bims-camemi Biomed News
on Mitochondrial metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2021‒12‒12
fifty-four papers selected by
Christian Frezza
University of Cambridge, MRC Cancer Unit


  1. Nat Metab. 2021 Dec 06.
      White to brown/beige adipocytes conversion is a possible therapeutic strategy to tackle the current obesity epidemics. While mitochondria are key for energy dissipation in brown fat, it is unknown if they can drive adipocyte browning. Here, we show that the mitochondrial cristae biogenesis protein optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) facilitates cell-autonomous adipocyte browning. In two cohorts of patients with obesity, including weight discordant monozygotic twin pairs, adipose tissue OPA1 levels are reduced. In the mouse, Opa1 overexpression favours white adipose tissue expandability as well as browning, ultimately improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses identify the Jumanji family chromatin remodelling protein Kdm3a and urea cycle metabolites, including fumarate, as effectors of Opa1-dependent browning. Mechanistically, the higher cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in Opa1 pre-adipocytes activate cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), which transcribes urea cycle enzymes. Flux analyses in pre-adipocytes indicate that Opa1-dependent fumarate accumulation depends on the urea cycle. Conversely, adipocyte-specific Opa1 deletion curtails urea cycle and beige differentiation of pre-adipocytes, and is rescued by fumarate supplementation. Thus, the urea cycle links the mitochondrial dynamics protein Opa1 to white adipocyte browning.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00497-2
  2. J Biochem. 2021 Dec 04. pii: mvab136. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication is tightly regulated and necessary for cellular homeostasis; however, its relationship with mitochondrial metabolism remains unclear. Advances in metabolomics integrated with the rapid isolation of mitochondria will allow for remarkable progress in analyzing mitochondrial metabolism. Here, we propose a novel methodology for mitochondria-targeted metabolomics, which employs a quick isolation procedure using a hemolytic toxin from Streptococcus pyogenes streptolysin O (SLO). SLO-isolation of mitochondria from cultured HEK293 cells is time- and labor-saving for simultaneous multi-sample processing and has been applied to various other cell lines in this study. Furthermore, our method can detect the time-dependent reduction in mitochondrial ATP in response to a glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose, indicating the suitability to prepare metabolite analysis-competent mitochondria. Using this methodology, we searched for specific mitochondrial metabolites associated with mtDNA replication activation, and nucleotides and NAD+ were identified to be prominently altered. Most notably, treatment of β-Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (β-NMN), a precursor of NAD+, to HEK293 cells activated and improved the rate of mtDNA replication by increasing nucleotides in mitochondria and decreasing their degradation products: nucleosides. Our results suggest that β-NMN metabolism play a role in supporting mtDNA replication by maintaining the nucleotide pool balance in the mitochondria.
    Keywords:  beta-nicotinamide mononucleotide (β-NMN); metabolomics; mitochondrial DNA; nucleotide metabolism; streptolysin O
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/jb/mvab136
  3. IUBMB Life. 2021 Dec 10.
      The clearance of damaged or unwanted mitochondria by autophagy (also known as mitophagy) is a mitochondrial quality control mechanism postulated to play an essential role in cellular homeostasis, metabolism, and development and confers protection against a wide range of diseases. Proper removal of damaged or unwanted mitochondria is essential for organismal health. Defects in mitophagy are associated with Parkinson's, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and other degenerative disorders. Mitochondria regulate organismal fitness and longevity via multiple pathways, including cellular senescence, stem cell function, inflammation, mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR), and bioenergetics. Thus, mitophagy is postulated to be pivotal for maintaining organismal healthspan and lifespan and the protection against aged-related degeneration. In this review, we will summarize recent understanding of the mechanism of mitophagy and aspects of mitochondrial functions. We will focus on mitochondria-related cellular processes that are linked to aging and examine current genetic evidence that supports the hypothesis that mitophagy is a pro-longevity mechanism.
    Keywords:  aging; longevity; mitophagy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/iub.2585
  4. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 06. 12(1): 6997
      Pathological variants of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typically co-exist with wild-type molecules, but the factors driving the selection of each are not understood. Because mitochondrial fitness does not favour the propagation of functional mtDNAs in disease states, we sought to create conditions where it would be advantageous. Glucose and glutamine consumption are increased in mtDNA dysfunction, and so we targeted the use of both in cells carrying the pathogenic m.3243A>G variant with 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), or the related 5-thioglucose. Here, we show that both compounds selected wild-type over mutant mtDNA, restoring mtDNA expression and respiration. Mechanistically, 2DG selectively inhibits the replication of mutant mtDNA; and glutamine is the key target metabolite, as its withdrawal, too, suppresses mtDNA synthesis in mutant cells. Additionally, by restricting glucose utilization, 2DG supports functional mtDNAs, as glucose-fuelled respiration is critical for mtDNA replication in control cells, when glucose and glutamine are scarce. Hence, we demonstrate that mitochondrial fitness dictates metabolite preference for mtDNA replication; consequently, interventions that restrict metabolite availability can suppress pathological mtDNAs, by coupling mitochondrial fitness and replication.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26829-0
  5. Nat Cell Biol. 2021 Dec 06.
      Mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) are implicated in diverse physiological processes-for example, mitochondrial quality control-and are linked to various neurodegenerative diseases. However, their specific cargo composition and complex molecular biogenesis are still unknown. Here we report the proteome and lipidome of steady-state TOMM20+ MDVs. We identified 107 high-confidence MDV cargoes, which include all β-barrel proteins and the TOM import complex. MDV cargoes are delivered as fully assembled complexes to lysosomes, thus representing a selective mitochondrial quality control mechanism for multi-subunit complexes, including the TOM machinery. Moreover, we define key biogenesis steps of phosphatidic acid-enriched MDVs starting with the MIRO1/2-dependent formation of thin membrane protrusions pulled along microtubule filaments, followed by MID49/MID51/MFF-dependent recruitment of the dynamin family GTPase DRP1 and finally DRP1-dependent scission. In summary, we define the function of MDVs in mitochondrial quality control and present a mechanistic model for global GTPase-driven MDV biogenesis.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00798-4
  6. Front Oncol. 2021 ;11 797265
      Extensive metabolic remodeling is a fundamental feature of cancer cells. Although early reports attributed such remodeling to a loss of mitochondrial functions, it is now clear that mitochondria play central roles in cancer development and progression, from energy production to synthesis of macromolecules, from redox modulation to regulation of cell death. Biosynthetic pathways are also heavily affected by the metabolic rewiring, with protein synthesis dysregulation at the hearth of cellular transformation. Accumulating evidence in multiple organisms shows that the metabolic functions of mitochondria are tightly connected to protein synthesis, being assembly and activity of respiratory complexes highly dependent on de novo synthesis of their components. In turn, protein synthesis within the organelle is tightly connected with the cytosolic process. This implies an entire network of interactions and fine-tuned regulations that build up a completely under-estimated level of complexity. We are now only preliminarily beginning to reconstitute such regulatory level in human cells, and to perceive its role in diseases. Indeed, disruption or alterations of these connections trigger conditions of proteotoxic and energetic stress that could be potentially exploited for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we summarize the available literature on the coordinated regulation of mitochondrial and cytosolic mRNA translation, and their effects on the integrity of the mitochondrial proteome and functions. Finally, we highlight the potential held by this topic for future research directions and for the development of innovative therapeutic approaches.
    Keywords:  inter-organelle coordinated translation regulation; mitochondrial protein import; mitochondrial protein quality control (mtPQC); mitochondrial translation; protein synthesis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.797265
  7. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2021 Dec 08.
      Mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) is a phenomenon that abruptly causes the flux of low molecular weight solutes (molecular weight up to 1,500) across the generally impermeable inner mitochondrial membrane. The mPT is mediated by the so-called mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), a supramolecular entity assembled at the interface of the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. In contrast to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, which mostly activates apoptosis, mPT can trigger different cellular responses, from the physiological regulation of mitophagy to the activation of apoptosis or necrosis. Although there are several molecular candidates for the mPTP, its molecular nature remains contentious. This lack of molecular data was a significant setback that prevented mechanistic insight into the mPTP, pharmacological targeting and the generation of informative animal models. In recent years, experimental evidence has highlighted mitochondrial F1Fo ATP synthase as a participant in mPTP formation, although a molecular model for its transition to the mPTP is still lacking. Recently, the resolution of the F1Fo ATP synthase structure by cryogenic electron microscopy led to a model for mPTP gating. The elusive molecular nature of the mPTP is now being clarified, marking a turning point for understanding mitochondrial biology and its pathophysiological ramifications. This Review provides an up-to-date reference for the understanding of the mammalian mPTP and its cellular functions. We review current insights into the molecular mechanisms of mPT and validated observations - from studies in vivo or in artificial membranes - on mPTP activity and functions. We end with a discussion of the contribution of the mPTP to human disease. Throughout the Review, we highlight the multiple unanswered questions and, when applicable, we also provide alternative interpretations of the recent discoveries.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41580-021-00433-y
  8. Cell Metab. 2021 Dec 07. pii: S1550-4131(21)00539-8. [Epub ahead of print]33(12): 2380-2397.e9
      Accelerated glycolysis is the main metabolic change observed in cancer, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and their role in cancer progression remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the deletion of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Neat1 in MMTV-PyVT mice profoundly impairs tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis, specifically switching off the penultimate step of glycolysis. Mechanistically, NEAT1 directly binds and forms a scaffold bridge for the assembly of PGK1/PGAM1/ENO1 complexes and thereby promotes substrate channeling for high and efficient glycolysis. Notably, NEAT1 is upregulated in cancer patients and correlates with high levels of these complexes, and genetic and pharmacological blockade of penultimate glycolysis ablates NEAT1-dependent tumorigenesis. Finally, we demonstrate that Pinin mediates glucose-stimulated nuclear export of NEAT1, through which it exerts isoform-specific and paraspeckle-independent functions. These findings establish a direct role for NEAT1 in regulating tumor metabolism, provide new insights into the Warburg effect, and identify potential targets for therapy.
    Keywords:  ENO1; NEAT1; PGAM1; PGK1; Pinin; Warburg effect; aerobic glycolysis; breast cancer; long noncoding RNA; tumor metabolism
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.11.011
  9. Front Pharmacol. 2021 ;12 758320
      Tumour cells modify their cellular metabolism with the aim to sustain uncontrolled proliferation. Cancer cells necessitate adequate amounts of NAD and NADPH to support several enzymes that are usually overexpressed and/or overactivated. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an essential cofactor and substrate of several NAD-consuming enzymes, such as PARPs and sirtuins, while NADPH is important in the regulation of the redox status in cells. The present review explores the rationale for targeting the key enzymes that maintain the cellular NAD/NADPH pool in colorectal cancer and the enzymes that consume or use NADP(H).
    Keywords:  ALDH = aldehyde dehydrogenase; CD38; NAD; NADPH; NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase); PARP; isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH); sirtuins
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.758320
  10. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 08. 12(1): 7115
      Lactic acidosis, the extracellular accumulation of lactate and protons, is a consequence of increased glycolysis triggered by insufficient oxygen supply to tissues. Macrophages are able to differentiate from monocytes under such acidotic conditions, and remain active in order to resolve the underlying injury. Here we show that, in lactic acidosis, human monocytes differentiating into macrophages are characterized by depolarized mitochondria, transient reduction of mitochondrial mass due to mitophagy, and a significant decrease in nutrient absorption. These metabolic changes, resembling pseudostarvation, result from the low extracellular pH rather than from the lactosis component, and render these cells dependent on autophagy for survival. Meanwhile, acetoacetate, a natural metabolite produced by the liver, is utilized by monocytes/macrophages as an alternative fuel to mitigate lactic acidosis-induced pseudostarvation, as evidenced by retained mitochondrial integrity and function, retained nutrient uptake, and survival without the need of autophagy. Our results thus show that acetoacetate may increase tissue tolerance to sustained lactic acidosis.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27426-x
  11. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Nov 23. pii: 12620. [Epub ahead of print]22(23):
      Some metabolic pathways involve two different cell components, for instance, cytosol and mitochondria, with metabolites traffic occurring from cytosol to mitochondria and vice versa, as seen in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. However, the knowledge on the role of mitochondrial transport within these two glucose metabolic pathways remains poorly understood, due to controversial information available in published literature. In what follows, we discuss achievements, knowledge gaps, and perspectives on the role of mitochondrial transport in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. We firstly describe the experimental approaches for quick and easy investigation of mitochondrial transport, with respect to cell metabolic diversity. In addition, we depict the mitochondrial shuttles by which NADH formed in glycolysis is oxidized, the mitochondrial transport of phosphoenolpyruvate in the light of the occurrence of the mitochondrial pyruvate kinase, and the mitochondrial transport and metabolism of L-lactate due to the L-lactate translocators and to the mitochondrial L-lactate dehydrogenase located in the inner mitochondrial compartment.
    Keywords:  L-lactate; gluconeogenesis; glycolysis; mitochondrial shuttles; mitochondrial transport; phosphoenolpyruvate
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312620
  12. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 08. 12(1): 7139
      Amplification and overexpression of the SOX2 oncogene represent a hallmark of squamous cancers originating from diverse tissue types. Here, we find that squamous cancers selectively amplify a 3' noncoding region together with SOX2, which harbors squamous cancer-specific chromatin accessible regions. We identify a single enhancer e1 that predominantly drives SOX2 expression. Repression of e1 in SOX2-high cells causes collapse of the surrounding enhancers, remarkable reduction in SOX2 expression, and a global transcriptional change reminiscent of SOX2 knockout. The e1 enhancer is driven by a combination of transcription factors including SOX2 itself and the AP-1 complex, which facilitates recruitment of the co-activator BRD4. CRISPR-mediated activation of e1 in SOX2-low cells is sufficient to rebuild the e1-SOX2 loop and activate SOX2 expression. Our study shows that squamous cancers selectively amplify a predominant enhancer to drive SOX2 overexpression, uncovering functional links among enhancer activation, chromatin looping, and lineage-specific copy number amplifications of oncogenes.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27055-4
  13. Cell Metab. 2021 Dec 07. pii: S1550-4131(21)00535-0. [Epub ahead of print]33(12): 2307-2309
      There are dramatic disparities in infection susceptibility within populations. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Zhao and Karpac uncover a muscle-adipose-gut axis in Drosophila that explains variability in pathogen susceptibility. They show that the degree of intramuscular NF-κB activation accounts for differences in circulating glutamate, which enhances infection resistance at the expense of reproduction.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.11.007
  14. Infect Immun. 2021 Dec 06. IAI0055121
      Neutrophils simultaneously restrict Staphylococcus aureus dissemination and facilitate bactericidal activity during infection through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Neutrophils that produce higher levels of mitochondrial superoxide undergo enhanced terminal NET formation (suicidal NETosis) in response to S. aureus; however, mechanisms regulating mitochondrial homeostasis upstream of neutrophil antibacterial processes are not fully resolved. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1)-deficient (MICU1-/-) neutrophils accumulate higher levels of calcium and iron within the mitochondria in a mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU)-dependent manner. Corresponding with increased ion flux through the MCU, mitochondrial superoxide production is elevated, thereby increasing the propensity for MICU1-/- neutrophils to undergo suicidal NETosis rather than primary degranulation in response to S. aureus. Increased NET formation augments macrophage killing of bacterial pathogens. Similarly, MICU1-/- neutrophils alone are not more antibacterial towards S. aureus, but rather enhanced suicidal NETosis by MICU1-/- neutrophils facilitates increased bactericidal activity in the presence of macrophages. Similarly, mice with a deficiency in MICU1 restricted to cells expressing LysM exhibit lower bacterial burdens in the heart with increased survival during systemic S. aureus infection. Coinciding with the decrease in S. aureus burdens, MICU1-/- neutrophils in the heart produced higher levels of mitochondrial superoxide and undergo enhanced suicidal NETosis. These results demonstrate that ion flux by the MCU affects the antibacterial function of neutrophils during S. aureus infection.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00551-21
  15. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Nov 25. pii: 12732. [Epub ahead of print]22(23):
      Tissue homeostasis via the elimination of aberrant cells is fundamental for organism survival. Cell competition is a key homeostatic mechanism, contributing to the recognition and elimination of aberrant cells, preventing their malignant progression and the development of tumors. Here, using Drosophila as a model organism, we have defined a role for protein tyrosine phosphatase 61F (PTP61F) (orthologue of mammalian PTP1B and TCPTP) in the initiation and progression of epithelial cancers. We demonstrate that a Ptp61F null mutation confers cells with a competitive advantage relative to neighbouring wild-type cells, while elevating PTP61F levels has the opposite effect. Furthermore, we show that knockdown of Ptp61F affects the survival of clones with impaired cell polarity, and that this occurs through regulation of the JAK-STAT signalling pathway. Importantly, PTP61F plays a robust non-cell-autonomous role in influencing the elimination of adjacent polarity-impaired mutant cells. Moreover, in a neoplastic RAS-driven polarity-impaired tumor model, we show that PTP61F levels determine the aggressiveness of tumors, with Ptp61F knockdown or overexpression, respectively, increasing or reducing tumor size. These effects correlate with the regulation of the RAS-MAPK and JAK-STAT signalling by PTP61F. Thus, PTP61F acts as a tumor suppressor that can function in an autonomous and non-cell-autonomous manner to ensure cellular fitness and attenuate tumorigenesis.
    Keywords:  JAK–STAT; PTP61F; RAS; cell competition; tumorigenesis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312732
  16. Biochem Soc Trans. 2021 Dec 09. pii: BST20211032. [Epub ahead of print]
      Oxidation of succinate by mitochondria can generate a higher protonmotive force (pmf) than can oxidation of NADH-linked substrates. Fundamentally, this is because of differences in redox potentials and gearing. Biology adds kinetic constraints that tune the oxidation of NADH and succinate to ensure that the resulting mitochondrial pmf is suitable for meeting cellular needs without triggering pathology. Tuning within an optimal range is used, for example, to shift ATP consumption between different consumers. Conditions that overcome these constraints and allow succinate oxidation to drive pmf too high can cause pathological generation of reactive oxygen species. We discuss the thermodynamic properties that allow succinate oxidation to drive pmf higher than NADH oxidation, and discuss the evidence for kinetic tuning of ATP production and for pathologies resulting from substantial succinate oxidation in vivo.
    Keywords:  bioenergetics; ischaemia-reperfusion injury; membrane potential; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species; thermodynamics
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1042/BST20211032
  17. Cell Metab. 2021 Dec 07. pii: S1550-4131(21)00537-4. [Epub ahead of print]33(12): 2305-2306
      The metabolic state of T cells strongly influences their effector function and anti-tumor efficacy. St. Paul et al. (2021) report that Tc22, a CD8+ T cell subset with potent anti-tumor activity, upregulates the pantothenate/coenzyme A (CoA) pathway and that treatment with CoA or pantothenate is sufficient to enhance tumor immunotherapy.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.11.009
  18. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Nov 24. pii: 5912. [Epub ahead of print]13(23):
      Over the past decade, advances in cancer immunotherapy through PD1-PDL1 and CTLA4 immune checkpoint blockade have revolutionized the management of cancer treatment. However, these treatments are inefficient for many cancers, and unfortunately, few patients respond to these treatments. Indeed, altered metabolic pathways in the tumor play a pivotal role in tumor growth and immune response. Thus, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) reprograms the behavior of immune cells by altering their cellular machinery and nutrient availability to limit antitumor functions. Today, thanks to a better understanding of cancer metabolism, immunometabolism and immune checkpoint evasion, the development of new therapeutic approaches targeting the energy metabolism of cancer or immune cells greatly improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in different cancer models. Herein, we highlight the changes in metabolic pathways that regulate the differentiation of pro- and antitumor immune cells and how TME-induced metabolic stress impedes their antitumor activity. Finally, we propose some drug strategies to target these pathways in the context of cancer immunotherapy.
    Keywords:  cancer; immune response; immunotherapy; metabolic drug; metabolism
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13235912
  19. PLoS Genet. 2021 Dec;17(12): e1009941
      The retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor is functionally inactivated in a wide range of human tumors where this inactivation promotes tumorigenesis in part by allowing uncontrolled proliferation. RB has been extensively studied, but its mechanisms of action in normal and cancer cells remain only partly understood. Here, we describe a new mouse model to investigate the consequences of RB depletion and its re-activation in vivo. In these mice, induction of shRNA molecules targeting RB for knock-down results in the development of phenotypes similar to Rb knock-out mice, including the development of pituitary and thyroid tumors. Re-expression of RB leads to cell cycle arrest in cancer cells and repression of transcriptional programs driven by E2F activity. Thus, continuous RB loss is required for the maintenance of tumor phenotypes initiated by loss of RB, and this new mouse model will provide a new platform to investigate RB function in vivo.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009941
  20. STAR Protoc. 2021 Dec 17. 2(4): 100979
      The mitochondrial calcium uniporter, which mediates mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, regulates key cellular functions, including intracellular Ca2+ signaling, cell-fate determination, and mitochondrial bioenergetics. Here, we describe two complementary strategies to quantify the uniporter's transport activity. First, we detail a mitochondrial Ca2+ radionuclide uptake assay in cultured cell lines. Second, we describe electrophysiological recordings of the uniporter expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These approaches enable a detailed kinetic analysis of the uniporter to link its molecular properties to physiological functions. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Tsai and Tsai (2018) and Phillips et al. (2019).
    Keywords:  Biophysics; Cell Biology; Cell-based Assays; Molecular Biology
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2021.100979
  21. Mol Omics. 2021 Aug 26.
      During the development of drug resistance, multiple myeloma (MM) cells undergo changes to their metabolism. However, how these metabolic changes can be exploited to improve treatment efficacy is not known. Here we demonstrate that targeting coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) biosynthesis through the mevalonate pathway works in synergy with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) in MM. We show that gene expression signatures relating to the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and electron transport chain (ETC) predispose to clinical BTZ resistance and poor prognosis in MM patients. Mechanistically, BTZ-resistant cells show increased activity of glutamine-driven TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, together with an increased vulnerability towards ETC inhibition. Moreover, BTZ resistance is accompanied by high levels of the mitochondrial electron carrier CoQ, while the mevalonate pathway inhibitor simvastatin increases cell death and decreases CoQ levels, specifically in BTZ-resistant cells. Both in vitro and in vivo, simvastatin enhances the effect of bortezomib treatment. Our study links CoQ synthesis to drug resistance in MM and provides a novel avenue for improving BTZ responses through statin-induced inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1039/d1mo00106j
  22. Cell. 2021 Dec 09. pii: S0092-8674(21)01332-5. [Epub ahead of print]184(25): 6119-6137.e26
      Prognostically relevant RNA expression states exist in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but our understanding of their drivers, stability, and relationship to therapeutic response is limited. To examine these attributes systematically, we profiled metastatic biopsies and matched organoid models at single-cell resolution. In vivo, we identify a new intermediate PDAC transcriptional cell state and uncover distinct site- and state-specific tumor microenvironments (TMEs). Benchmarking models against this reference map, we reveal strong culture-specific biases in cancer cell transcriptional state representation driven by altered TME signals. We restore expression state heterogeneity by adding back in vivo-relevant factors and show plasticity in culture models. Further, we prove that non-genetic modulation of cell state can strongly influence drug responses, uncovering state-specific vulnerabilities. This work provides a broadly applicable framework for aligning cell states across in vivo and ex vivo settings, identifying drivers of transcriptional plasticity and manipulating cell state to target associated vulnerabilities.
    Keywords:  liver metastases; pancreatic cancer; patient-derived organoid models; plasticity; single-cell RNA-sequencing; transcriptional states; tumor heterogeneity; tumor microenvironment
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.11.017
  23. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Dec 02. pii: 13057. [Epub ahead of print]22(23):
      The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the main source of cellular energy and participates in many metabolic pathways in cells. Recent reports indicate that dysfunction of TCA cycle-related enzymes causes human diseases, such as neurometabolic disorders and tumors, have attracted increasing interest in their unexplained roles. The diseases which develop as a consequence of loss or dysfunction of TCA cycle-related enzymes are distinct, suggesting that each enzyme has a unique function. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the relationship between each TCA cycle-related enzyme and human diseases. We also discuss their functions in the context of both mitochondrial and extra-mitochondrial (or cytoplasmic) enzymes.
    Keywords:  TCA cycle; TCA cycle-related enzymes; calcium oscillations; human diseases; mitochondria
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222313057
  24. Nephron. 2021 Dec 09. 1-6
      Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical disorder associated with decline in renal function because of ischemic and nephrotoxic insults. The pathophysiology of AKI involves multiple cellular mechanisms, such as kidney parenchymal cell (epithelial and endothelial) dysfunction and immune-cell infiltration. Mitochondrial injury which causes ATP depletion and triggers apoptosis and necrosis is at the heart of ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Pharmacological (SS-31 or MitoQ), cellular (dendritic cells or mesenchymal stem cells), or genetic strategies that either directly or indirectly preserve mitochondrial integrity and function have been shown to mitigate IRI-linked AKI in preclinical models. Interestingly, isolated mitochondria have been recently shown to be taken up by various mammalian cells resulting in incorporation of transplanted mitochondria into the endogenous mitochondrial network of recipient cells and contributing to protection from ischemic injury in various preclinical models of ischemia including the heart, liver, and kidneys. The mini review summarizes the current available therapeutic strategies that improve kidney function by targeting mitochondria health.
    Keywords:  Acute kidney injury; Ischemia reperfusion injury; Mitochondria
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1159/000520698
  25. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 771366
      Attachment to the matrix is critical for the survival of adherent cells, whereas detachment triggers death by apoptosis. Therefore, solid tumors must acquire the ability to survive the stress of matrix-detachment to transit through circulation and seed metastases. Although a central role for energy metabolism in cancer progression is well established, what distinguishes its role in the cellular state of the matrix-deprived form compared to the matrix-attached form is not fully understood yet. Using an in vitro transformation model dependent on simian virus 40 (SV40) small t (ST) antigen for cellular survival and proliferation in matrix-deprived conditions, we demonstrate that 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity is elevated and sustained under matrix-deprived conditions in ST-expressing fibroblasts. Additionally, these cells display elevated energy (ATP) levels under matrix-deprived conditions in contrast to cells lacking ST expression. The elevated ATP levels are coupled to increased levels of proline in ST-expressing cells, as revealed by metabolomics studies. The AMPK-dependent upregulation of proline oxidase, an enzyme of proline degradation, is a key link for elevated ATP levels. This functional link is further established by proline supplementation concomitant with AMPK activation in matrix-deprived cells lacking ST antigen, yielding ATP and enhancing survival. Thus, our data establishes a key role for AMPK-dependent regulation of proline metabolism in mediating energy homeostasis and promoting survival of matrix-deprived cells. These findings identify key markers that distinguish the metabolic states of matrix-detached and matrix-attached transformed cells and have implications in developing novel therapeutic strategies for specifically targeting matrix-detached metastasizing cancer cells.
    Keywords:  AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); anoikis; anoikis-resistance; matrix-deprivation; metastasis; proline metabolism; proline oxidase (POX)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.771366
  26. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 06. 12(1): 7058
      L-Lactate, traditionally considered a metabolic waste product, is increasingly recognized as an important intercellular energy currency in mammals. To enable investigations of the emerging roles of intercellular shuttling of L-lactate, we now report an intensiometric green fluorescent genetically encoded biosensor for extracellular L-lactate. This biosensor, designated eLACCO1.1, enables cellular resolution imaging of extracellular L-lactate in cultured mammalian cells and brain tissue.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27332-2
  27. PLoS Genet. 2021 Dec 06. 17(12): e1009958
      Cell competition is a context-dependent cell elimination via cell-cell interaction whereby unfit cells ('losers') are eliminated from the tissue when confronted with fitter cells ('winners'). Despite extensive studies, the mechanism that drives loser's death and its physiological triggers remained elusive. Here, through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we find that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes cell competition. Mechanistically, ER stress upregulates the bZIP transcription factor Xrp1, which promotes phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2α via the kinase PERK, leading to cell elimination. Surprisingly, our genetic data show that different cell competition triggers such as ribosomal protein mutations or RNA helicase Hel25E mutations converge on upregulation of Xrp1, which leads to phosphorylation of eIF2α and thus causes reduction in global protein synthesis and apoptosis when confronted with wild-type cells. These findings not only uncover a core pathway of cell competition but also open the way to understanding the physiological triggers of cell competition.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009958
  28. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 10. 12(1): 7180
      Metastasis is the main cause of carcinoma-related death, yet we know little about how it initiates due to our inability to visualize stochastic invasion events. Classical models suggest that cells accumulate mutations that first drive formation of a primary mass, and then downregulate epithelia-specific genes to cause invasion and metastasis. Here, using transparent zebrafish epidermis to model simple epithelia, we can directly image invasion. We find that KRas-transformation, implicated in early carcinogenesis steps, directly drives cell invasion by hijacking a process epithelia normally use to promote death-cell extrusion. Cells invading by basal cell extrusion simultaneously pinch off their apical epithelial determinants, endowing new plasticity. Following invasion, cells divide, enter the bloodstream, and differentiate into stromal, neuronal-like, and other cell types. Yet, only invading KRasV12 cells deficient in p53 survive and form internal masses. Together, we demonstrate that KRas-transformation alone causes cell invasion and partial dedifferentiation, independently of mass formation.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27513-z
  29. Curr Biol. 2021 Dec 06. pii: S0960-9822(21)01599-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Hypoxia, through hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), drives cancer cell invasion and metastatic progression in various cancer types. In epithelial cancer, hypoxia induces the transition to amoeboid cancer cell dissemination, yet the molecular mechanisms, relevance for metastasis, and effective intervention to combat hypoxia-induced amoeboid reprogramming remain unclear. Here, we identify calpain-2 as a key regulator and anti-metastasis target of hypoxia-induced transition from collective to amoeboid dissemination of breast and head and neck (HN) carcinoma cells. Hypoxia-induced amoeboid dissemination occurred through low extracellular matrix (ECM)-adhesive, predominantly bleb-based amoeboid movement, which was maintained by a low-oxidative and -glycolytic energy metabolism ("eco-mode"). Hypoxia induced calpain-2-mediated amoeboid conversion by deactivating β1 integrins through enzymatic cleavage of the focal adhesion adaptor protein talin-1. Consequently, targeted downregulation or pharmacological inhibition of calpain-2 restored talin-1 integrity and β1 integrin engagement and reverted amoeboid to elongated phenotypes under hypoxia. Calpain-2 activity was required for hypoxia-induced amoeboid conversion in the orthotopic mouse dermis and upregulated in invasive HN tumor xenografts in vivo, and attenuation of calpain activity prevented hypoxia-induced metastasis to the lungs. This identifies the calpain-2/talin-1/β1 integrin axis as a druggable mechanosignaling program that conserves energy yet enables metastatic dissemination that can be reverted by interfering with calpain activity.
    Keywords:  HIF; Hypoxia; amoeboid migration; blebbing; calpain-2; cancer cell; cell metabolism; integrin; metastasis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.11.040
  30. JCI Insight. 2021 Dec 07. pii: e153948. [Epub ahead of print]
      A fibrotic stroma accumulates in advanced cancers, and invasive cancer cells migrate along collagen fibers that facilitate dissemination from the primary tumor. However, the ways in which tumor cells govern these processes remain unclear. Here, we report that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-activating transcription factor ZEB1 increased type I collagen (Col1) secretion and enhanced tumor cell adherence to type 1 collagen (Col1). Mechanistically, ZEB1 increased the levels of α1β1 integrin (encoded by Itga1 and Itgb1) by inhibiting PP2A activity, which reduced nuclear accumulation of HDAC4 and thereby derepressed Itga1 gene transcription. In parallel, ZEB1 relieved Itga1 from microRNA-148a-mediated silencing. High levels of Itga1 enhanced tumor cell adherence to Col1 and were essential for Col1-induced tumor growth and metastasis. Furthermore, ZEB1 enhanced Col1 secretion by increasing the expression of a kinesin protein that facilitated transport and secretion of Col1-containing vesicles. Our findings elucidate a transcriptional mechanism by which lung adenocarcinoma cells coordinate a collagen deposition and adhesion process that facilitates tumor progression.
    Keywords:  Cell migration/adhesion; Collagens; Integrins; Oncology
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.153948
  31. Trends Cell Biol. 2021 Dec 01. pii: S0962-8924(21)00228-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cells use post-translational and post-transcription modifications as crucial mechanisms to maintain homeostasis and regulate gene transcription. Recent discoveries demonstrate that these modifications are more pervasive and important than scientists previously posited. Here, we discuss their importance and provide insight to stimulate new research into these modifications.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2021.11.002
  32. Genome Biol Evol. 2021 Dec 11. pii: evab276. [Epub ahead of print]
      Integration of ecological and evolutionary features has begun to understand tumor heterogeneity, tumor microenvironment, and metastatic potential. Developing a theoretical framework is intrinsic to deciphering tumors' tremendous spatial and longitudinal genetic variation patterns in patients. Here, we propose that tumors can be considered evolutionary island-like ecosystems, i.e., isolated systems that undergo evolutionary and spatiotemporal dynamic processes that shape tumor microenvironments and drive the migration of cancer cells. We examine attributes of insular systems and causes of insularity, such as physical distance and connectivity. These properties modulate migration rates of cancer cells through processes causing spatial and temporal isolation of the organs and tissues functioning as a supply of cancer cells for new colonizations. We discuss hypotheses, predictions, and limitations of tumors as islands analogy. We present emerging evidence of tumor insularity in different cancer types and discuss their relevance to the islands model. We suggest that the engagement of tumor insularity into conceptual and mathematical models holds promise to illuminate cancer evolution, tumor heterogeneity, and metastatic potential of cells.
    Keywords:  Cancer evolution; Metastasis modeling; Tumor biogeography; Tumor island
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evab276
  33. EBioMedicine. 2021 Dec 04. pii: S2352-3964(21)00528-4. [Epub ahead of print]74 103734
      BACKGROUND: L-kynurenine is a tryptophan-derived immunosuppressive metabolite and precursor to neurotoxic anthranilate and quinolinate. We evaluated the stereoisomer D-kynurenine as an immunosuppressive therapeutic which is hypothesized to produce less neurotoxic metabolites than L-kynurenine.METHODS: L-/D-kynurenine effects on human and murine T cell function were examined in vitro and in vivo (homeostatic proliferation, colitis, cardiac transplant). Kynurenine effects on T cell metabolism were interrogated using [13C] glucose, glutamine and palmitate tracing. Kynurenine was measured in tissues from human and murine tumours and kynurenine-fed mice.
    FINDINGS: We observed that 1 mM D-kynurenine inhibits T cell proliferation through apoptosis similar to L-kynurenine. Mechanistically, [13C]-tracing revealed that co-stimulated CD4+ T cells exposed to L-/D-kynurenine undergo increased β-oxidation depleting fatty acids. Replenishing oleate/palmitate restored effector T cell viability. We administered dietary D-kynurenine reaching tissue kynurenine concentrations of 19 μM, which is close to human kidney (6 μM) and head and neck cancer (14 μM) but well below the 1 mM required for apoptosis. D-kynurenine protected Rag1-/- mice from autoimmune colitis in an aryl-hydrocarbon receptor dependent manner but did not attenuate more stringent immunological challenges such as antigen mismatched cardiac allograft rejection.
    INTERPRETATION: Our dietary kynurenine model achieved tissue concentrations at or above human cancer kynurenine and exhibited only limited immunosuppression. Sub-suppressive kynurenine concentrations in human cancers may limit the responsiveness to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibition evaluated in clinical trials.
    FUNDING: The study was supported by the NIH, the Else Kröner-Fresenius-Foundation, Laffey McHugh foundation, and American Society of Nephrology.
    Keywords:  T cell metabolism; aryl hydrocarbon receptor; cancer metabolism; immunosuppression; indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase; tumour microenvironment
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103734
  34. Cell. 2021 Dec 09. pii: S0092-8674(21)01329-5. [Epub ahead of print]184(25): 6138-6156.e28
      How the functions of multicellular organs emerge from the underlying evolution of cell types is poorly understood. We deconstructed evolution of an organ novelty: a rove beetle gland that secretes a defensive cocktail. We show how gland function arose via assembly of two cell types that manufacture distinct compounds. One cell type, comprising a chemical reservoir within the abdomen, produces alkane and ester compounds. We demonstrate that this cell type is a hybrid of cuticle cells and ancient pheromone and adipocyte-like cells, executing its function via a mosaic of enzymes from each parental cell type. The second cell type synthesizes benzoquinones using a chimera of conserved cellular energy and cuticle formation pathways. We show that evolution of each cell type was shaped by coevolution between the two cell types, yielding a potent secretion that confers adaptive value. Our findings illustrate how cooperation between cell types arises, generating new, organ-level behaviors.
    Keywords:  Dalotia coriaria; biosynthetic pathway evolution; cell type evolution; enzyme evolution; evolution of cooperation; organ function; rove beetles; single cell RNAseq
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.11.014
  35. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 07. 12(1): 7108
      D-2-Hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) is a metabolite involved in many physiological metabolic processes. When D-2-HG is aberrantly accumulated due to mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase or D-2-HG dehydrogenase, it functions in a pro-oncogenic manner and is thus considered a therapeutic target and biomarker in many cancers. In this study, DhdR from Achromobacter denitrificans NBRC 15125 is identified as an allosteric transcriptional factor that negatively regulates D-2-HG dehydrogenase expression and responds to the presence of D-2-HG. Based on the allosteric effect of DhdR, a D-2-HG biosensor is developed by combining DhdR with amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (AlphaScreen) technology. The biosensor is able to detect D-2-HG in serum, urine, and cell culture medium with high specificity and sensitivity. Additionally, this biosensor is used to identify the role of D-2-HG metabolism in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, demonstrating its broad usages.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27357-7
  36. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 10. 12(1): 7219
      Sustained ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ leak is associated with pathological conditions such as heart failure or skeletal muscle weakness. We report that a single session of sprint interval training (SIT), but not of moderate intensity continuous training (MICT), triggers RyR1 protein oxidation and nitrosylation leading to calstabin1 dissociation in healthy human muscle and in in vitro SIT models (simulated SIT or S-SIT). This is accompanied by decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content, increased levels of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation proteins, supercomplex formation and enhanced NADH-linked mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Mechanistically, (S-)SIT increases mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in mouse myotubes and muscle fibres, and decreases pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphorylation in human muscle and mouse myotubes. Countering Ca2+ leak or preventing mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake blunts S-SIT-induced adaptations, a result supported by proteomic analyses. Here we show that triggering acute transient Ca2+ leak through RyR1 in healthy muscle may contribute to the multiple health promoting benefits of exercise.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27422-1
  37. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 08. 12(1): 7147
      Cysteine plays an essential role in cellular redox homoeostasis as a key constituent of the tripeptide glutathione (GSH). A rate limiting step in cellular GSH synthesis is the availability of cysteine. However, circulating cysteine exists in the blood as the oxidised di-peptide cystine, requiring specialised transport systems for its import into the cell. System xc- is a dedicated cystine transporter, importing cystine in exchange for intracellular glutamate. To counteract elevated levels of reactive oxygen species in cancerous cells system xc- is frequently upregulated, making it an attractive target for anticancer therapies. However, the molecular basis for ligand recognition remains elusive, hampering efforts to specifically target this transport system. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of system xc- in both the apo and glutamate bound states. Structural comparisons reveal an allosteric mechanism for ligand discrimination, supported by molecular dynamics and cell-based assays, establishing a mechanism for cystine transport in human cells.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27414-1
  38. FEBS Open Bio. 2021 Dec 08.
      Age-related diseases represent some of largest unmet clinical needs of our time. While treatment of specific disease-related signs has had some success (for example the effect of statin drugs on slowing progression of atherosclerosis), slowing biological ageing itself represents a target that could significantly increase health-span and reduce the prevalence of multiple age-related diseases. Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is known to control fundamental processes in ageing: inhibiting this signalling complex slows biological ageing, reduces age-related disease pathology, and increases lifespan in model organisms. How mTORC1 inhibition achieves this is still subject to ongoing research. However, one mechanism by which mTORC1 inhibition is thought to slow ageing is by activating the autophagy-lysosome pathway. In this review we examine the special bi-directional relationship between mTORC1 and the lysosome. In cells, mTORC1 is located on lysosomes. From this advantageous position, it directly controls the autophagy-lysosome pathway. However, the lysosome also controls mTORC1 activity in numerous ways, creating a special two-way relationship. We then explore specific examples of how inhibition of mTORC1 and activation of the autophagy-lysosome pathway slow the molecular hallmarks of ageing. This body of literature demonstrates that the autophagy-lysosome pathway represents an excellent target for treatments that seek to slow biological ageing and increase health-span in humans.
    Keywords:  Lysosome; age-related disease; aging; autophagy; lysophagy; mTOR
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.13347
  39. Elife. 2021 Dec 08. pii: e71185. [Epub ahead of print]10
      Despite mounting evidence that the mammalian retina is exceptionally reliant on proper NAD+ homeostasis for health and function, the specific roles of subcellular NAD+ pools in retinal development, maintenance, and disease remain obscure. Here, we show that deletion of the nuclear-localized NAD+ synthase nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase-1 (NMNAT1) in the developing murine retina causes early and severe degeneration of photoreceptors and select inner retinal neurons via multiple distinct cell death pathways. This severe phenotype is associated with disruptions to retinal central carbon metabolism, purine nucleotide synthesis, and amino acid pathways. Furthermore, transcriptomic and immunostaining approaches reveal dysregulation of a collection of photoreceptor and synapse-specific genes in NMNAT1 knockout retinas prior to detectable morphological or metabolic alterations. Collectively, our study reveals previously unrecognized complexity in NMNAT1-associated retinal degeneration and suggests a yet-undescribed role for NMNAT1 in gene regulation during photoreceptor terminal differentiation.
    Keywords:  developmental biology; mouse; neuroscience
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.71185
  40. Nature. 2021 Dec 08.
      All cancers emerge after a period of clonal selection and subsequent clonal expansion. Although the evolutionary principles imparted by genetic intratumour heterogeneity are becoming increasingly clear1, little is known about the non-genetic mechanisms that contribute to intratumour heterogeneity and malignant clonal fitness2. Here, using single-cell profiling and lineage tracing (SPLINTR)-an expressed barcoding strategy-we trace isogenic clones in three clinically relevant mouse models of acute myeloid leukaemia. We find that malignant clonal dominance is a cell-intrinsic and heritable property that is facilitated by the repression of antigen presentation and increased expression of the secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor gene (Slpi), which we genetically validate as a regulator of acute myeloid leukaemia. Increased transcriptional heterogeneity is a feature that enables clonal fitness in diverse tissues and immune microenvironments and in the context of clonal competition between genetically distinct clones. Similar to haematopoietic stem cells3, leukaemia stem cells (LSCs) display heritable clone-intrinsic properties of high, and low clonal output that contribute to the overall tumour mass. We demonstrate that LSC clonal output dictates sensitivity to chemotherapy and, although high- and low-output clones adapt differently to therapeutic pressure, they coordinately emerge from minimal residual disease with increased expression of the LSC program. Together, these data provide fundamental insights into the non-genetic transcriptional processes that underpin malignant clonal fitness and may inform future therapeutic strategies.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04206-7
  41. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2021 Dec;28(12): 1009-1019
      NAD metabolism is essential for all forms of life. Compartmental regulation of NAD+ consumption, especially between the nucleus and the mitochondria, is required for energy homeostasis. However, how compartmental regulation evolved remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the evolution of the macrodomain-containing histone variant macroH2A1.1, an integral chromatin component that limits nuclear NAD+ consumption by inhibiting poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in vertebrate cells. We found that macroH2A originated in premetazoan protists. The crystal structure of the macroH2A macrodomain from the protist Capsaspora owczarzaki allowed us to identify highly conserved principles of ligand binding and pinpoint key residue substitutions, selected for during the evolution of the vertebrate stem lineage. Metabolic characterization of the Capsaspora lifecycle suggested that the metabolic function of macroH2A was associated with nonproliferative stages. Taken together, we provide insight into the evolution of a chromatin element involved in compartmental NAD regulation, relevant for understanding its metabolism and potential therapeutic applications.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41594-021-00692-5
  42. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2021 Dec 10.
      Cytochrome c is a member of the respiratory chain of the mitochondria. Non-membrane-bound (free) cytochrome c can be reduced by gluthatione as well as ascorbic acid. We investigated the effect of pH, Ca2+, Mg2+ and anionic phospholipids on the reduction of cytochrome c by glutathione.The reduction of cytochrome c by thiols was measured using photometry. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was detected by use of oxygen electrode. Glutathione does not reduce cytochrome c at pH = 7.0 in the absence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. The reduction of cytochrome c by glutathione is inhibited by anionic lipids, especially cardiolipin. The typical conditions of apoptosis-elevated pH, Ca2+ level and Mg2+-increases the reduction of cytochrome c. Glutathione (5 mM) causes increased mitochondrial O2 consumption at pH = 8.0, in the presence of ADP either 1 mM Mg2+ or 1 mM Ca2+. Our results suggest that membrane bound cyt c does not oxidize glutathione. Free (not membrane bound) cytochrome c can oxidize glutathione. In mitochondria, O2 is depleted only in the presence of ADP, so the O2 depletion observed in the presence of glutathione can be related to the respiratory chain. Decreased glutathione levels play a role in apoptosis. Therefore, membrane unbound cyt c can contribute to apoptosis by oxidation of glutathione.
    Keywords:  Cytochrome c; Glutathione; Mitochondria
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09926-z
  43. Nature. 2021 Dec 08.
      Physical exercise is generally beneficial to all aspects of human and animal health, slowing cognitive ageing and neurodegeneration1. The cognitive benefits of physical exercise are tied to an increased plasticity and reduced inflammation within the hippocampus2-4, yet little is known about the factors and mechanisms that mediate these effects. Here we show that 'runner plasma', collected from voluntarily running mice and infused into sedentary mice, reduces baseline neuroinflammatory gene expression and experimentally induced brain inflammation. Plasma proteomic analysis revealed a concerted increase in complement cascade inhibitors including clusterin (CLU). Intravenously injected CLU binds to brain endothelial cells and reduces neuroinflammatory gene expression in a mouse model of acute brain inflammation and a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Patients with cognitive impairment who participated in structured exercise for 6 months had higher plasma levels of CLU. These findings demonstrate the existence of anti-inflammatory exercise factors that are transferrable, target the cerebrovasculature and benefit the brain, and are present in humans who engage in exercise.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04183-x
  44. Nat Cell Biol. 2021 Dec 07.
      Circadian rhythms align physiological functions with the light-dark cycle through oscillatory changes in the abundance of proteins in the clock transcriptional programme. Timely removal of these proteins by different proteolytic systems is essential to circadian strength and adaptability. Here we show a functional interplay between the circadian clock and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), whereby CMA contributes to the rhythmic removal of clock machinery proteins (selective chronophagy) and to the circadian remodelling of a subset of the cellular proteome. Disruption of this autophagic pathway in vivo leads to temporal shifts and amplitude changes of the clock-dependent transcriptional waves and fragmented circadian patterns, resembling those in sleep disorders and ageing. Conversely, loss of the circadian clock abolishes the rhythmicity of CMA, leading to pronounced changes in the CMA-dependent cellular proteome. Disruption of this circadian clock/CMA axis may be responsible for both pathways malfunctioning in ageing and for the subsequently pronounced proteostasis defect.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00800-z
  45. Cell Metab. 2021 Dec 07. pii: S1550-4131(21)00538-6. [Epub ahead of print]33(12): 2415-2427.e6
      Metabolic programming is intricately linked to the anti-tumor properties of T cells. To study the metabolic pathways associated with increased anti-tumor T cell function, we utilized a metabolomics approach to characterize three different CD8+ T cell subsets with varying degrees of anti-tumor activity in murine models, of which IL-22-producing Tc22 cells displayed the most robust anti-tumor activity. Tc22s demonstrated upregulation of the pantothenate/coenzyme A (CoA) pathway and a requirement for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for differentiation. Exogenous administration of CoA reprogrammed T cells to increase OXPHOS and adopt the CD8+ Tc22 phenotype independent of polarizing conditions via the transcription factors HIF-1α and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In murine tumor models, treatment of mice with the CoA precursor pantothenate enhanced the efficacy of anti-PDL1 antibody therapy. In patients with melanoma, pre-treatment plasma pantothenic acid levels were positively correlated with the response to anti-PD1 therapy. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pantothenate and its metabolite CoA drive T cell polarization, bioenergetics, and anti-tumor immunity.
    Keywords:  CD8(+) T cells; IL-22; Tc1; Tc17; Tc22; anti-PD1; coenzyme A; immunometabolism; immunotherapy; pantothenate
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.11.010
  46. Cell Rep. 2021 Dec 07. pii: S2211-1247(21)01594-1. [Epub ahead of print]37(10): 110100
      Older age is a strong risk factor for several diseases, including cancer. The etiology and biology of age-associated differences among cancers are poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we aim to delineate differences in tumor molecular characteristics between younger and older patients across a variety of tumor types from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We show that these groups exhibit widespread molecular differences in select tumor types. Our work shows that tumors in younger individuals exhibit a dysregulated molecular aging phenotype and are associated with hallmarks of premature senescence. Additionally, we find that these tumors are enriched for driver gene mutations, resulting in homologous recombination defects. Lastly, we observe a trend toward decreased immune infiltration and function in older patients and find that, immunologically, young tumor tissue resembles aged healthy tissue. Taken together, we find that tumors from young individuals possess unique characteristics that may be leveraged for therapy.
    Keywords:  TCGA; aging; cancer; genomics
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.110100
  47. Nat Biomed Eng. 2021 Dec 06.
      Malignant transformation and tumour progression are associated with cancer-cell softening. Yet how the biomechanics of cancer cells affects T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and thus the outcomes of adoptive T-cell immunotherapies is unknown. Here we show that T-cell-mediated cancer-cell killing is hampered for cortically soft cancer cells, which have plasma membranes enriched in cholesterol, and that cancer-cell stiffening via cholesterol depletion augments T-cell cytotoxicity and enhances the efficacy of adoptive T-cell therapy against solid tumours in mice. We also show that the enhanced cytotoxicity against stiffened cancer cells is mediated by augmented T-cell forces arising from an increased accumulation of filamentous actin at the immunological synapse, and that cancer-cell stiffening has negligible influence on: T-cell-receptor signalling, production of cytolytic proteins such as granzyme B, secretion of interferon gamma and tumour necrosis factor alpha, and Fas-receptor-Fas-ligand interactions. Our findings reveal a mechanical immune checkpoint that could be targeted therapeutically to improve the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-021-00826-6
  48. Nature. 2021 Dec 07.
      Breast cancers are complex ecosystems of malignant cells and tumour microenvironment1. The composition of these tumour ecosystems and interactions within them contribute to cytotoxic therapy response2. Efforts to build response predictors have not incorporated this knowledge. We collected clinical, digital pathology, genomic and transcriptomic profiles of pre-treatment biopsies of breast tumours from 168 patients treated with chemotherapy +/- HER2-targeted therapy prior to surgery. Pathology endpoints (complete response or residual disease) at surgery3 were then correlated with multi-omic features in these diagnostic biopsies. Here we show that response to treatment is modulated by the pre-treated tumour ecosystem, and its multi-omics landscape can be integrated in predictive models using machine learning. The degree of residual disease following therapy is monotonically associated with pre-therapy features, including tumour mutational and copy number landscapes, tumour proliferation, immune infiltration and T-cell dysfunction and exclusion. Combining these features into a multi-omic machine learning model predicted pathological complete response in an external validation cohort (75 patients) with an AUC of 0.87. In conclusion, response to therapy is determined by the baseline characteristics of the totality of the tumour ecosystem captured through data integration and machine learning. This approach could be used to develop predictors for other cancers.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04278-5