-wide association with RCC was determined for the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4903064, located on chr14q.24.2 within an intron of DPF3, encoding for Double PHD Fingers 3, a member of chromatin remodeling complexes; however, it is unclear how the risk allele operates in renal cells. In this study we used tissue specimens and primary renal cells from a large cohort of RCC patients to examine the function of this polymorphism. In ccRCC tissue, isolated tumor cells as well as in primary renal tubular cells, in which HIF was stabilized, we determined genotype-specific increases of DPF3 mRNA levels and identified that the risk SNP resides in an active enhancer region, creating a novel HIF-binding motif. We then confirmed allele-specific HIF-binding to this locus using chromatin immunoprecipitation of HIF subunits. Consequentially, HIF-mediated DPF3 regulation was dependent on the presence of the risk allele. Finally, we show that DPF3 deletion in proximal tubular cells retarded cell growth, indicating potential roles for DPF3 in cell proliferation. Our analyses suggest that the HIF pathway differentially operates on a SNP-induced hypoxia-response element at 14q24.2, thereby affecting DPF3 expression, which increases the risk of developing renal cancer.
    Keywords:  ATAC-seq; HIF; Renal Cancer; enhancer; polymorphism
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2022.101699
  44. PLoS Comput Biol. 2022 Feb 07. 18(2): e1009337
      Metabolism is directly and indirectly fine-tuned by a complex web of interacting regulatory mechanisms that fall into two major classes. On the one hand, the expression level of the catalyzing enzyme sets the maximal theoretical flux level (i.e., the net rate of the reaction) for each enzyme-controlled reaction. On the other hand, metabolic regulation controls the metabolic flux through the interactions of metabolites (substrates, cofactors, allosteric modulators) with the responsible enzyme. High-throughput data, such as metabolomics and transcriptomics data, if analyzed separately, do not accurately characterize the hierarchical regulation of metabolism outlined above. They must be integrated to disassemble the interdependence between different regulatory layers controlling metabolism. To this aim, we propose INTEGRATE, a computational pipeline that integrates metabolomics and transcriptomics data, using constraint-based stoichiometric metabolic models as a scaffold. We compute differential reaction expression from transcriptomics data and use constraint-based modeling to predict if the differential expression of metabolic enzymes directly originates differences in metabolic fluxes. In parallel, we use metabolomics to predict how differences in substrate availability translate into differences in metabolic fluxes. We discriminate fluxes regulated at the metabolic and/or gene expression level by intersecting these two output datasets. We demonstrate the pipeline using a set of immortalized normal and cancer breast cell lines. In a clinical setting, knowing the regulatory level at which a given metabolic reaction is controlled will be valuable to inform targeted, truly personalized therapies in cancer patients.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009337
  45. Nat Aging. 2021 Sep;1(9): 760-768
      Healthy aging requires the coordination of numerous stress signaling pathways that converge on the protein homeostasis network. The Integrated Stress Response (ISR) is activated by diverse stimuli, leading to phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor elF2 in its α-subunit. Under replete conditions, elF2 orchestrates 5' cap-dependent mRNA translation and is thus responsible for general protein synthesis. elF2α phosphorylation, the key event of the ISR, reduces global mRNA translation while enhancing the expression of a signature set of stress response genes. Despite the critical role of protein quality control in healthy aging and in numerous longevity pathways, the role of the ISR in longevity remains largely unexplored. ISR activity increases with age, suggesting a potential link with the aging process. Although decreased protein biosynthesis, which occurs during ISR activation, have been linked to lifespan extension, recent data show that lifespan is limited by the ISR as its inhibition extends survival in nematodes and enhances cognitive function in aged mice. Here we survey how aging affects the ISR, the role of the ISR in modulating aging, and pharmacological interventions to tune the ISR. Finally, we will explore the ISR as a plausible target for clinical interventions in aging and age-related disease.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s43587-021-00112-9
  46. Science. 2022 Feb 11. 375(6581): 681-686
      Spatial omics emerged as a new frontier of biological and biomedical research. Here, we present spatial-CUT&Tag for spatially resolved genome-wide profiling of histone modifications by combining in situ CUT&Tag chemistry, microfluidic deterministic barcoding, and next-generation sequencing. Spatially resolved chromatin states in mouse embryos revealed tissue-type-specific epigenetic regulations in concordance with ENCODE references and provide spatial information at tissue scale. Spatial-CUT&Tag revealed epigenetic control of the cortical layer development and spatial patterning of cell types determined by histone modification in mouse brain. Single-cell epigenomes can be derived in situ by identifying 20-micrometer pixels containing only one nucleus using immunofluorescence imaging. Spatial chromatin modification profiling in tissue may offer new opportunities to study epigenetic regulation, cell function, and fate decision in normal physiology and pathogenesis.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abg7216
  47. Nat Rev Cancer. 2022 Feb 11.
      Cancer is a disease of uncontrollably reproducing cells. It is governed by biochemical pathways that have escaped the regulatory bounds of normal homeostatic balance. This balance is maintained through precise spatiotemporal regulation of these pathways. The formation of biomolecular condensates via liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has recently emerged as a widespread mechanism underlying the spatiotemporal coordination of biological activities in cells. Biomolecular condensates are widely observed to directly regulate key cellular processes involved in cancer cell pathology, and the dysregulation of LLPS is increasingly implicated as a previously hidden driver of oncogenic activity. In this Perspective, we discuss how LLPS shapes the biochemical landscape of cancer cells.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41568-022-00444-7
  48. Biochem Pharmacol. 2022 Feb 05. pii: S0006-2952(22)00040-5. [Epub ahead of print] 114946
      A decline in NAD+ is a feature of ageing and may play a casual role in the process. NAD+ plays a pivotal role in myriad processes important in cellular metabolism and is a cosubstrate for enzymes that play key roles in pathways that modify ageing. Thus, interventions that increase NAD+ may slow aspects of the ageing trajectory and there is great interest in pharmacological NAD+ restoration. Dietary supplementation with NAD+ precursors, particularly nicotinamide riboside, has increased NAD+ levels in several human intervention studies and arguably been the most robust approach to date. However, consistency and reliability of such approaches to increase NAD+, and also impact on markers of efficacy to slow or reverse features of ageing, has been inconsistent. We argue that a major element of this variability may arise from the use of single-target approaches that do not consider the underlying biological complexity leading to NAD+ decline. Thus, a systems approach - targeting multiple key nodes in the NAD+ interactome - is likely to be more efficacious and reliable.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2022.114946
  49. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2022 Feb 10.
      Organismal ageing is accompanied by progressive loss of cellular function and systemic deterioration of multiple tissues, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death. Mitochondria have become recognized not merely as being energy suppliers but also as having an essential role in the development of diseases associated with ageing, such as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. A growing body of evidence suggests that ageing and age-related diseases are tightly related to an energy supply and demand imbalance, which might be alleviated by a variety of interventions, including physical activity and calorie restriction, as well as naturally occurring molecules targeting conserved longevity pathways. Here, we review key historical advances and progress from the past few years in our understanding of the role of mitochondria in ageing and age-related metabolic diseases. We also highlight emerging scientific innovations using mitochondria-targeted therapeutic approaches.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41574-021-00626-7
  50. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2022 Feb 09.
      Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) acts as a cofactor in several oxidation-reduction reactions and is a substrate for a number of non-redox enzymes. NAD is fundamental to a variety of cellular processes including energy metabolism, cell signaling, and epigenetics. NAD homeostasis appears to be of paramount importance to healthspan and longevity and its dysregulation is associated with multiple diseases. NAD metabolism is dynamic and maintained by synthesis and degradation. The enzyme CD38, one of the main NAD-consuming enzymes, is a key component of NAD homeostasis. The majority of CD38 is localized in the plasma membrane with its catalytic domain facing the extracellular environment, likely for the purpose of controlling systemic levels of NAD. Several cell types express CD38, but its expression predominates on endothelial cells and immune cells capable of infiltrating organs and tissues. Here we review potential roles of CD38 in health and disease and postulate ways in which CD38 dysregulation causes changes in NAD homeostasis and contributes to the pathophysiology of multiple conditions. Indeed, in animal models the development of infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, fibrosis, metabolic diseases, and age-associated diseases including cancer, heart disease, and neurodegeneration are associated with altered CD38 enzymatic activity. Many of these conditions are modified in CD38 deficient mice or by blocking CD38 NADase activity. In diseases in which CD38 appears to play a role, CD38-dependent NAD decline is often a common denominator of pathophysiology. Thus, understanding dysregulation of NAD homeostasis by CD38 may open new avenues for the treatment of human diseases.
    Keywords:  CD38; NAD metabolism; diseases, inflammation, cancer, kidney disease,; liver disease; nucleotidase
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00451.2021
  51. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2022 Feb 12.
      Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids which have critical roles in protein synthesis and energy metabolism in the body. In the heart, there is a strong correlation between impaired BCAA oxidation and contractile dysfunction in heart failure. Plasma and myocardial levels of BCAA and their metabolites, namely branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs), are also linked to cardiac insulin resistance and worsening adverse remodelling in the failing heart. This review discusses the regulation of BCAA metabolism in the heart and the impact of depressed cardiac BCAA oxidation on cardiac energy metabolism, function, and structure in heart failure. While impaired BCAA oxidation in the failing heart causes the accumulation of BCAA and BCKA in the myocardium, recent evidence suggested that the BCAAs and BCKAs have divergent effects on the insulin signalling pathway and the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway. Dietary and pharmacological interventions that enhance cardiac BCAA oxidation and limit the accumulation of cardiac BCAAs and BCKAs have been shown to have cardioprotective effects in the setting of ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Thus, targeting cardiac BCAA oxidation may be a promising therapeutic approach for heart failure.
    Keywords:  Branched-chain amino acids; Branched-chain keto acids; Cardiac insulin resistance; Glucose oxidation; Heart failure
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10557-022-07320-4
  52. Cell. 2022 Feb 03. pii: S0092-8674(22)00068-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      Rapid neutrophil recruitment to sites of inflammation is crucial for innate immune responses. Here, we reveal that the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR35 is upregulated in activated neutrophils, and it promotes their migration. GPR35-deficient neutrophils are less recruited from blood vessels into inflamed tissue, and the mice are less efficient in clearing peritoneal bacteria. Using a bioassay, we find that serum and activated platelet supernatant stimulate GPR35, and we identify the platelet-derived serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) as a GPR35 ligand. GPR35 function in neutrophil recruitment is strongly dependent on platelets, with the receptor promoting transmigration across platelet-coated endothelium. Mast cells also attract GPR35+ cells via 5-HIAA. Mice deficient in 5-HIAA show a loss of GPR35-mediated neutrophil recruitment to inflamed tissue. These findings identify 5-HIAA as a GPR35 ligand and neutrophil chemoattractant and establish a role for platelet- and mast cell-produced 5-HIAA in cell recruitment to the sites of inflammation and bacterial clearance.
    Keywords:  5-HIAA; GPCRs; GPR35; SSRI; inflammation; mast cells; migration; neutrophil; platelets; serotonin metabolite
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2022.01.010
  53. J Biol Chem. 2022 Feb 03. pii: S0021-9258(22)00100-4. [Epub ahead of print] 101660
      Diabetes normally causes lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the kidneys, which plays a critical role in the onset of diabetic nephropathy; however, the mechanism by which dysregulated fatty acid metabolism increases lipid and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the diabetic kidney is not clear. As succinate is remarkably increased in the diabetic kidney, and accumulation of succinate suppresses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and increases ROS formation, we hypothesized that succinate might play a role in inducing lipid and ROS accumulation in the diabetic kidney. Here we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which diabetes induces lipid and ROS accumulation in the kidney of diabetic animals. We show that enhanced oxidation of dicarboxylic acids by peroxisomes leads to lipid and ROS accumulation in the kidney of diabetic mice via the metabolite succinate. Furthermore, specific suppression of peroxisomal β-oxidation improved diabetes-induced nephropathy by reducing succinate generation and attenuating lipid and ROS accumulation in the kidneys of the diabetic mice. We suggest that peroxisome-generated succinate acts as a pathological molecule inducing lipid and ROS accumulation in kidney, and that specifically targeting peroxisomal β-oxidation might be an effective strategy in treating diabetic nephropathy and related metabolic disorders.
    Keywords:  fatty acid oxidation; lipid accumulation; oxidative stress; peroxisome; succinate
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2022.101660