bims-camemi Biomed News
on Mitochondrial metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2021‒12‒19
38 papers selected by
Christian Frezza
University of Cambridge, MRC Cancer Unit


  1. J Cell Sci. 2021 Dec 15. pii: jcs258944. [Epub ahead of print]134(24):
      The dynamic nature of mitochondria, which can fuse, divide and move throughout the cell, allows these critical organelles to adapt their function in response to cellular demands, and is also important for regulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). While it is established that impairments in mitochondrial fusion and fission impact the mitochondrial genome and can lead to mtDNA depletion, abnormal nucleoid organization or accumulation of deletions, it is not entirely clear how or why remodeling mitochondrial network morphology affects mtDNA. Here, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of how mitochondrial dynamics contribute to the regulation of mtDNA and discuss links to human disease.
    Keywords:  Fission; Fusion; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial dynamics; Mitophagy; mtDNA
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.258944
  2. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 15. 12(1): 7311
      Copper serves as a co-factor for a host of metalloenzymes that contribute to malignant progression. The orally bioavailable copper chelating agent tetrathiomolybdate (TM) has been associated with a significant survival benefit in high-risk triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Despite these promising data, the mechanisms by which copper depletion impacts metastasis are poorly understood and this remains a major barrier to advancing TM to a randomized phase II trial. Here, using two independent TNBC models, we report a discrete subpopulation of highly metastatic SOX2/OCT4+ cells within primary tumors that exhibit elevated intracellular copper levels and a marked sensitivity to TM. Global proteomic and metabolomic profiling identifies TM-mediated inactivation of Complex IV as the primary metabolic defect in the SOX2/OCT4+ cell population. We also identify AMPK/mTORC1 energy sensor as an important downstream pathway and show that AMPK inhibition rescues TM-mediated loss of invasion. Furthermore, loss of the mitochondria-specific copper chaperone, COX17, restricts copper deficiency to mitochondria and phenocopies TM-mediated alterations. These findings identify a copper-metabolism-metastasis axis with potential to enrich patient populations in next-generation therapeutic trials.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27559-z
  3. Cell Calcium. 2021 Dec 10. pii: S0143-4160(21)00171-8. [Epub ahead of print]101 102517
      OPA1 and MICU1 are both involved in the regulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and the stabilization of the cristae junction, which separates the inner mitochondrial membrane into the interboundary membrane and the cristae membrane. In this mini-review, we focus on the synergetic control of OPA1 and MICU1 on the cristae junction that serves as a fundamental regulator of multiple mitochondrial functions. In particular, we point to the critical role of an adaptive cristae junction permeability in mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling, spatial H+ gradients and mitochondrial membrane potential, metabolic activity, and apoptosis. These characteristics bear on a distinct localization of the oxidative phosphorylation machinery, the FoF1-ATPase, and mitochondrial Ca2+uniporter (MCU) within sections of the inner mitochondrial membrane isolated by the cristae junction and regulated by proteins like OPA1 and MICU1. We specifically focus on the impact of MICU1-regulated cristae junction on the activity and distribution of MCU within the complex ultrastructure of mitochondria.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceca.2021.102517
  4. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Dec 11. pii: S0891-5849(21)01107-2. [Epub ahead of print]178 369-379
      Mitochondria participate in essential cellular functions, including energy production, metabolism, redox homeostasis regulation, intracellular Ca2+ handling, apoptosis, and cell fate determination. Disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis under pathological conditions results in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and energy insufficiency, which further disturb mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis in a deleterious loop. Mitochondrial redox status has therefore become a potential target for therapy against cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we highlight recent progress in determining the roles of mitochondrial processes in regulating mitochondrial redox status, including mitochondrial dynamics (fusion-fission pathways), mitochondrial cristae remodeling, mitophagy, biogenesis, and mitochondrion-organelle interactions (endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrion interactions, nucleus-mitochondrion communication, and lipid droplet-mitochondrion interactions). The strategies that activate vagal system include direct vagal activation (electrical vagal stimulation and administration of vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine) and pharmacological modulation (choline and cholinesterase inhibitors). The vagal system plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and suppressing mitochondrial oxidative stress by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, moderating mitochondrial fusion and fission, strengthening mitochondrial cristae stabilization, regulating mitochondrion-organelle interactions, and inhibiting mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. Therefore, enhancement of vagal activity can maintain mitochondrial homeostasis and represents a promising therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases.
    Keywords:  Cardiovascular diseases; Mitochondrial homeostasis; Mitochondrial redox status; Mitochondrion–organelle interactions; Vagal activity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.12.255
  5. BMC Biol. 2021 Dec 15. 19(1): 265
      BACKGROUND: Tissue hypoxia is a key feature of several endemic hepatic diseases, including alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and organ failure. Hypoxia imposes a severe metabolic challenge on the liver, potentially disrupting its capacity to carry out essential functions including fuel storage and the integration of lipid metabolism at the whole-body level. Mitochondrial respiratory function is understood to be critical in mediating the hepatic hypoxic response, yet the time-dependent nature of this response and the role of the respiratory chain in this remain unclear.RESULTS: Here, we report that hepatic respiratory capacity is enhanced following short-term exposure to hypoxia (2 days, 10% O2) and is associated with increased abundance of the respiratory chain supercomplex III2+IV and increased cardiolipin levels. Suppression of this enhanced respiratory capacity, achieved via mild inhibition of mitochondrial complex III, disrupted metabolic homeostasis. Hypoxic exposure for 2 days led to accumulation of plasma and hepatic long chain acyl-carnitines. This was observed alongside depletion of hepatic triacylglycerol species with total chain lengths of 39-53 carbons, containing palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, and oleic acids, which are associated with de novo lipogenesis. The changes to hepatic respiratory capacity and lipid metabolism following 2 days hypoxic exposure were transient, becoming resolved after 14 days in line with systemic acclimation to hypoxia and elevated circulating haemoglobin concentrations.
    CONCLUSIONS: The liver maintains metabolic homeostasis in response to shorter term hypoxic exposure through transient enhancement of respiratory chain capacity and alterations to lipid metabolism. These findings may have implications in understanding and treating hepatic pathologies associated with hypoxia.
    Keywords:  De novo lipogenesis; Hepatic mitochondria; Hypoxia; Mitochondrial respiratory chain; Mitochondrial supercomplexes
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-021-01192-0
  6. Oncogene. 2021 Dec 14.
      In recent years the tumor suppressor p53 has been increasingly recognized as a potent regulator of the cell metabolism and for its ability to inhibit the critical pro-survival kinases AKT and mTOR. The mechanisms through which p53 controls AKT and mTOR, however, are largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that p53 activates the metabolic regulator DDIT4 indirectly through the regulatory factor X 7 (RFX7). We provide evidence that DDIT4 is required for p53 to inhibit mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2)-dependent AKT activation. Most strikingly, we also find that the DDIT4 regulator RFX7 is required for p53-mediated inhibition of mTORC1 and AKT. Our results suggest that AMPK activation plays no role and p53-mediated AKT inhibition is not critical for p53-mediated mTORC1 inhibition. Moreover, using recently developed physiological cell culture media we uncover that basal p53 and RFX7 activity can play a critical role in restricting mTORC1 activity under physiological nutrient conditions, and we propose a nutrient-dependent model for p53-RFX7-mediated mTORC1 inhibition. These results establish RFX7 and its downstream target DDIT4 as essential effectors in metabolic control elicited by p53.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-02147-z
  7. FEBS J. 2021 Dec 16.
      Electron transport chain (ETC) dysfunction is a common feature of mitochondrial diseases and induces severe cellular stresses, including mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm ) reduction, mitochondrial matrix acidification, metabolic derangements and proteostatic stresses. Extensive studies of ETC dysfunction in yeast, C. elegans, cultured cells and mouse models have revealed multiple mitochondrial stress response pathways. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the triggers, sensors, signaling mechanisms, and the functional outcomes of mitochondrial stress responses in different species. We highlight Δψm reduction as a major trigger of stress responses in different species, but the responses are species-specific and the outcomes are context-dependent. ETC dysfunction elicits a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt ) to repair damaged mitochondria in C. elegans, and activates a global adaptive program to maintain Δψm in yeast. Yeast and C. elegans responses are remarkably similar at the downstream responses, although they are activated by different signaling mechanisms. UPRmt generally protects ETC-defective worms, but its constitutive activation is toxic for wildtype worms and worms carrying mutant mtDNA. In contrast to lower organisms, ETC dysfunction in mammals mainly activates a mitochondrial integrated stress response (ISRmt ) to reprogram metabolism and a PINK1-Parkin mitophagy pathway to degrade damaged mitochondria. Accumulating in vivo results suggest that the ATF4 branch of ISRmt exacerbates metabolic derangements to accelerate mitochondrial disease progression. The in vivo roles of mitophagy in mitochondrial diseases are also context-dependent. These results thus reveal the common and unique aspects of mitochondrial stress responses in different species and highlight their multifaceted roles in mitochondrial diseases.
    Keywords:  ISRmt; Mitochondrial stress response; UPRmt; mitochondrial membrane potential; mitophagy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.16323
  8. Cell Rep Methods. 2021 Nov 22. pii: 100116. [Epub ahead of print]1(7):
      The ratio of oxidized to reduced NAD (NAD+/NADH) sets intracellular redox balance and antioxidant capacity. Intracellular NAD is compartmentalized and the mitochondrial NAD+/NADH ratio is intricately linked to cellular function. Here, we report the monitoring of the NAD+/NADH ratio in mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments in live cells by using a modified genetic biosensor (SoNar). The fluorescence signal of SoNar targeted to mitochondria (mt-SoNar) or cytosol (ct-SoNar) responded linearly to physiological NAD+/NADH ratios in situ. NAD+/NADH ratios in cytosol versus mitochondria responded rapidly, but differently, to acute metabolic perturbations, indicating distinct NAD pools. Subcellular NAD redox balance regained homeostasis via communications through malate-aspartate shuttle. Mitochondrial and cytosolic NAD+/NADH ratios are influenced by NAD+ precursor levels and are distinctly regulated under pathophysiological conditions. Compartment-targeted biosensors and real-time imaging allow assessment of subcellular NAD+/NADH redox signaling in live cells, enabling future mechanistic research of NAD redox in cell biology and disease development.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crmeth.2021.100116
  9. Nat Metab. 2021 Dec 13.
      In mammals, circadian rhythms are entrained to the light cycle and drive daily oscillations in levels of NAD+, a cosubstrate of the class III histone deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) that associates with clock transcription factors. Although NAD+ also participates in redox reactions, the extent to which NAD(H) couples nutrient state with circadian transcriptional cycles remains unknown. Here we show that nocturnal animals subjected to time-restricted feeding of a calorie-restricted diet (TRF-CR) only during night-time display reduced body temperature and elevated hepatic NADH during daytime. Genetic uncoupling of nutrient state from NADH redox state through transduction of the water-forming NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis (LbNOX) increases daytime body temperature and blood and liver acyl-carnitines. LbNOX expression in TRF-CR mice induces oxidative gene networks controlled by brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1 (BMAL1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and suppresses amino acid catabolic pathways. Enzymatic analyses reveal that NADH inhibits SIRT1 in vitro, corresponding with reduced deacetylation of SIRT1 substrates during TRF-CR in vivo. Remarkably, Sirt1 liver nullizygous animals subjected to TRF-CR display persistent hypothermia even when NADH is oxidized by LbNOX. Our findings reveal that the hepatic NADH cycle links nutrient state to whole-body energetics through the rhythmic regulation of SIRT1.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00498-1
  10. FASEB J. 2022 Jan;36(1): e22062
      Mitochondrial dysfunction or loss of homeostasis is a central hallmark of many human diseases. Mitochondrial homeostasis is mediated by multiple quality control mechanisms including mitophagy, a form of selective autophagy that recycles terminally ill or dysfunctional mitochondria in order to preserve mitochondrial integrity. Our prior studies have shown that members of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family localize to the mitochondria and may play important roles in mediating mitochondrial health in the corneal epithelium, an integral tissue that is required for the maintenance of optical transparency and vision. Importantly, the IGF-binding protein-3, IGFBP-3, is secreted by corneal epithelial cells in response to stress and functions to mediate intracellular receptor trafficking in this cell type. In this study, we demonstrate a novel role for IGFBP-3 in mitochondrial homeostasis through regulation of the short isoform (s)BNIP3L/NIX mitophagy receptor in corneal epithelial cells and extend this finding to non-ocular epithelial cells. We further show that IGFBP-3-mediated control of mitochondrial homeostasis is associated with alterations in lamellar cristae morphology and mitochondrial dynamics. Interestingly, both loss and gain of function of IGFBP-3 drive an increase in mitochondrial respiration. This increase in respiration is associated with nuclear accumulation of IGFBP-3. Taken together, these findings support a novel role for IGFBP-3 as a key mediator of mitochondrial health in mucosal epithelia through the regulation of mitophagy and mitochondrial morphology.
    Keywords:  autophagy; insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor; mTOR; metabolism; mitochondria
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202100710RR
  11. Autophagy. 2021 Dec 12. 1-2
      The mechanisms controlling immunosurveillance and immunoevasion often operate simultaneously to the triggering of the oncogenic signaling that results in tumor initiation. The resolution of the balance between anti-cancer immune responses and pro-tumorigenic pathways determines if a tumor cell survives and can remodel the microenvironment to reinforce immunosuppression or is eliminated by the immune system. Cancer cells must endure a toxic and metabolically challenging milieu. In its various forms, autophagy provides a way for transformed cells to survive by promoting catabolism and detoxification. Mounting evidence suggests that the boundaries between cancer immunity and mitogenic and metabolic programs are diffuse, with the same molecules likely serving several diverse roles in immunity and metabolism during tumor initiation and progression. Our recent data provide mechanistic detail and functional relevance of a new paradigm whereby the same signaling elements control immunity and autophagy in cancer.
    Keywords:  Atypical PKC; ULK2; autophagy; immunosurveillance; interferon
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1991192
  12. FASEB J. 2022 Jan;36(1): e22078
      Large clinical trials and real-world studies have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on renal outcomes regardless of the presence of diabetes. However, the mechanism remains obscure. Here, we analyze the anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, on renal alternations using the ischemia/reperfusion-induced fibrosis model. Transcriptome and metabolome analysis showed that the accumulation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites and upregulation of inflammation in fibrosis renal cortical tissue were mitigated by dapagliflozin treatment. Moreover, dapagliflozin markedly relieved the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and hypoxia inducible factor-1α signaling and restored tubular cell-preferred fatty acid oxidation. Notably, NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation was strikingly blocked by dapagliflozin. We further demonstrated that the immunomodulatory metabolite itaconate derived from the TCA cycle was significantly boosted as a result of decreased isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 and increased immune-responsive gene 1 and mitochondrial citrate carrier in dapagliflozin-treated mice, which contributed to the inhibitory effect of dapagliflozin on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, administration of cell-permeable itaconate surrogate prevented activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and protected kidney against fibrosis development. Our results identify a novel mechanism coupling metabolism and inflammation for kidney benefits of SGLT2 inhibition in progressive chronic kidney disease.
    Keywords:  SGLT2; fibrosis; inflammasome; metabolism; metabolite
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202100909RR
  13. J Biol Chem. 2021 Dec 14. pii: S0021-9258(21)01305-3. [Epub ahead of print] 101495
      Metabolic reprogramming has been shown to occur in uveal melanoma (UM), the most common intraocular tumor in adults. Mechanisms driving metabolic reprogramming in UM are poorly understood. Elucidation of these mechanisms could inform development of new therapeutic strategies for metastatic UM, which has poor prognosis because existing therapies are ineffective. Here, we determined whether metabolic reprogramming is driven by constitutively active mutant α-subunits of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gq or G11 (Gq/11), the oncogenic drivers in ∼90% of UM patients. Using PET-CT imaging, microphysiometry, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we found that inhibition of oncogenic Gq/11 with the small molecule FR900359 (FR) attenuated glucose uptake by UM cells in vivo and in vitro, blunted glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in UM cell lines and tumor cells isolated from patients, and reduced levels of several glycolytic and TCA cycle intermediates. FR acutely inhibited glycolysis and respiration, and chronically attenuated expression of genes in both metabolic processes. UM therefore differs from other melanomas that exhibit a classic Warburg effect. Metabolic reprogramming in UM cell lines and patient samples involved protein kinase C and Erk1/2 signaling downstream of oncogenic Gq/11. Chronic administration of FR upregulated expression of genes involved in metabolite scavenging and redox homeostasis, potentially as an adaptive mechanism explaining why FR does not efficiently kill UM tumor cells or regress UM tumor xenografts. These results establish that oncogenic Gq/11 signaling is a crucial driver of metabolic reprogramming in UM and lay a foundation for studies aimed at targeting metabolic reprogramming for therapeutic development.
    Keywords:  Gq/11; metabolism; oncogenes; signaling; uveal melanoma
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.101495
  14. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2021 Dec 18.
      Metastasis is the primary cause of cancer related deaths due to the limited number of efficient druggable targets. Signatures of dysregulated cancer metabolism could serve as a roadmap for the determination of new treatment strategies. However, the metabolic signatures of metastatic cells remain vastly elusive. Our aim was to determine metabolic dysregulations associated with high metastatic potential in breast cancer cell lines. We have selected 5 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines including three with high metastatic potential (HMP) (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-436, MDA-MB-468) and two with low metastatic potential (LMP) (BT549, HCC1143). The normal epithelial breast cell line (hTERT-HME1) was also investigated. The untargeted metabolic profiling of cells and growth media was conducted and total of 479 metabolites were quantified. First we characterized metabolic features differentiating TNBC cell lines from normal cells as well as identified cell line specific metabolic fingerprints. Next, we determined 92 metabolites in cells and 22 in growth medium that display significant differences between LMP and HMP. The HMP cell lines had elevated level of molecules involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle and lipid metabolism. We identified metabolic advantages of cell lines with HMP beyond enhanced glycolysis by pinpointing the role of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) catabolism as well as molecules supporting coagulation and platelet activation as important contributors to the metastatic cascade. The landscape of metabolic dysregulations, characterized in our study, could serve as a roadmap for the identification of treatment strategies targeting cancer cells with enhanced metastatic potential.
    Keywords:  Branch chain amino acid metabolism; Metabolic profiling; Metastasis; Metastatic potential; TCA cycle; Triple negative breast cancer
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10585-021-10140-9
  15. Nature. 2021 Dec 15.
      The state and behaviour of a cell can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In particular, tumour progression is determined by underlying genetic aberrations1-4 as well as the makeup of the tumour microenvironment5,6. Quantifying the contributions of these factors requires new technologies that can accurately measure the spatial location of genomic sequence together with phenotypic readouts. Here we developed slide-DNA-seq, a method for capturing spatially resolved DNA sequences from intact tissue sections. We demonstrate that this method accurately preserves local tumour architecture and enables the de novo discovery of distinct tumour clones and their copy number alterations. We then apply slide-DNA-seq to a mouse model of metastasis and a primary human cancer, revealing that clonal populations are confined to distinct spatial regions. Moreover, through integration with spatial transcriptomics, we uncover distinct sets of genes that are associated with clone-specific genetic aberrations, the local tumour microenvironment, or both. Together, this multi-modal spatial genomics approach provides a versatile platform for quantifying how cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors contribute to gene expression, protein abundance and other cellular phenotypes.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04217-4
  16. Elife. 2021 Dec 13. pii: e69729. [Epub ahead of print]10
      Increased protein synthesis supports the rapid cell proliferation associated with cancer. The Rpl24Bst mutant mouse reduces the expression of the ribosomal protein RPL24 and has been used to suppress translation and limit tumorigenesis in multiple mouse models of cancer. Here, we show that Rpl24Bst also suppresses tumorigenesis and proliferation in a model of colorectal cancer (CRC) with two common patient mutations, Apc and Kras. In contrast to previous reports, Rpl24Bst mutation has no effect on ribosomal subunit abundance but suppresses translation elongation through phosphorylation of eEF2, reducing protein synthesis by 40% in tumour cells. Ablating eEF2 phosphorylation in Rpl24Bst mutant mice by inactivating its kinase, eEF2K, completely restores the rates of elongation and protein synthesis. Furthermore, eEF2K activity is required for the Rpl24Bst mutant to suppress tumorigenesis. This work demonstrates that elevation of eEF2 phosphorylation is an effective means to suppress colorectal tumorigenesis with two driver mutations. This positions translation elongation as a therapeutic target in CRC, as well as in other cancers where the Rpl24Bst mutation has a tumour suppressive effect in mouse models.
    Keywords:  RPL24; cancer biology; cell biology; eEF2K; in vivo models; intestinal cancer; mouse; protein sythesis; translation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.69729
  17. Cancer Metab. 2021 Dec 11. 9(1): 41
      BACKGROUND: Hexokinases (HKs) are well-studied enzymes catalyzing the first step of glycolysis. However, non-canonical regulatory roles of HKs are still incompletely understood. Here, we hypothesized that HKs comprise one of the missing links between high-dose metformin and the inhibition of the respiratory chain in cancer.METHODS: We tested the isoenzyme-specific regulatory roles of HKs in ovarian cancer cells by examining the effects of the deletions of HK1 and HK2 in TOV-112D ovarian adenocarcinoma cells. We reverted these effects by re-introducing wild-type HK1 and HK2, and we compared the HK1 revertant with the knock-in of catalytically dead HK1 p.D656A. We subjected these cells to a battery of metabolic and proliferation assays and targeted GC×GC-MS metabolomics.
    RESULTS: We found that the HK1 depletion (but not the HK2 depletion) sensitized ovarian cancer cells to high-dose metformin during glucose starvation. We confirmed that this newly uncovered role of HK1 is glycolysis-independent by the introduction of the catalytically dead HK1. The expression of catalytically dead HK1 stimulated similar changes in levels of TCA intermediates, aspartate and cysteine, and in glutamate as were induced by the HK2 deletion. In contrast, HK1 deletion increased the levels of branched amino acids; this effect was completely eliminated by the expression of catalytically dead HK1. Furthermore, HK1 revertants but not HK2 revertants caused a strong increase of NADPH/NADP ratios independently on the presence of glucose or metformin. The HK1 deletion (but not HK2 deletion) suppressed the growth of xenotransplanted ovarian cancer cells and nearly abolished the tumor growth when the mice were fed the glucose-free diet.
    CONCLUSIONS: We provided the evidence that HK1 is involved in the so far unknown glycolysis-independent HK1-metformin axis and influences metabolism even in glucose-free conditions.
    Keywords:  Aerobic glycolysis; Hexokinase; Metabolism reprogramming; Metformin; Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; Oxidative phosphorylation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40170-021-00277-2
  18. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2437 117-125
      Nanostructure initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) with fluorinated gold nanoparticles (f-AuNPs) enables the detection and spatial localization of a breath of polar metabolites and lipids with high spatial resolution and ultrasensitivity. Here we describe the methods and procedures for the synthesis and application of f-AuNPs for NIMS of small molecule metabolites and lipids in biological tissues, encompassing sample preparation, mass spectrometric detection, and data analysis and interpretation.
    Keywords:  Gold nanoparticles; Mass spectrometry imaging; Metabolism heterogeneity; Metabolite imaging; Metabolomics; Nanostructure initiator mass spectrometry
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2030-4_8
  19. Nat Metab. 2021 Dec 13.
      To liberate fatty acids (FAs) from intracellular stores, lipolysis is regulated by the activity of the lipases adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase and monoacylglycerol lipase. Excessive FA release as a result of uncontrolled lipolysis results in lipotoxicity, which can in turn promote the progression of metabolic disorders. However, whether cells can directly sense FAs to maintain cellular lipid homeostasis is unknown. Here we report a sensing mechanism for cellular FAs based on peroxisomal degradation of FAs and coupled with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which in turn regulates FA release by modulating lipolysis. Changes in ROS levels are sensed by PEX2, which modulates ATGL levels through post-translational ubiquitination. We demonstrate the importance of this pathway for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease progression using genetic and pharmacological approaches to alter ROS levels in vivo, which can be utilized to increase hepatic ATGL levels and ameliorate hepatic steatosis. The discovery of this peroxisomal β-oxidation-mediated feedback mechanism, which is conserved in multiple organs, couples the functions of peroxisomes and lipid droplets and might serve as a new way to manipulate lipolysis to treat metabolic disorders.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00489-2
  20. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Dec 21. pii: e2114126118. [Epub ahead of print]118(51):
      KRAS is mutated in 90% of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). To function, KRAS must localize to the plasma membrane (PM) via a C-terminal membrane anchor that specifically engages phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). This anchor-binding specificity renders KRAS-PM localization and signaling capacity critically dependent on PM PtdSer content. We now show that the PtdSer lipid transport proteins, ORP5 and ORP8, which are essential for maintaining PM PtdSer levels and hence KRAS PM localization, are required for KRAS oncogenesis. Knockdown of either protein, separately or simultaneously, abrogated growth of KRAS-mutant but not KRAS-wild-type pancreatic cancer cell xenografts. ORP5 or ORP8 knockout also abrogated tumor growth in an immune-competent orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse model. Analysis of human datasets revealed that all components of this PtdSer transport mechanism, including the PM-localized EFR3A-PI4KIIIα complex that generates phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized SAC1 phosphatase that hydrolyzes counter transported PI4P, are significantly up-regulated in pancreatic tumors compared to normal tissue. Taken together, these results support targeting PI4KIIIα in KRAS-mutant cancers to deplete the PM-to-ER PI4P gradient, reducing PM PtdSer content. We therefore repurposed the US Food and Drug Administration-approved hepatitis C antiviral agent, simeprevir, as a PI4KIIIα inhibitor In a PDAC setting. Simeprevir potently mislocalized KRAS from the PM, reduced the clonogenic potential of pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro, and abrogated the growth of KRAS-dependent tumors in vivo with enhanced efficacy when combined with MAPK and PI3K inhibitors. We conclude that the cellular ER-to-PM PtdSer transport mechanism is essential for KRAS PM localization and oncogenesis and is accessible to therapeutic intervention.
    Keywords:  KRAS; ORP5; ORP8; PI4KA; phosphatidylserine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2114126118
  21. Development. 2021 Dec 14. pii: dev.200140. [Epub ahead of print]
      Development entails patterned emergence of diverse cell types within the embryo. In mammals, cells positioned inside the embryo give rise to the inner cell mass (ICM) that eventually forms the embryo proper. Yet the molecular basis of how these cells recognise their 'inside' position to instruct their fate is unknown. Here we show that provision of extracellular matrix (ECM) to isolated embryonic cells induces ICM specification and alters subsequent spatial arrangement between epiblast (EPI) and primitive endoderm (PrE) cells that emerge within the ICM. Notably, this effect is dependent on integrin β1 activity and involves apical to basal conversion of cell polarity. We demonstrate that ECM-integrin activity is sufficient for 'inside' positional signalling and it is required for proper EPI/PrE patterning. Our findings thus highlight the significance of ECM-integrin adhesion in enabling position-sensing by cells to achieve tissue patterning.
    Keywords:  Cell fate specification; Early mammalian development; Extracellular matrix; Patterning
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.200140
  22. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Dec 21. pii: e2112836118. [Epub ahead of print]118(51):
      Aerobic fermentation, also referred to as the Crabtree effect in yeast, is a well-studied phenomenon that allows many eukaryal cells to attain higher growth rates at high glucose availability. Not all yeasts exhibit the Crabtree effect, and it is not known why Crabtree-negative yeasts can grow at rates comparable to Crabtree-positive yeasts. Here, we quantitatively compared two Crabtree-positive yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and two Crabtree-negative yeasts, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Scheffersomyces stipitis, cultivated under glucose excess conditions. Combining physiological and proteome quantification with genome-scale metabolic modeling, we found that the two groups differ in energy metabolism and translation efficiency. In Crabtree-positive yeasts, the central carbon metabolism flux and proteome allocation favor a glucose utilization strategy minimizing proteome cost as proteins translation parameters, including ribosomal content and/or efficiency, are lower. Crabtree-negative yeasts, however, use a strategy of maximizing ATP yield, accompanied by higher protein translation parameters. Our analyses provide insight into the underlying reasons for the Crabtree effect, demonstrating a coupling to adaptations in both metabolism and protein translation.
    Keywords:  Crabtree effect; constraint-based modeling; proteomics; systems biology; yeast
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2112836118
  23. Front Oncol. 2021 ;11 779739
      Hypoxia is a common phenomenon in solid tumours strongly linked to the hallmarks of cancer. Hypoxia promotes local immunosuppression and downregulates type I interferon (IFN) expression and signalling, which contribute to the success of many cancer therapies. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), transiently generated during mitochondrial transcription, endogenously activates the type I IFN pathway. We report the effects of hypoxia on the generation of mitochondrial dsRNA (mtdsRNA) in breast cancer. We found a significant decrease in dsRNA production in different cell lines under hypoxia. This effect was HIF1α/2α-independent. mtdsRNA was responsible for induction of type I IFN and significantly decreased after hypoxia. Mitochondrially encoded gene expression was downregulated and mtdsRNA bound by the dsRNA-specific J2 antibody was decreased during hypoxia. These findings reveal a new mechanism of hypoxia-induced immunosuppression that could be targeted by hypoxia-activated therapies.
    Keywords:  IFN; cancer; dsRNA; hypoxia; mitochondria
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.779739
  24. STAR Protoc. 2021 Dec 17. 2(4): 100977
      We describe a protocol for identifying cellular thiol metabolites such as cysteine and cystine in adherent cells using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. We applied a modified extraction and sample derivatization protocol to accurately quantify the intracellular levels of labile thiol species and to inhibit oxidation prior to analysis. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Liu et al. (2020) and Koppula et al. (2021).
    Keywords:  Cancer; Mass Spectrometry; Metabolism
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2021.100977
  25. Eng Life Sci. 2021 Dec;21(12): 832-847
      Increasing cell-specific productivities (CSPs) for the production of heterologous proteins in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells is an omnipresent need in the biopharmaceutical industry. The novel additive 5'-deoxy-5'-(methylthio)adenosine (MTA), a chemical degradation product of S-(5'-adenosyl)-ʟ-methionine (SAM) and intermediate of polyamine biosynthesis, boosts the CSP of IgG1-producing CHO cells by 50%. Compartment-specific 13C flux analysis revealed a fundamental reprogramming of the central metabolism after MTA addition accompanied by cell-cycle arrest and increased cell volumes. Carbon fluxes into the pentose-phosphate pathway increased 22 fold in MTA-treated cells compared to that in non-MTA-treated reference cells. Most likely, cytosolic ATP inhibition of phosphofructokinase mediated the carbon detour. Mitochondrial shuttle activity of the α-ketoglurarate/malate antiporter (OGC) reversed, reducing cytosolic malate transport. In summary, NADPH supply in MTA-treated cells improved three fold compared to that in non-MTA-treated cells, which can be regarded as a major factor for explaining the boosted CSPs.
    Keywords:  13C MFA; CHO; MTA; NADPH; cell‐specific productivity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/elsc.202100057
  26. Trends Cell Biol. 2021 Dec 09. pii: S0962-8924(21)00230-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Creatine is a nitrogen-containing organic acid naturally existing in mammals. It can be converted into phosphocreatine to provide energy for muscle and nerve tissues. Creatine and its analog, cyclocreatine, have been considered cancer suppressive metabolites due to their effects on suppression of subcutaneous cancer growth. Recently, emerging studies have demonstrated the promoting effect of creatine on cancer metastasis. Orthotopic mouse models revealed that creatine promoted invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer. Thus, creatine possesses considerably complicated roles in cancer progression. In this review, we systematically summarized the role of creatine in tumor progression, which will call to caution when considering creatine supplementation to clinically treat cancer patients.
    Keywords:  cancer; creatine; creatine kinase; metastasis; phosphocreatine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2021.11.004
  27. Cell Death Differ. 2021 Dec 16.
      Cytoplasmic recognition of microbial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in human cells is elicited by the caspase-4 and caspase-5 noncanonical inflammasomes, which induce a form of inflammatory cell death termed pyroptosis. Here we show that LPS-mediated activation of caspase-4 also induces a stress response promoting cellular senescence, which is dependent on the caspase-4 substrate gasdermin-D and the tumor suppressor p53. Furthermore, we found that the caspase-4 noncanonical inflammasome is induced and assembled in response to oncogenic RAS signaling during oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). Moreover, targeting caspase-4 expression in OIS showed its critical role in the senescence-associated secretory phenotype and the cell cycle arrest induced in cellular senescence. Finally, we observed that caspase-4 induction occurs in vivo in mouse models of tumor suppression and ageing. Altogether, we are showing that cellular senescence is induced by cytoplasmic LPS recognition by the noncanonical inflammasome and that this pathway is conserved in the cellular response to oncogenic stress.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00917-6
  28. J Cell Biol. 2022 Jan 03. pii: e202112049. [Epub ahead of print]221(1):
      Rushika M. Perera studies how pancreatic cancer cells use autophagy and the lysosome to adapt to stress.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202112049
  29. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 17. 12(1): 7333
      The growing knowledge of ferroptosis has suggested the role and therapeutic potential of ferroptosis in cancer, but has not been translated into effective therapy. Liver cancer, primarily hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is highly lethal with limited treatment options. LIFR is frequently downregulated in HCC. Here, by studying hepatocyte-specific and inducible Lifr-knockout mice, we show that loss of Lifr promotes liver tumorigenesis and confers resistance to drug-induced ferroptosis. Mechanistically, loss of LIFR activates NF-κB signaling through SHP1, leading to upregulation of the iron-sequestering cytokine LCN2, which depletes iron and renders insensitivity to ferroptosis inducers. Notably, an LCN2-neutralizing antibody enhances the ferroptosis-inducing and anticancer effects of sorafenib on HCC patient-derived xenograft tumors with low LIFR expression and high LCN2 expression. Thus, anti-LCN2 therapy is a promising way to improve liver cancer treatment by targeting ferroptosis.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27452-9
  30. EMBO Rep. 2021 Dec 16. e54384
      During embryonic development, hematopoiesis occurs through primitive and definitive waves, giving rise to distinct blood lineages. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge from hemogenic endothelial (HE) cells, through endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT). In the adult, HSC quiescence, maintenance, and differentiation are closely linked to changes in metabolism. However, metabolic processes underlying the emergence of HSCs from HE cells remain unclear. Here, we show that the emergence of blood is regulated by multiple metabolic pathways that induce or modulate the differentiation toward specific hematopoietic lineages during human EHT. In both in vitro and in vivo settings, steering pyruvate use toward glycolysis or OXPHOS differentially skews the hematopoietic output of HE cells toward either an erythroid fate with primitive phenotype, or a definitive lymphoid fate, respectively. We demonstrate that glycolysis-mediated differentiation of HE toward primitive erythroid hematopoiesis is dependent on the epigenetic regulator LSD1. In contrast, OXPHOS-mediated differentiation of HE toward definitive hematopoiesis is dependent on cholesterol metabolism. Our findings reveal that during EHT, metabolism is a major regulator of primitive versus definitive hematopoietic differentiation.
    Keywords:  OXPHOS; endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition; glycolysis; hematopoiesis; pyruvate metabolism
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.202154384
  31. Elife. 2021 Dec 17. pii: e70046. [Epub ahead of print]10
      Gliomas are highly malignant brain tumors with poor prognosis and short survival. NAD+ has been shown to impact multiple processes that are dysregulated in cancer; however, anti-cancer therapies targeting NAD+ synthesis have had limited success due to insufficient mechanistic understanding. Here, we adapted a Drosophila glial neoplasia model and discovered the genetic requirement for NAD+ synthase nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT) in glioma progression in vivo and in human glioma cells. Overexpressing enzymatically active NMNAT significantly promotes glial neoplasia growth and reduces animal viability. Mechanistic analysis suggests that NMNAT interferes with DNA damage-p53-caspase-3 apoptosis signaling pathway by enhancing NAD+-dependent posttranslational modifications (PTMs) poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and deacetylation of p53. Since PARylation and deacetylation reduce p53 pro-apoptotic activity, modulating p53 PTMs could be a key mechanism by which NMNAT promotes glioma growth. Our findings reveal a novel tumorigenic mechanism involving protein complex formation of p53 with NAD+ synthetic enzyme NMNAT and NAD+-dependent PTM enzymes that regulates glioma growth.
    Keywords:  D. melanogaster; NAD; PARP; RAS; cancer biology; caspase; deacetylation; glial cell; neuroscience
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.70046