bims-camemi Biomed News
on Mitochondrial metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2020‒02‒02
forty-nine papers selected by
Christian Frezza
University of Cambridge, MRC Cancer Unit

  1. BMC Biol. 2020 Jan 27. 18(1): 10
    Joshi A, Dai L, Liu Y, Lee J, Ghahhari NM, Segala G, Beebe K, Jenkins LM, Lyons GC, Bernasconi L, Tsai FTF, Agard DA, Neckers L, Picard D.
      BACKGROUND: The molecular chaperone TRAP1, the mitochondrial isoform of cytosolic HSP90, remains poorly understood with respect to its pivotal role in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism. Most studies have found it to be an inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and an inducer of the Warburg phenotype of cancer cells. However, others have reported the opposite, and there is no consensus on the relevant TRAP1 interactors. This calls for a more comprehensive analysis of the TRAP1 interactome and of how TRAP1 and mitochondrial metabolism mutually affect each other.RESULTS: We show that the disruption of the gene for TRAP1 in a panel of cell lines dysregulates OXPHOS by a metabolic rewiring that induces the anaplerotic utilization of glutamine metabolism to replenish TCA cycle intermediates. Restoration of wild-type levels of OXPHOS requires full-length TRAP1. Whereas the TRAP1 ATPase activity is dispensable for this function, it modulates the interactions of TRAP1 with various mitochondrial proteins. Quantitatively by far, the major interactors of TRAP1 are the mitochondrial chaperones mtHSP70 and HSP60. However, we find that the most stable stoichiometric TRAP1 complex is a TRAP1 tetramer, whose levels change in response to both a decline and an increase in OXPHOS.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our work provides a roadmap for further investigations of how TRAP1 and its interactors such as the ATP synthase regulate cellular energy metabolism. Our results highlight that TRAP1 function in metabolism and cancer cannot be understood without a focus on TRAP1 tetramers as potentially the most relevant functional entity.
    Keywords:  ATP synthase; Glutamine; HSP90; Mitochondria; Molecular chaperone; Oxidative phosphorylation; Proteomics; TRAP1
  2. Mol Cell. 2020 Jan 15. pii: S1097-2765(20)30003-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Weber RA, Yen FS, Nicholson SPV, Alwaseem H, Bayraktar EC, Alam M, Timson RC, La K, Abu-Remaileh M, Molina H, Birsoy K.
      The lysosome is an acidic multi-functional organelle with roles in macromolecular digestion, nutrient sensing, and signaling. However, why cells require acidic lysosomes to proliferate and which nutrients become limiting under lysosomal dysfunction are unclear. To address this, we performed CRISPR-Cas9-based genetic screens and identified cholesterol biosynthesis and iron uptake as essential metabolic pathways when lysosomal pH is altered. While cholesterol synthesis is only necessary, iron is both necessary and sufficient for cell proliferation under lysosomal dysfunction. Remarkably, iron supplementation restores cell proliferation under both pharmacologic and genetic-mediated lysosomal dysfunction. The rescue was independent of metabolic or signaling changes classically associated with increased lysosomal pH, uncoupling lysosomal function from cell proliferation. Finally, our experiments revealed that lysosomal dysfunction dramatically alters mitochondrial metabolism and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling due to iron depletion. Altogether, these findings identify iron homeostasis as the key function of lysosomal acidity for cell proliferation.
    Keywords:  CRISPR; Chelation; Genetic Screens; Iron Depletion; Iron Homeostasis; Iron Sulfur Clusters; Lysosomal Acidity; Lysosomal Dysfunction; Organelle Metabolism; v-ATPase
  3. Genes Dev. 2020 Jan 30.
    Vizioli MG, Liu T, Miller KN, Robertson NA, Gilroy K, Lagnado AB, Perez-Garcia A, Kiourtis C, Dasgupta N, Lei X, Kruger PJ, Nixon C, Clark W, Jurk D, Bird TG, Passos JF, Berger SL, Dou Z, Adams PD.
      Cellular senescence is a potent tumor suppressor mechanism but also contributes to aging and aging-related diseases. Senescence is characterized by a stable cell cycle arrest and a complex proinflammatory secretome, termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We recently discovered that cytoplasmic chromatin fragments (CCFs), extruded from the nucleus of senescent cells, trigger the SASP through activation of the innate immunity cytosolic DNA sensing cGAS-STING pathway. However, the upstream signaling events that instigate CCF formation remain unknown. Here, we show that dysfunctional mitochondria, linked to down-regulation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation genes, trigger a ROS-JNK retrograde signaling pathway that drives CCF formation and hence the SASP. JNK links to 53BP1, a nuclear protein that negatively regulates DNA double-strand break (DSB) end resection and CCF formation. Importantly, we show that low-dose HDAC inhibitors restore expression of most nuclear-encoded mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation genes, improve mitochondrial function, and suppress CCFs and the SASP in senescent cells. In mouse models, HDAC inhibitors also suppress oxidative stress, CCF, inflammation, and tissue damage caused by senescence-inducing irradiation and/or acetaminophen-induced mitochondria dysfunction. Overall, our findings outline an extended mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde signaling pathway that initiates formation of CCF during senescence and is a potential target for drug-based interventions to inhibit the proaging SASP.
    Keywords:  cytoplasmic chromatin; inflammation; mitochondria; senescence
  4. Nat Metab. 2020 Jan;2(1): 41-49
    Ling NXY, Kaczmarek A, Hoque A, Davie E, Ngoei KRW, Morrison KR, Smiles WJ, Forte GM, Wang T, Lie S, Dite TA, Langendorf CG, Scott JW, Oakhill JS, Petersen J.
      Central to cellular metabolism and cell proliferation are highly conserved signalling pathways controlled by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)1,2, dysregulation of which are implicated in pathogenesis of major human diseases such as cancer and type 2 diabetes. AMPK pathways leading to reduced cell proliferation are well established and, in part, act through inhibition of TOR complex-1 (TORC1) activity. Here we demonstrate reciprocal regulation, specifically that TORC1 directly down-regulates AMPK signalling by phosphorylating the evolutionarily conserved residue Ser367 in the fission yeast AMPK catalytic subunit Ssp2, and AMPK α1Ser347/α2Ser345 in the mammalian homologs, which is associated with reduced phosphorylation of activation loop Thr172. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TORC1 signalling led to AMPK activation in the absence of increased AMP:ATP ratios; under nutrient stress conditions this was associated with growth limitation in both yeast and human cell cultures. Our findings reveal fundamental, bi-directional regulation between two major metabolic signalling networks and uncover new opportunity for cancer treatment strategies aimed at suppressing cell proliferation in the nutrient-poor tumor microenvironment.
  5. Oncogene. 2020 Jan 28.
    Chauhan SS, Toth RK, Jensen CC, Casillas AL, Kashatus DF, Warfel NA.
      Resistance to chemotherapy represents a major obstacle to the successful treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The goal of this study was to determine how PIM kinases impact mitochondrial dynamics, ROS production, and response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Live-cell imaging and microscopy were used to determine the effect of PIM loss or inhibition on mitochondrial phenotype and ROS. Inhibition of PIM kinases caused excessive mitochondrial fission and significant upregulation of mitochondrial superoxide, increasing intracellular ROS. Mechanistically, we define a signaling axis linking PIM1 to Drp1 and mitochondrial fission in lung cancer. PIM inhibition significantly increased the protein levels and mitochondrial localization of Drp1, causing marked fragmentation of mitochondria. An inverse correlation between PIM1 and Drp1 was confirmed in NSCLC patient samples. Inhibition of PIM sensitized NSCLC cells to chemotherapy and produced a synergistic antitumor response in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy verified that PIM inhibitors promote mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in vivo. These data improve our knowledge about how PIM1 regulates mitochondria and provide justification for combining PIM inhibition with chemotherapy in NSCLC.
  6. Cell Death Differ. 2020 Jan 27.
    Allen EA, Baehrecke EH.
      Macroautophagy (autophagy) delivers intracellular constituents to the lysosome to promote catabolism. During development in multiple organisms, autophagy mediates various cellular processes, including survival during starvation, programmed cell death, phagocytosis, organelle elimination, and miRNA regulation. Our current understanding of autophagy has been enhanced by developmental biology research during the last quarter of a century. Through experiments that focus on animal development, fundamental mechanisms that control autophagy and that contribute to disease were elucidated. Studies in embryos revealed specific autophagy molecules that mediate the removal of paternally derived mitochondria, and identified autophagy components that clear protein aggregates during development. Importantly, defects in mtDNA inheritance, or removal of paternal mtDNA via mitochondrial autophagy, can contribute to mitochondrial-associated disease. In addition, impairment of the clearance of protein aggregates by autophagy underlies neurodegenerative diseases. Experiments in multiple organisms also reveal conserved mechanisms of tissue remodeling that rely on the cooperation between autophagy and apoptosis to clear cell corpses, and defects in autophagy and apoptotic cell clearance can contribute to inflammation and autoimmunity. Here we provide an overview of key developmental processes that are mediated by autophagy in multiple animals.
  7. Semin Cancer Biol. 2020 Jan 23. pii: S1044-579X(20)30009-2. [Epub ahead of print]
    Liu A, Curran MA.
      Advances in our understanding of tumor immune biology and development of cancer immunotherapies have led to improved outcomes for patients that suffer from aggressive cancers such as metastatic melanoma. Despite these advances, a significant proportion of patients still fail to benefit, and as a result, attention has shifted to understanding how cancer cells escape immune destruction. Of particular interest is the metabolic landscape of the tumor microenvironment, as recent studies have demonstrated how both competition for essential nutrients and depletion of specific amino acids can promote T cell dysfunction. Here, we will discuss the major energetic pathways engaged by both T cells and cancer cells, metabolic substrates present in the tumor microenvironment, and emerging therapeutic strategies that seek to improve T cell metabolic fitness and bolster the antitumor immune response.
    Keywords:  Immunotherapy resistance; T cells; glycolysis; hypoxia; oxidative phosphorylation
  8. Mitochondrion. 2020 Jan 23. pii: S1567-7249(19)30232-6. [Epub ahead of print]
    Duong QV, Hoffman A, Zhong K, Dessinger MJ, Zhang Y, Bazil JN.
      Elevated calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for the bulk of cell death occurring in a variety of clinical settings that include acute coronary events, cerebrovascular accidents, and acute kidney injury. It is commonly believed that calcium and ROS participate in a viscous cycle during these events. However, the precise feedback mechanisms responsible are unknown. In this study, we quantitatively demonstrate that, on the contrary, calcium does not stimulate free radical production but suppresses it. Isolated mitochondria from guinea pig hearts were energized with a variety of substrates and exposed to calcium concentrations designed to induce moderate calcium overload conditions associated with ischemia/reperfusion injury but do not elicit the well-known mitochondrial permeability transition phenomenon. Metabolic function and free radical emission were simultaneously quantified using high-resolution respirometry and fluorimetry. In parallel, membrane potential, high amplitude swelling, and calcium dynamics were also quantified. Our results reveal that calcium overload does not lead to excessive ROS emission but does decrease ADP stimulated respiration rates for NADH-dependent pathways. Moreover, we developed an empirical model of mitochondrial free radical homeostasis to identify the processes that are different for each substrate and calcium condition. In summary, we show that in healthy guinea pig mitochondria, calcium uptake and free radical generation do not contribute to a viscous cycle and that the relationship between net free radical production and oxygen concentration is hyperbolic. Altogether, these results lay out an important foundation necessary to quantitatively determine the role of calcium in IR injury and ROS production.
  9. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2020 Jan 31.
    Yan Y, Ma Z, Zhu J, Zeng M, Liu H, Dong Z.
      Disruption of mitochondrial dynamics is an important pathogenic event in both acute and chronic kidney diseases, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we report the regulation of mitofusin-2 (Mfn2, a key mitochondrial fusion protein) by microRNA-214 (miR-214) in renal ischemia-reperfusion that contributes to mitochondrial fragmentation, renal tubular cell death, and ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI). miR-214 was induced, whereas Mfn2 expression was decreased in mouse ischemic AKI and in cultured renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) following ATP-depletion treatment. Overexpression of miR-214 decreased Mfn2. Conversely, inhibition of miR-214 with anti-miR-214 prevented Mfn2 downregulation in RPTCs following ATP-depletion. Anti-miR-214 further ameliorated mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis, while overexpression of miR-214 increased apoptosis in ATP-depleted RPTCs. To test the regulation in vivo, we established the mouse model with miR-214 specifically deleted from kidney proximal tubular cells (PT-miR-214-/-). Compared with wild type, PT-miR-214-/- mice had less severe tissue damage, fewer apoptotic cells, and better renal function after ischemic AKI. miR-214 induction in ischemic AKI was suppressed in PT-miR-214-/- mice, accompanied by partial preservation of Mfn2 in kidneys. These results unveil the miR-214/Mfn2 axis that contributes to the disruption of mitochondrial dynamics and tubular cell death in ischemic AKI, offering new therapeutic targets.
    Keywords:  ischemia-reperfusion; kidney; microRNA-214; mitochondria; mitofusin
  10. Oncogene. 2020 Jan 31.
    Ran R, Harrison H, Syamimi Ariffin N, Ayub R, Pegg HJ, Deng W, Mastro A, Ottewell PD, Mason SM, Blyth K, Holen I, Shore P.
      Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a dynamic process that drives cancer cell plasticity and is thought to play a major role in metastasis. Here we show, using MDA-MB-231 cells as a model, that the plasticity of at least some metastatic breast cancer cells is dependent on the transcriptional co-regulator CBFβ. We demonstrate that CBFβ is essential to maintain the mesenchymal phenotype of triple-negative breast cancer cells and that CBFβ-depleted cells undergo a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and re-organise into acini-like structures, reminiscent of those formed by epithelial breast cells. We subsequently show, using an inducible CBFβ system, that the MET can be reversed, thus demonstrating the plasticity of CBFβ-mediated EMT. Moreover, the MET can be reversed by expression of the EMT transcription factor Slug whose expression is dependent on CBFβ. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of CBFβ inhibits the ability of metastatic breast cancer cells to invade bone cell cultures and suppresses their ability to form bone metastases in vivo. Together our findings demonstrate that CBFβ can determine the plasticity of the metastatic cancer cell phenotype, suggesting that its regulation in different micro-environments may play a key role in the establishment of metastatic tumours.
  11. J Cell Sci. 2020 Jan 31. pii: jcs.241539. [Epub ahead of print]
    Hijazi I, Knupp J, Chang A.
      One major cause of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is homeostatic imbalance between biosynthetic protein folding and protein folding capacity. Cells utilize mechanisms such as the unfolded protein response (UPR) to cope with ER stress. Nevertheless, when ER stress is prolonged or severe, cell death may occur, accompanied by production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using a yeast model, we describe an innate, adaptive response to ER stress to increase select mitochondrial proteins, O2 consumption, and cell survival. The mitochondrial response allows cells to resist additional ER stress. ER stress-induced mitochondrial response is mediated by activation of retrograde (RTG) signaling to enhance anapleurotic reactions of the TCA cycle. Mitochondrial response to ER stress is accompanied by inactivation of the conserved TORC1 pathway, and activation of Snf1/AMPK, the conserved energy sensor and regulator of metabolism. Our results provide new insight into the role of respiration in cell survival in the face of ER stress, and should help in developing therapeutic strategies to limit cell death in disorders linked to ER stress.
    Keywords:  ER stress; Endoplasmic reticulum; Mitochondria; Yeast
  12. Int J Cancer. 2020 Jan 29.
    Madi A, Cui G.
      In noncancerous tissues, neighboring cells coexist in metabolic harmony. This metabolic harmony is disrupted in cancerous tissues, often accompanied by genetic mutations. Tumor cells fundamentally change the metabolite profiles in the tumor microenvironment to favor their own growth. In this review, we will discuss several examples in which genetic mutations reprogram tumor cell metabolic pathways, leading to the consumption of essential nutrients in the tumor microenvironment, production of toxic byproducts, and suppression of antitumor immune cell metabolic fitness and tumor-killing function. Finally, we will briefly discuss how immune checkpoint blockade overcomes the metabolic suppression of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  T cell metabolism; immunometabolism; oncogenic mutations
  13. Cell Metab. 2020 Jan 17. pii: S1550-4131(20)30001-2. [Epub ahead of print]
    Yurdagul A, Subramanian M, Wang X, Crown SB, Ilkayeva OR, Darville L, Kolluru GK, Rymond CC, Gerlach BD, Zheng Z, Kuriakose G, Kevil CG, Koomen JM, Cleveland JL, Muoio DM, Tabas I.
      Continual efferocytic clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs) by macrophages prevents necrosis and promotes injury resolution. How continual efferocytosis is promoted is not clear. Here, we show that the process is optimized by linking the metabolism of engulfed cargo from initial efferocytic events to subsequent rounds. We found that continual efferocytosis is enhanced by the metabolism of AC-derived arginine and ornithine to putrescine by macrophage arginase 1 (Arg1) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Putrescine augments HuR-mediated stabilization of the mRNA encoding the GTP-exchange factor Dbl, which activates actin-regulating Rac1 to facilitate subsequent rounds of AC internalization. Inhibition of any step along this pathway after first-AC uptake suppresses second-AC internalization, whereas putrescine addition rescues this defect. Mice lacking myeloid Arg1 or ODC have defects in efferocytosis in vivo and in atherosclerosis regression, while treatment with putrescine promotes atherosclerosis resolution. Thus, macrophage metabolism of AC-derived metabolites allows for optimal continual efferocytosis and resolution of injury.
    Keywords:  arginase; arginine; atherosclerosis; atherosclerosis regression; efferocytosis; inflammation resolution; intracellular metabolism; macrophage; polyamines; putrescine
  14. Trends Cell Biol. 2020 Jan 23. pii: S0962-8924(19)30219-3. [Epub ahead of print]
    Ghosh-Choudhary S, Liu J, Finkel T.
      Increasing evidence implicates metabolic pathways as key regulators of cell fate and function. Although the metabolism of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids is essential to maintain overall energy homeostasis, the choice of a given metabolic pathway and the levels of particular substrates and intermediates increasingly appear to modulate specific cellular activities. This connection is likely related to the growing appreciation that molecules such as acetyl-CoA act as a shared currency between metabolic flux and chromatin modification. We review recent evidence for a role of metabolism in modulating cellular function in four distinct contexts. These areas include the immune system, the tumor microenvironment, the fibrotic response, and stem cell function. Together, these examples suggest that metabolic pathways do not simply provide the fuel that powers cellular activities but instead help to shape and determine cellular identity.
  15. Dev Cell. 2020 Jan 27. pii: S1534-5807(19)31067-6. [Epub ahead of print]52(2): 236-250.e7
    Hussein AM, Wang Y, Mathieu J, Margaretha L, Song C, Jones DC, Cavanaugh C, Miklas JW, Mahen E, Showalter MR, Ruzzo WL, Fiehn O, Ware CB, Blau CA, Ruohola-Baker H.
      Regulation of embryonic diapause, dormancy that interrupts the tight connection between developmental stage and time, is still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the transcriptional and metabolite profiles of mouse diapause embryos and identify unique gene expression and metabolic signatures with activated lipolysis, glycolysis, and metabolic pathways regulated by AMPK. Lipolysis is increased due to mTORC2 repression, increasing fatty acids to support cell survival. We further show that starvation in pre-implantation ICM-derived mouse ESCs induces a reversible dormant state, transcriptionally mimicking the in vivo diapause stage. During starvation, Lkb1, an upstream kinase of AMPK, represses mTOR, which induces a reversible glycolytic and epigenetically H4K16Ac-negative, diapause-like state. Diapause furthermore activates expression of glutamine transporters SLC38A1/2. We show by genetic and small molecule inhibitors that glutamine transporters are essential for the H4K16Ac-negative, diapause state. These data suggest that mTORC1/2 inhibition, regulated by amino acid levels, is causal for diapause metabolism and epigenetic state.
    Keywords:  H4K16Ac; LKB1; amino acids; diapause; epigenetics; glutamine transporter; lipolysis; mTOR; metabolism; pluripotent stem cells
  16. Front Oncol. 2019 ;9 1506
    Di Leo L, Bodemeyer V, De Zio D.
      Despite tremendous efforts in the last decade to improve treatments, melanoma still represents a major therapeutic challenge and overall survival of patients remains poor. Therefore, identifying new targets to counteract melanoma is needed. In this scenario, autophagy, the "self-eating" process of the cell, has recently arisen as new potential candidate in melanoma. Alongside its role as a recycling mechanism for dysfunctional and damaged cell components, autophagy also clearly sits at a crossroad with metabolism, thereby orchestrating cell proliferation, bioenergetics and metabolic rewiring, all hallmarks of cancer cells. In this regard, autophagy, both in tumor and host, has been flagged as an essential player in melanomagenesis and progression. To pave the way to a better understanding of such a complex interplay, the use of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), as well as syngeneic mouse models, has been undoubtedly crucial. Herein, we will explore the latest discoveries in the field, with particular focus on the potential of these models in unraveling the contribution of autophagy in melanoma, along with the therapeutic advantages that may arise.
    Keywords:  GEMM; autophagy; melanoma; metabolism; syngeneic mouse model
  17. Nature. 2020 Jan 29.
    Yu K, Lin CJ, Hatcher A, Lozzi B, Kong K, Huang-Hobbs E, Cheng YT, Beechar VB, Zhu W, Zhang Y, Chen F, Mills GB, Mohila CA, Creighton CJ, Noebels JL, Scott KL, Deneen B.
      Glioblastoma is a universally lethal form of brain cancer that exhibits an array of pathophysiological phenotypes, many of which are mediated by interactions with the neuronal microenvironment1,2. Recent studies have shown that increases in neuronal activity have an important role in the proliferation and progression of glioblastoma3,4. Whether there is reciprocal crosstalk between glioblastoma and neurons remains poorly defined, as the mechanisms that underlie how these tumours remodel the neuronal milieu towards increased activity are unknown. Here, using a native mouse model of glioblastoma, we develop a high-throughput in vivo screening platform and discover several driver variants of PIK3CA. We show that tumours driven by these variants have divergent molecular properties that manifest in selective initiation of brain hyperexcitability and remodelling of the synaptic constituency. Furthermore, secreted members of the glypican (GPC) family are selectively expressed in these tumours, and GPC3 drives gliomagenesis and hyperexcitability. Together, our studies illustrate the importance of functionally interrogating diverse tumour phenotypes driven by individual, yet related, variants and reveal how glioblastoma alters the neuronal microenvironment.
  18. Food Chem Toxicol. 2020 Jan 27. pii: S0278-6915(20)30051-X. [Epub ahead of print] 111163
    Park SY, Koh HC.
      Upon mitochondrial stress, PINK1 and Parkin cooperatively mediate a response that removes damaged mitochondria. In addition to the PINK1/Parkin pathway, the FUNDC1, mitophagy receptor regulates mitochondrial clearance. It is not clear whether these systems coordinate to mediate mitophagy in response to stress. Rotenone caused an increase in LC3II expression, and FUNDC1-knocked down cells showed remarkably reduced LC3 expression compared to control cells. In addition, treatment of cells with autophagy flux inhibitor, chloroquine, induced further accumulation of LC3-II, suggesting that mitophagy induced by rotenone is due to involvement of mitochondrial FUNDC1. Rotenone treatment resulted in PINK1 stabilization on the outer mitochondrial membrane and a subsequent increase in recruitment of Parkin from the cytosol to the abnormal mitochondria, as well as physical interaction of PINK1 with Parkin in the mitochondria of rotenone-treated cells. Interestingly, knockdown of FUNDC1 did not alter PINK1/Parkin expression in the mitochondrial fraction of rotenone-treated cells. Our findings indicate that FUNDC1 involves in receptor-mediated mitophagy separately from PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitophagy. Furthermore, inhibiting mitophagy by FUNDC1 or PINK1 knockdown accelerated rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, our findings suggest that rotenone can be induced both receptor-mediated and PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitophagy for mitochondrial clearance, and that mitophagy by removing damaged mitochondria, has cytoprotective effects.
    Keywords:  FUNDC1; Mitochondrial dynamics; Mitophagy; PINK1/Parkin; Rotenone
  19. Hum Mol Genet. 2020 Jan 27. pii: ddaa014. [Epub ahead of print]
    Maresca A, Del Dotto V, Capristo M, Scimonelli E, Tagliavini F, Morandi L, Tropeano CV, Caporali L, Mohamed S, Roberti M, Scandiffio L, Zaffagnini M, Rossi J, Cappelletti M, Musiani F, Contin M, Riva R, Liguori R, Pizza F, La Morgia C, Antelmi E, Polosa PL, Mignot E, Zanna C, Plazzi G, Carelli V.
      ADCA-DN and HSN-IE are rare neurodegenerative syndromes caused by dominant mutations in the replication foci targeting sequence (RFTS) of the DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) gene. Both phenotypes resemble mitochondrial disorders and mitochondrial dysfunction was first observed in ADCA-DN. To explore mitochondrial involvement we studied the effects of DNMT1 mutations in fibroblasts from four ADCA-DN and two HSN-IE patients. We documented impaired activity of purified DNMT1 mutant proteins, which in fibroblasts results in increased DNMT1 amount. We demonstrated that DNMT1 is not localized within mitochondria but it is associated to the mitochondrial outer membrane. Concordantly, mitochondrial DNA failed to show meaningful CpG methylation. Strikingly, we found activated mitobiogenesis and OXPHOS with significant increase of H2O2, sharply contrasting with a reduced ATP content. Metabolomics profiling of mutant cells highlighted purine, arginine/urea cycle and glutamate metabolisms as the most consistently altered pathways, similar to primary mitochondrial diseases. The most severe mutations showed activation of energy shortage AMPK-dependent sensing, leading to mTORC1 inhibition. We propose that DNMT1 RFTS mutations deregulate metabolism lowering ATP levels, as the result of increased purine catabolism and urea cycle pathways. This is associated with a paradoxical mitochondrial hyper-function and increased oxidative stress, possibly resulting in neurodegeneration in non-dividing cells.
  20. Life Sci. 2020 Jan 28. pii: S0024-3205(20)30129-6. [Epub ahead of print] 117382
    Zhao Y, Sun M.
      Our preliminary research revealed that metformin, a classic anti-diabetic drug, could rescue Parkin protein expression and mitophagy in high glucose-challenged human renal epithelial cells in vitro, but the molecular mechanism remains to be explored. In the study, Human Renal Cortical Epithelial Cells (HRCEpiC) and Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells (HRPTEpic) were challenged with high glucose with or without metformin pre-treatment to monitor Parkin mRNA and protein expression level change. PRKN gene knockdown was performed by lentiviral-based shRNA delivery. Cell viability, apoptosis and mitophagy were monitored after treatment. Mitochondrial damage was evaluated by analyzing mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, membrane potential change, mitochondrial superoxide accumulation and cytochrome C release. Protein levels of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), p53 phospho-Ser15, IκBα phosphor-Ser32, IKKα phosphor-Ser176/180 in whole cell lysate and nuclear entry of p50/p65 were assessed by western blot. Okadaic acid was used to inhibit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). The data suggested high glucose challenge significantly reduced PRKN gene expression, mitophagy, mitochondria integrity and cell viability in vitro, which was rescued by metformin co-treatment. The effects of metformin were crippled by PRKN gene knockdown. Metformin increased PRKN gene transcription while reducednuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation but not that of p53 or ATF4. Inhibiting PP2A weakened NF-κB inhibition and PRKN induction by metformin in high glucose-challenged cells, reducing its mitochondrial protective and cytoprotective effect. So, we concluded thatmetformin protects human renal epithelial cells from high glucose-induced apoptosis by restoring Parkin protein expression and mitophagy via PP2A activation and NF-κB inhibition.
    Keywords:  Diabetic nephropathy; Metformin; Mitophagy; NF-κB; PP2A; Parkin
  21. Autophagy. 2020 Jan 26. 1-18
    Puustinen P, Keldsbo A, Corcelle-Termeau E, Ngoei K, Sønder SL, Farkas T, Kaae Andersen K, Oakhill JS, Jäättelä M.
      Macroautophagy/autophagy is a central component of the cytoprotective cellular stress response. To enlighten stress-induced autophagy signaling, we screened a human kinome siRNA library for regulators of autophagic flux in MCF7 human breast carcinoma cells and identified the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase PRKDC/DNA-PKcs as a positive regulator of basal and DNA damage-induced autophagy. Analysis of autophagy-regulating signaling cascades placed PRKDC upstream of the AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) complex and ULK1 kinase. In normal culture conditions, PRKDC interacted with the AMPK complex and phosphorylated its nucleotide-sensing γ1 subunit PRKAG1/AMPKγ1 at Ser192 and Thr284, both events being significantly reduced upon the activation of the AMPK complex. Alanine substitutions of PRKDC phosphorylation sites in PRKAG1 reduced AMPK complex activation without affecting its nucleotide sensing capacity. Instead, the disturbance of PRKDC-mediated phosphorylation of PRKAG1 inhibited the lysosomal localization of the AMPK complex and its starvation-induced association with STK11 (serine/threonine kinase 11). Taken together, our data suggest that PRKDC-mediated phosphorylation of PRKAG1 primes AMPK complex to the lysosomal activation by STK11 in cancer cells thereby linking DNA damage response to autophagy and cellular metabolism.Abbreviations: AXIN1: axin 1; 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; 5-FU: 5-fluorouracil; AA mutant: double alanine mutant (S192A, T284A) of PRKAG1; ACACA: acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha; AICAR: 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ATG: autophagy-related; ATM: ataxia telangiectasia mutated; ATR: ATM serine/threonine kinase; AV: autophagic vacuole; AVd: degradative autophagic vacuole; AVi: initial autophagic vacuole; BECN1: beclin 1; BSA: bovine serum albumin; CBS: cystathionine beta-synthase; CDK7: cyclin dependent kinase 7; CDKN1A: cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A; EGFP: enhanced green fluorescent protein; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GST: glutathione S transferase; H2AX/H2AFX: H2A.X variant histone; HBSS: Hanks balanced salt solution; IP: immunopurification; IR: ionizing radiation; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAP3K9: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 9; mRFP: monomeric red fluorescent protein; mCh: mCherry; MCM7: minichromosome maintenance complex component 7; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; NHEJ: non-homologous end joining; NRBP2: nuclear receptor binding protein 2; NTC: non-targeting control; NUAK1: NUAK family kinase 1; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PIK3AP1: phosphoinositide-3-kinase adaptor protein 1; PIK3CA: phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha; PIKK: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase; PRKAA: protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha; PRKAB: protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit beta; PRKAG: protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit gamma; PRKDC: protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic subunit; RLuc: Renilla luciferase; RPS6KB1: ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STK11/LKB1: serine/threonine kinase 11; TP53: tumor protein p53; TSKS: testis specific serine kinase substrate; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; WIPI2: WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 2; WT: wild type.
    Keywords:  AMPK; PRKDC; autophagy; lysosome; metabolism; signaling
  22. Autophagy. 2020 Jan 26.
    Elswood J, Pearson SJ, Payne HR, Barhoumi R, Rijnkels M, W Porter W.
      Mitochondria operate as a central hub for many metabolic processes by sensing and responding to the cellular environment. Developmental cues from the environment have been implicated in selective autophagy, or mitophagy, of mitochondria during cell differentiation and tissue development. Mitophagy occurring in this context, termed programmed mitophagy, responds to cell state rather than mitochondrial damage and is often accompanied by a metabolic transition. However, little is known about the mechanisms that engage and execute mitophagy under physiological or developmental conditions. As the mammary gland undergoes post-natal development and lactation challenges mitochondrial homeostasis, we investigated the contribution of mitochondria to differentiation of mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Using lactogenic differentiation of the HC11 mouse MEC line, we demonstrated that HC11 cells transition to a highly energetic state during differentiation by engaging both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis. Interestingly, this transition was lost when autophagy was inhibited with bafilomycin A1 or knockdown of Atg7 (autophagy related 7). To evaluate the specific targeting of mitochondria, we traced mitochondrial oxidation and turnover in vitro with the fluorescent probe, pMitoTimer. Indeed, we found that differentiation engaged mitophagy. To further evaluate the requirement of mitophagy during differentiation, we knocked down the expression of Prkn/parkin in HC11 cells. We found that MEC differentiation was impaired in shPrkn cells, implying that PRKN is required for MEC differentiation. These studies suggest novel regulation of MEC differentiation through programmed mitophagy and provide a foundation for future studies of development and disease associated with mitochondrial function in the mammary gland.
    Keywords:  Development; differentiation; mammary gland; mitochondria; mitophagy; parkin
  23. Sci Rep. 2020 Jan 31. 10(1): 1551
    Kahancová A, Sklenář F, Ježek P, Dlasková A.
      We have previously reported that transient knock-down of ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) by siRNA upregulates ATP levels and subsequently augments insulin secretion in model pancreatic β-cells INS-1E. Here we investigated how long-term IF1-overexpression impacts pancreatic β-cell bioenergetics and insulin secretion. We generated INS-1E cell line stably overexpressing native IF1. We revealed that IF1 overexpression leads to a substantial decrease in ATP levels and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. A decrease in total cellular ATP content was also reflected in decreased free ATP cytosolic and mitochondrial levels, as monitored with ATeam biosensor. Consistently, cellular respiration of IF1-overexpressing cells was decreased. 3D structured illumination microscopy (SIM) revealed a higher amount of insulin granules with higher volume in IF1-overexpressing cells. Similar effects occurred when cells were incubated at low glucose concentrations. Noteworthy, activation of PKA by dibutyryl cAMP entirely abolished the inhibitory effect of IF1 overexpression on ATP production and insulin secretion. Mitochondrial network morphology and cristae ultrastructure in INS-1E overexpressing IF1 remained mostly unchanged. Finally, we show that INS-1E cells decrease their IF1 protein levels relative to ATP synthase α-subunit in response to increased glucose. In conclusion, IF1 actively downregulates INS-1E cellular metabolism and reduces their ability to secrete insulin.
  24. Nat Commun. 2020 Jan 27. 11(1): 532
    Satpathy S, Jaehnig EJ, Krug K, Kim BJ, Saltzman AB, Chan DW, Holloway KR, Anurag M, Huang C, Singh P, Gao A, Namai N, Dou Y, Wen B, Vasaikar SV, Mutch D, Watson MA, Ma C, Ademuyiwa FO, Rimawi MF, Schiff R, Hoog J, Jacobs S, Malovannaya A, Hyslop T, Clauser KR, Mani DR, Perou CM, Miles G, Zhang B, Gillette MA, Carr SA, Ellis MJ.
      Cancer proteogenomics promises new insights into cancer biology and treatment efficacy by integrating genomics, transcriptomics and protein profiling including modifications by mass spectrometry (MS). A critical limitation is sample input requirements that exceed many sources of clinically important material. Here we report a proteogenomics approach for core biopsies using tissue-sparing specimen processing and microscaled proteomics. As a demonstration, we analyze core needle biopsies from ERBB2 positive breast cancers before and 48-72 h after initiating neoadjuvant trastuzumab-based chemotherapy. We show greater suppression of ERBB2 protein and both ERBB2 and mTOR target phosphosite levels in cases associated with pathological complete response, and identify potential causes of treatment resistance including the absence of ERBB2 amplification, insufficient ERBB2 activity for therapeutic sensitivity despite ERBB2 amplification, and candidate resistance mechanisms including androgen receptor signaling, mucin overexpression and an inactive immune microenvironment. The clinical utility and discovery potential of proteogenomics at biopsy-scale warrants further investigation.
  25. Cell Death Differ. 2020 Jan 27.
    Lin CC, Mabe NW, Lin YT, Yang WH, Tang X, Hong L, Sun T, Force J, Marks JR, Yao TP, Alvarez JV, Chi JT.
      The molecular and genetic basis of tumor recurrence is complex and poorly understood. RIPK3 is a key effector in programmed necrotic cell death and, therefore, its expression is frequently suppressed in primary tumors. In a transcriptome profiling between primary and recurrent breast tumor cells from a murine model of breast cancer recurrence, we found that RIPK3, while absent in primary tumor cells, is dramatically reexpressed in recurrent breast tumor cells by an epigenetic mechanism. Unexpectedly, we found that RIPK3 knockdown in recurrent tumor cells reduced clonogenic growth, causing cytokinesis failure, p53 stabilization, and repressed the activities of YAP/TAZ. These data uncover a surprising role of the pro-necroptotic RIPK3 kinase in enabling productive cell cycle during tumor recurrence. Remarkably, high RIPK3 expression also rendered recurrent tumor cells exquisitely dependent on extracellular cystine and undergo necroptosis upon cystine deprivation. The induction of RIPK3 in recurrent tumors unravels an unexpected mechanism that paradoxically confers on tumors both growth advantage and necrotic vulnerability, providing potential strategies to eradicate recurrent tumors.
  26. Nat Metab. 2019 Dec;1(12): 1243-1257
    An YA, Crewe C, Asterholm IW, Sun K, Chen S, Zhang F, Shao M, Funcke JB, Zhang Z, Straub L, Klein S, Kusminski CM, Scherer PE.
      Mitochondrial function in white adipose tissue (WAT) is an important yet understudied aspect in adipocyte biology. Here, we report a role for amyloid precursor protein (APP) in compromising WAT mitochondrial function through a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced, unconventional mis-localization to mitochondria that further promotes obesity. In humans and mice, obese conditions significantly induce APP production in WAT and its enrichment in mitochondria. Mechanistically, a HFD-induced dysregulation of signal recognition particle subunit 54c is responsible for the mis-targeting of APP to adipocyte mitochondria. Mis-localized APP blocks the protein import machinery, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in WAT. Adipocyte-specific and mitochondria-targeted APP overexpressing mice display increased body mass and reduced insulin sensitivity, along with dysfunctional WAT due to a dramatic hypertrophic program in adipocytes. Elimination of adipocyte APP rescues HFD-impaired mitochondrial function with significant protection from weight gain and systemic metabolic deficiency. Our data highlights an important role of APP in modulating WAT mitochondrial function and obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction.
  27. Neurochem Res. 2020 Jan 30.
    Robinson MB, Lee ML, DaSilva S.
      In addition to being an amino acid that is incorporated into proteins, glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS, the precursor for the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, and one metabolic step from the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate. Extracellular glutamate is cleared by a family of Na+-dependent transporters. These transporters are variably expressed by all cell types in the nervous system, but the bulk of clearance is into astrocytes. GLT-1 and GLAST (also called EAAT2 and EAAT1) mediate this activity and are extremely abundant proteins with their expression enriched in fine astrocyte processes. In this review, we will focus on three topics related to these astrocytic glutamate transporters. First, these transporters co-transport three Na+ ions and a H+ with each molecule of glutamate and counter-transport one K+; they are also coupled to a Cl- conductance. The movement of Na+ is sufficient to cause profound astrocytic depolarization, and the movement of H+ is linked to astrocytic acidification. In addition, the movement of Na+ can trigger the activation of Na+ co-transporters (e.g. Na+-Ca2+ exchangers). We will describe the ways in which these ionic movements have been linked as signals to brain function and/or metabolism. Second, these transporters co-compartmentalize with mitochondria, potentially providing a mechanism to supply glutamate to mitochondria as a source of fuel for the brain. We will provide an overview of the proteins involved, discuss the evidence that glutamate is oxidized, and then highlight some of the un-resolved issues related to glutamate oxidation. Finally, we will review evidence that ischemic insults (stroke or oxygen/glucose deprivation) cause changes in these astrocytic mitochondria and discuss the ways in which these changes have been linked to glutamate transport, glutamate transport-dependent signaling, and altered glutamate metabolism. We conclude with a broader summary of some of the unresolved issues.
    Keywords:  Astrocyte; Calcium; Glutamate transport; Metabolism; Mitochondria; Sodium
  28. J Biol Chem. 2020 Jan 30. pii: jbc.RA119.011930. [Epub ahead of print]
    Yang H, Xiang S, Kazi A, Sebti SM.
      In human cancer cells that harbor mutant KRAS and WT P53 (P53), KRAS contributes to the maintenance of low P53 levels. Moreover, KRAS depletion stabilizes and reactivates P53 and thereby inhibits malignant transformation. However, the mechanism by which KRAS regulates P53 is largely unknown. Recently, we showed that KRAS depletion leads to P53 Ser-15 phosphorylation (P-P53) and increases the levels of P53 and its target P21/wild-type P53-activated fragment 1 (WAF1)/CIP1. Here, using several human lung cancer cell lines, siRNA-mediated gene silencing, immunoblotting, quantitative RT-PCR, promoter-reporter assays and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, we demonstrate that KRAS maintains low P53 levels by activating the NFE2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-regulated antioxidant defense system. We found that KRAS depletion led to down-regulation of NRF2 and its targets NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) and solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11), decreased reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, and increased ROS levels. We noted that the increase in ROS is required for increased P-P53, P53, and P21/WAF1/CIP1 levels following KRAS depletion. Downstream of KRAS, depletion of RAS-like proto-oncogene B (RALB) and IκB kinase (IKK)-related TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) activated P53 in a ROS- and NRF2-dependent manner. Consistent with this, the IKK inhibitor BAY11-7085 and dominant-negative mutant IκBαM inhibited NFκB activity and increased P-P53, P53, and P21/WAF1/CIP1 levels in a ROS-dependent manner. In conclusion, our findings uncover an important role for the NRF2-regulated antioxidant system in KRAS-mediated P53 suppression.
    Keywords:  GTPase Kras (KRAS); Nuclear factor 2 (erythroid-derived 2-like factor) (NFE2L2) (Nrf2); RalB; TBK1; p53; reactive oxygen species (ROS); redox signaling
  29. Cell Calcium. 2020 Jan 14. pii: S0143-4160(20)30004-X. [Epub ahead of print]86 102162
    Magi S, Piccirillo S, Preziuso A, Amoroso S, Lariccia V.
      It is well established that mitochondria are the main source of ATP production within cells. However, mitochondria have other remarkable functions, serving as important modulators of cellular Ca2+ signaling, and it is now generally recognized that control over Ca2+ homeostasis is intrinsically interwoven with mitochondrial abilities to adjust and tune ATP production. In this review, we describe the mechanisms that mitochondria use to balance Ca2+ homeostasis maintenance and cell energy metabolism. In recent years, the knowledge on the molecular machinery mediating Ca2+ influx/efflux has been improved and, albeit still open to further investigations, several lines of evidence converge on the hypothesis that plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) isoforms are also expressed at the mitochondrial level, where they contribute to the Ca2+ and Na+ homeostasis maintenance. In particular, the connection between mitochondrial NCX activity and metabolic substrates utilization is further discussed here. We also briefly focus on the alterations of both mitochondrial Ca2+ handling and cellular bioenergetics in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Calcium; Glutamate; Mitochondria; Na(+)/Ca(2+)exchange
  30. Nat Commun. 2020 Jan 31. 11(1): 644
    Pradas-Juni M, Hansmeier NR, Link JC, Schmidt E, Larsen BD, Klemm P, Meola N, Topel H, Loureiro R, Dhaouadi I, Kiefer CA, Schwarzer R, Khani S, Oliverio M, Awazawa M, Frommolt P, Heeren J, Scheja L, Heine M, Dieterich C, Büning H, Yang L, Cao H, Jesus DF, Kulkarni RN, Zevnik B, Tröder SE, Knippschild U, Edwards PA, Lee RG, Yamamoto M, Ulitsky I, Fernandez-Rebollo E, Vallim TQA, Kornfeld JW.
      Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are global emergencies and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are regulatory transcripts with elusive functions in metabolism. Here we show that a high fraction of lncRNAs, but not protein-coding mRNAs, are repressed during diet-induced obesity (DIO) and refeeding, whilst nutrient deprivation induced lncRNAs in mouse liver. Similarly, lncRNAs are lost in diabetic humans. LncRNA promoter analyses, global cistrome and gain-of-function analyses confirm that increased MAFG signaling during DIO curbs lncRNA expression. Silencing Mafg in mouse hepatocytes and obese mice elicits a fasting-like gene expression profile, improves glucose metabolism, de-represses lncRNAs and impairs mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation. We find that obesity-repressed LincIRS2 is controlled by MAFG and observe that genetic and RNAi-mediated LincIRS2 loss causes elevated blood glucose, insulin resistance and aberrant glucose output in lean mice. Taken together, we identify a MAFG-lncRNA axis controlling hepatic glucose metabolism in health and metabolic disease.
  31. Annu Rev Immunol. 2020 Jan 27.
    Ryan DG, O'Neill LAJ.
      A striking change has happened in the field of immunology whereby specific metabolic processes have been shown to be a critical determinant of immune cell activation. Multiple immune receptor types rewire metabolic pathways as a key part of how they promote effector functions. Perhaps surprisingly for immunologists, the Krebs cycle has emerged as the central immunometabolic hub of the macrophage. During proinflammatory macrophage activation, there is an accumulation of the Krebs cycle intermediates succinate and citrate, and the Krebs cycle-derived metabolite itaconate. These metabolites have distinct nonmetabolic signaling roles that influence inflammatory gene expression. A key bioenergetic target for the Krebs cycle, the electron transport chain, also becomes altered, generating reactive oxygen species from Complexes I and III. Similarly, alternatively activated macrophages require α-ketoglutarate-dependent epigenetic reprogramming to elicit anti-inflammatory gene expression. In this review, we discuss these advances and speculate on the possibility of targeting these events therapeutically for inflammatory diseases. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology, Volume 38 is April 26, 2020. Please see for revised estimates.
  32. Immunol Rev. 2020 Jan 27.
    Weyand CM, Goronzy JJ.
      In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), breakdown of self-tolerance and onset of clinical disease are separated in time and space, supporting a multi-hit model in which emergence of autoreactive T cells is a pinnacle pathogenic event. Determining factors in T cell differentiation and survival include antigen recognition, but also the metabolic machinery that provides energy and biosynthetic molecules for cell building. Studies in patients with RA have yielded a disease-specific metabolic signature, which enables naive CD4 T cells to differentiate into pro-inflammatory helper T cells that are prone to invade into tissue and elicit inflammation through immunogenic cell death. A typifying property of RA CD4 T cells is the shunting of glucose away from glycolytic breakdown and mitochondrial processing toward the pentose phosphate pathway, favoring anabolic over catabolic reactions. Key defects have been localized to the mitochondria and the lysosome; including instability of mitochondrial DNA due to the lack of the DNA repair nuclease MRE11A and inefficient lysosomal tethering of AMPK due to deficiency of N-myristoyltransferase 1 (NMT1). The molecular taxonomy of the metabolically reprogrammed RA T cells includes glycolytic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphofructokinase), DNA repair molecules (MRE11A, ATM), regulators of protein trafficking (NMT1), and the membrane adapter protein TSK5. As the mechanisms determining abnormal T cell behavior in RA are unraveled, opportunities will emerge to interject autoimmune T cells by targeting their metabolic checkpoints.
    Keywords:  DNA damage; DNA repair; T cell; autoimmunity; cell cycle; glycolysis; macrophage; mitochondria; myristoylation; protein trafficking; rheumatoid arthritis; telomere
  33. Nat Commun. 2020 Jan 28. 11(1): 550
    Koga T, Chaim IA, Benitez JA, Markmiller S, Parisian AD, Hevner RF, Turner KM, Hessenauer FM, D'Antonio M, Nguyen ND, Saberi S, Ma J, Miki S, Boyer AD, Ravits J, Frazer KA, Bafna V, Chen CC, Mischel PS, Yeo GW, Furnari FB.
      Many cellular models aimed at elucidating cancer biology do not recapitulate pathobiology including tumor heterogeneity, an inherent feature of cancer that underlies treatment resistance. Here we introduce a cancer modeling paradigm using genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that captures authentic cancer pathobiology. Orthotopic engraftment of the neural progenitor cells derived from hiPSCs that have been genome-edited to contain tumor-associated genetic driver mutations revealed by The Cancer Genome Atlas project for glioblastoma (GBM) results in formation of high-grade gliomas. Similar to patient-derived GBM, these models harbor inter-tumor heterogeneity resembling different GBM molecular subtypes, intra-tumor heterogeneity, and extrachromosomal DNA amplification. Re-engraftment of these primary tumor neurospheres generates secondary tumors with features characteristic of patient samples and present mutation-dependent patterns of tumor evolution. These cancer avatar models provide a platform for comprehensive longitudinal assessment of human tumor development as governed by molecular subtype mutations and lineage-restricted differentiation.
  34. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2020 Jan 28.
    Smolková K, Mikó E, Kovács T, Leguina-Ruzzi A, Adrienn S, Bai P.
      SIGNIFICANCE: Nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NFE2)-related factor 2 (Nfe2l2, or NRF2) is a transcription factor predominantly affecting the expression of antioxidant genes. NRF2 plays a significant role in the control of redox balance, which is crucial in cancer cells. NRF2 activation regulates numerous cancer hallmarks, including metabolism, cancer stem cell characteristics, tumor aggressiveness, invasion, and metastasis formation. We review the molecular characteristics of the NRF2 pathway and discuss its interactions with the cancer hallmarks previously listed. Recent advances: The non-canonical activation of NRF2 was recently discovered and members of this pathway are involved in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, cancer-related changes (e.g. metabolic flexibility) that support cancer progression were found to be redox- and NRF2-dependent.CRITICAL ISSUES: NRF2 undergoes Janus-faced behavior in cancers. The pro or antineoplastic effects of NRF2 are context-dependent and essentially based on the specific molecular characteristics of the cancer in question. Therefore, systematic investigation of NRF2 signaling is necessary to clarify its role in cancer etiology. The biggest challenge in the NRF2 field is to determine which cancers can be targeted for better clinical outcomes. Furthermore, large-scale genomic and transcriptomic studies are missing to correlate the clinical outcome with the activity of the NRF2 system.
    FUTURE DIRECTIONS: To exploit NRF2 in a clinical setting in the future, the druggable members of the NRF2 pathway should be identified. In addition, it will be important to study how the modulation of the NRF2 system interferes with cytostatic drugs and their combinations.
  35. Mol Biol Cell. 2020 Jan 29. mbcE19100588
    Rianna C, Radmacher M, Kumar S.
      The mechanical properties of cells strongly regulate many physiological and pathological processes. For example, in cancer, invasive and metastatic tumor cells have often been reported to be softer than non-tumor cells, raising speculation that cancer cells might adaptively soften to facilitate migration through narrow tissue spaces. Despite growing interest in targeting cell softening to impede invasion and metastasis, it remains to be directly demonstrated that tumor cells soften as they migrate through confined spaces. Here, we address this open question by combining topographically patterned substrates with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) open-roof microdevice featuring tapered, fibronectin-coated channels, we followed migration of U2OS cells through various stages of confinement while simultaneously performing AFM indentation. As cells progress from unconfined migration to fully confined migration, cells soften and exclude YAP from the nucleus. Superresolution imaging reveals that confinement induces remodeling of actomyosin stress fiber architecture. Companion studies with flat 1D microlines indicate that the changes in cytoarchitecture and mechanics are intrinsically driven by topographical confinement rather than changes in cellular aspect ratio. Our studies represent among the most direct evidence to date that tumor cells soften during confined migration and support cell softening as a mechanoadaptive mechanism during invasion. [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text].
  36. Hum Genet. 2020 Jan 29.
    Reynolds JC, Bwiza CP, Lee C.
      Our cells operate based on two distinct genomes that are enclosed in the nucleus and mitochondria. The mitochondrial genome presumably originates from endosymbiotic bacteria. With time, a large portion of the original genes in the bacterial genome is considered to have been lost or transferred to the nuclear genome, leaving a reduced 16.5 Kb circular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Traditionally only 37 genes, including 13 proteins, were thought to be encoded within mtDNA, its genetic repertoire is expanding with the identification of mitochondrial-derived peptides (MDPs). The biology of aging has been largely unveiled to be regulated by genes that are encoded in the nuclear genome, whereas the mitochondrial genome remained more cryptic. However, recent studies position mitochondria and mtDNA as an important counterpart to the nuclear genome, whereby the two organelles constantly regulate each other. Thus, the genomic network that regulates lifespan and/or healthspan is likely constituted by two unique, yet co-evolved, genomes. Here, we will discuss aspects of mitochondrial biology, especially mitochondrial communication that may add substantial momentum to aging research by accounting for both mitonuclear genomes to more comprehensively and inclusively map the genetic and molecular networks that govern aging and age-related diseases.
  37. Mol Cell. 2020 Jan 20. pii: S1097-2765(19)30956-6. [Epub ahead of print]
    Yamasaki A, Alam JM, Noshiro D, Hirata E, Fujioka Y, Suzuki K, Ohsumi Y, Noda NN.
      Clearance of biomolecular condensates by selective autophagy is thought to play a crucial role in cellular homeostasis. However, the mechanism underlying selective autophagy of condensates and whether liquidity determines a condensate's susceptibility to degradation by autophagy remain unknown. Here, we show that the selective autophagic cargo aminopeptidase I (Ape1) undergoes phase separation to form semi-liquid droplets. The Ape1-specific receptor protein Atg19 localizes to the surface of Ape1 droplets both in vitro and in vivo, with the "floatability" of Atg19 preventing its penetration into droplets. In vitro reconstitution experiments reveal that Atg19 and lipidated Atg8 are necessary and sufficient for selective sequestration of Ape1 droplets by membranes. This sequestration is impaired by mutational solidification of Ape1 droplets or diminished ability of Atg19 to float. Taken together, we propose that cargo liquidity and the presence of sufficient amounts of autophagic receptor on cargo are crucial for selective autophagy of biomolecular condensates.
    Keywords:  Cvt pathway; autophagic receptor; autophagy; biomolecular condensates; floatability; liquidity; phase separation; selective autophagy
  38. Nat Commun. 2020 Jan 29. 11(1): 578
    Kong J, Ji Y, Jeon YG, Han JS, Han KH, Lee JH, Lee G, Jang H, Choe SS, Baes M, Kim JB.
      Lipid droplets (LDs) are key subcellular organelles for regulating lipid metabolism. Although several subcellular organelles participate in lipid metabolism, it remains elusive whether physical contacts between subcellular organelles and LDs might be involved in lipolysis upon nutritional deprivation. Here, we demonstrate that peroxisomes and peroxisomal protein PEX5 mediate fasting-induced lipolysis by stimulating adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) translocation onto LDs. During fasting, physical contacts between peroxisomes and LDs are increased by KIFC3-dependent movement of peroxisomes toward LDs, which facilitates spatial translocations of ATGL onto LDs. In addition, PEX5 could escort ATGL to contact points between peroxisomes and LDs in the presence of fasting cues. Moreover, in adipocyte-specific PEX5-knockout mice, the recruitment of ATGL onto LDs was defective and fasting-induced lipolysis is attenuated. Collectively, these data suggest that physical contacts between peroxisomes and LDs are required for spatiotemporal translocation of ATGL, which is escorted by PEX5 upon fasting, to maintain energy homeostasis.
  39. Matrix Biol. 2020 Jan 23. pii: S0945-053X(20)30001-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    Nam H, Kundu A, Brinkley GJ, Chandrashekar DS, Kirkman RL, Chakravarthi BVSK, Orlandella RM, Norian LA, Sonpavde G, Ghatalia P, Fei F, Wei S, Varambally S, Sudarshan S.
      The transcriptional events that promote invasive and metastatic phenotypes in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain poorly understood. Here we report that the decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α) and the increased expression of several genes encoding collagen family members are associated with RCC tumor progression. PGC1α restoration attenuates invasive phenotypes and suppresses tumor progression in vivo. In contrast, collagens produced by RCC cells promote invasive and migratory phenotypes. PGC1α restoration suppresses the expression of collagens and tumor phenotypes via the induction of miR-29a. Furthermore, decreased collagens via the PGC1α/miR-29a axis suppresses collagen-mediated activation of discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1)/ERK signaling. In turn, the suppression of collagen/DDR1 signaling by PGC1α leads to decreased levels of the known EMT regulators SNAIL1 and 2. Collectively, our results demonstrate a novel role for PGC1α in the regulation of proinvasive SNAIL proteins.
  40. Cancer Cell. 2020 Jan 13. pii: S1535-6108(19)30582-3. [Epub ahead of print]
    Cheung EC, DeNicola GM, Nixon C, Blyth K, Labuschagne CF, Tuveson DA, Vousden KH.
      The TIGAR protein has antioxidant activity that supports intestinal tissue repair and adenoma development. Using a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) model, we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation by TIGAR supports premalignant tumor initiation while restricting metastasis. Increased ROS in PDAC cells drives a phenotypic switch that increases migration, invasion, and metastatic capacity. This switch is dependent on increased activation of MAPK signaling and can be reverted by antioxidant treatment. In mouse and human, TIGAR expression is modulated during PDAC development, with higher TIGAR levels in premalignant lesions and lower TIGAR levels in metastasizing tumors. Our study indicates that temporal, dynamic control of ROS underpins full malignant progression and helps to rationalize conflicting reports of pro- and anti-tumor effects of antioxidant treatment.
    Keywords:  ERK; PDAC; ROS regulation; TIGAR; metastasis
  41. Neurochem Res. 2020 Jan 27.
    Vicente-Gutiérrez C, Jiménez-Blasco D, Quintana-Cabrera R.
      Metabolism and redox signalling share critical nodes in the nervous system. In the last years, a series of major findings have challenged the current vision on how neural reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced and handled in the nervous system. Once regarded as deleterious by-products, ROS are now shown to be essential for a metabolic and redox crosstalk. In turn, this coupling defines neural viability and function to control behaviour or leading to neurodegeneration when compromised. Findings like a different assembly of mitochondrial respiratory supercomplexes in neurons and astrocytes stands behind a divergent production of ROS in either cell type, more prominent in astrocytes. ROS levels are however tightly controlled by an antioxidant machinery in astrocytes, assumed as more efficient than that of neurons, to regulate redox signalling. By exerting this control in ROS abundance, metabolic functions are finely tuned in both neural cells. Further, a higher engagement of mitochondrial respiration and oxidative function in neurons, underpinned by redox equivalents supplied from the pentose phosphate pathway and from glia, differs from the otherwise strong glycolytic capacity of astrocytes. Here, we recapitulate major findings on how ROS and metabolism differ between neural cells but merge to define reciprocal signalling pathways, ultimately defining neural function and fate.
    Keywords:  Astrocyte; Metabolism; Mitochondria; Neurodegeneration; Neuron; Oxidative stress
  42. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Jan 28. pii: 201921035. [Epub ahead of print]
    Bernardi P.
  43. Front Oncol. 2019 ;9 1480
    Chiu M, Taurino G, Bianchi MG, Kilberg MS, Bussolati O.
      Asparagine Synthetase (ASNS) catalyzes the synthesis of the non-essential amino acid asparagine (Asn) from aspartate (Asp) and glutamine (Gln). ASNS expression is highly regulated at the transcriptional level, being induced by both the Amino Acid Response (AAR) and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) pathways. Lack of ASNS protein expression is a hallmark of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) blasts, which, therefore, are auxotrophic for Asn. This peculiarity is the rationale for the use of bacterial L-Asparaginase (ASNase) for ALL therapy, the first example of anti-cancer treatment targeting a tumor-specific metabolic feature. Other hematological and solid cancers express low levels of ASNS and, therefore, should also be Asn auxotrophs and ASNase sensitive. Conversely, in the last few years, several reports indicate that in some cancer types ASNS is overexpressed, promoting cell proliferation, chemoresistance, and a metastatic behavior. However, enhanced ASNS activity may constitute a metabolic vulnerability in selected cancer models, suggesting a variable and tumor-specific role of the enzyme in cancer. Recent evidence indicates that, beyond its canonical role in protein synthesis, Asn may have additional regulatory functions. These observations prompt a re-appreciation of ASNS activity in the biology of normal and cancer tissues, with particular attention to the fueling of Asn exchange between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment.
    Keywords:  acute lymphoblastic leukemia; asparagine; asparagine synthetase; cancer; glutamine
  44. Elife. 2020 Jan 30. pii: e53243. [Epub ahead of print]9
    Johnson MC, Kollman JM.
      Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) mediates the first committed step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis and plays important roles in cellular proliferation and the immune response. IMPDH reversibly polymerizes in cells and tissues in response to changes in metabolic demand. Self-assembly of metabolic enzymes is increasingly recognized as a general mechanism for regulating activity, typically by stabilizing specific conformations of an enzyme, but the regulatory role of IMPDH filaments has remained unclear. Here, we report a series of human IMPDH2 cryo-EM structures in both active and inactive conformations. The structures define the mechanism of filament assembly, and reveal how filament-dependent allosteric regulation of IMPDH2 makes the enzyme less sensitive to feedback inhibition, explaining why assembly occurs under physiological conditions that require expansion of guanine nucleotide pools. Tuning sensitivity to an allosteric inhibitor distinguishes IMPDH from other metabolic filaments, and highlights the diversity of regulatory outcomes that can emerge from self-assembly.
    Keywords:  E. coli; human; molecular biophysics; structural biology
  45. Cell Metab. 2020 Jan 28. pii: S1550-4131(20)30004-8. [Epub ahead of print]
  46. BMC Med. 2020 Jan 31. 18(1): 18
    Moore SC.
    Keywords:  Breast cancer; Lipid; Metabolism; Metabolomics; Reproducibility
  47. JCI Insight. 2020 Jan 30. pii: 127801. [Epub ahead of print]5(2):
    Asosingh K, Lauruschkat CD, Alemagno M, Frimel M, Wanner N, Weiss K, Kessler S, Meyers DA, Bennett C, Xu W, Erzurum S.
      Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase-2 (ARG2) share a common substrate, arginine. Higher expression of iNOS and exhaled NO are linked to airway inflammation in patients. iNOS deletion in animal models suggests that eosinophilic inflammation is regulated by arginine metabolism. Moreover, ARG2 is a regulator of Th2 response, as shown by the development of severe eosinophilic inflammation in ARG2-/- mice. However, potential synergistic roles of iNOS and ARG2 in asthma have not been explored. Here, we hypothesized that arginine metabolic fate via iNOS and ARG2 may govern airway inflammation. In an asthma cohort, ARG2 variant genotypes were associated with arginase activity. ARG2 variants with lower arginase activity, combined with levels of exhaled NO, identified a severe asthma phenotype. Airway inflammation was present in WT, ARG2-/-, iNOS-/-, and ARG2-/-/iNOS-/- mice but was greatest in ARG2-/-. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic infiltration in the ARG2-/- mice was abrogated in ARG2-/-/iNOS-/- animals. Similarly, angiogenic airway remodeling was greatest in ARG2-/- mice. Cytokines driving inflammation and remodeling were highest in lungs of asthmatic ARG2-/- mice and lowest in the iNOS-/-. ARG2 metabolism of arginine suppresses inflammation, while iNOS metabolism promotes airway inflammation, supporting a central role for arginine metabolic control of inflammation.
    Keywords:  Amino acid metabolism; Asthma; Inflammation; Metabolism; Nitric oxide
  48. Sci Rep. 2020 Jan 30. 10(1): 1538
    Jo H, Lee J, Jeon J, Kim SY, Chung JI, Ko HY, Lee M, Yun M.
      Imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is used to determine sites of abnormal glucose metabolism to predict high tumor grade, metastasis, and poor patient survival. However, not all tumors with increased 18F-FDG uptake show aggressive tumor biology, as evident from the moderate correlation between metastasis and high FDG uptake. We hypothesized that metastasis is likely attributable to the complexity and heterogeneity of the cancer microenvironment. To identify the cancer microenvironment that induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, tumor areas of patients with HCC were analyzed by immunostaining. Our data demonstrated the induction of EMT process in HCC cells with low proliferation under hypoxic conditions. To validate our finding, among HCC cell lines, HepG2 cells with highly increased expression of HIF1α under hypoxia were employed in vitro and in vivo. Major changes in EMT-associated protein expression, such as the up-regulation of N-cadherin and snail/slug are associated with decreased proliferation-related protein (PCNA) caused by glucose deprivation under hypoxia. Indeed, PCNA knockdown-HepG2 cells under hypoxia showed the induction of more EMT process compare to the control. Thus, HCC cells with low proliferative potential under glucose-deprived and hypoxic conditions show high probability for induced EMT process and promote cell invasion. This study investigates reasons as to why an EMT process cannot fully be predicted. Our observations indicate that rather than analyzing a single factor, an integrated analysis of hypoxia with low glucose metabolism and low cell proliferation might be helpful to predict the potential impact on induction of EMT process and promotion of cell invasion.