bims-camemi Biomed News
on Mitochondrial metabolism in cancer
Issue of 2019‒12‒08
fifty-four papers selected by
Christian Frezza
University of Cambridge, MRC Cancer Unit

  1. Cell Rep. 2019 Dec 03. pii: S2211-1247(19)31478-0. [Epub ahead of print]29(10): 3009-3018.e4
    Khan H, Anshu A, Prasad A, Roy S, Jeffery J, Kittipongdaja W, Yang DT, Schieke SM.
      Metabolic flexibility allows cells to adapt to various environments and limits the efficacy of metabolic drugs. Therapeutic targeting of cancer metabolism relies on defining limiting requirements and vulnerabilities in the highly dynamic metabolic network. Here, we characterize the metabolic reprogramming and identify cancer-specific metabolic vulnerabilities in response to the pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial complex I. Our work reveals the adaptation mechanism in malignant lymphocytes providing resistance against the biguanides phenformin and metformin by transcriptionally reprogramming glucose metabolism. Metabolic adaptation to complex I inhibition is mediated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) serving as a mitochondrial stress signal activating hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a). Inhibition of the mROS/HIF-1a axis through antioxidants or direct suppression of HIF-1a selectively disrupts metabolic adaptation and survival during complex I dysfunction in malignant lymphocytes. Our results identify HIF-1a signaling as a critical factor in resistance against biguanide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, allowing selective targeting of metabolic pathways in leukemia and lymphoma.
    Keywords:  HIF-1a; biguanides; lymphoid malignancies; metabolic flexibility; mitochondria
  2. Sci Rep. 2019 Dec 05. 9(1): 18409
    Sourbier C, Ricketts CJ, Liao PJ, Matsumoto S, Wei D, Lang M, Railkar R, Yang Y, Wei MH, Agarwal P, Krishna M, Mitchell JB, Trepel JB, Neckers L, Linehan WM.
      Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is characterized by germline mutations of the FH gene that encodes for the TCA cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase. HLRCC patients are at risk for the development of an aggressive form of type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma. By studying the mechanism of action of marizomib, a proteasome inhibitor able to cross the blood-brain barrier, we found that it modulates the metabolism of HLRCC cells. Marizomib decreased glycolysis in vitro and in vivo by downregulating p62 and c-Myc. C-Myc downregulation decreased the expression of lactate dehydrogenase A, the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. In addition, proteasomal inhibition lowered the expression of the glutaminases GLS and GLS2, which support glutamine metabolism and the maintenance of the redox balance. Thus, in HLRCC cells, proteasome inhibition disrupts glucose and glutamine metabolism, restricting nutrients and lowering the cells' anti-oxidant response capacity. Although the cytotoxicity induced by proteasome inhibitors is complex, the understanding of their metabolic effects in HLRCC may lead to the development of effective therapeutic strategies or to the development of markers of efficacy.
  3. Aging Cell. 2019 Dec 02. e13067
    Callender LA, Carroll EC, Bober EA, Akbar AN, Solito E, Henson SM.
      The susceptibility of human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to senesce differs, with CD8+ T cells acquiring an immunosenescent phenotype faster than the CD4+ T cell compartment. We show here that it is the inherent difference in mitochondrial content that drives this phenotype, with senescent human CD4+ T cells displaying a higher mitochondrial mass. The loss of mitochondria in the senescent human CD8+ T cells has knock-on consequences for nutrient usage, metabolism and function. Senescent CD4+ T cells uptake more lipid and glucose than their CD8+ counterparts, leading to a greater metabolic versatility engaging either an oxidative or a glycolytic metabolism. The enhanced metabolic advantage of senescent CD4+ T cells allows for more proliferation and migration than observed in the senescent CD8+ subset. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to both cellular senescence and aging; however, it is still unclear whether mitochondria play a causal role in senescence. Our data show that reducing mitochondrial function in human CD4+ T cells, through the addition of low-dose rotenone, causes the generation of a CD4+ T cell with a CD8+ -like phenotype. Therefore, we wish to propose that it is the inherent metabolic stability that governs the susceptibility to an immunosenescent phenotype.
    Keywords:  T cell; aging; metabolism; mitochondria; senescence
  4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019 Nov 28. pii: S0006-291X(19)32258-2. [Epub ahead of print]
    Yoshida T, Yamasaki S, Kaneko O, Taoka N, Tomimoto Y, Namatame I, Yahata T, Kuromitsu S, Cantley LC, Lyssiotis CA.
      Metabolic programs are rewired in cancer cells to support survival and tumor growth. Among these, recent studies have demonstrated that glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1) plays key roles in maintaining redox homeostasis and proliferation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDA). This suggests that small molecule inhibitors of GOT1 could have utility for the treatment of PDA. However, the development of GOT1 inhibitors has been challenging, and no compound has yet demonstrated selectivity for GOT1-dependent cell metabolism or selective growth inhibition of PDA cell lines. In contrast, potent inhibitors that covalently bind to the transaminase cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), within the active site of the enzyme, have been reported for kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) and gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT). Given the drug discovery successes with these transaminases, we aimed to identify PLP-dependent suicide substrate-type GOT1 inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate that PF-04859989, a known KAT2 inhibitor, has PLP-dependent inhibitory activity against GOT1 and shows selective growth inhibition of PDA cell lines.
    Keywords:  Aminotransferase; GOT1; Metabolism; PLP; Pancreatic cancer; Transaminase
  5. J Biochem. 2019 Dec 04. pii: mvz106. [Epub ahead of print]
    Murata D, Arai K, Iijima M, Sesaki H.
      The mitochondrion is an essential organelle for a wide range of cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, signal transduction and cell death. To execute these functions, mitochondria regulate their size, number, morphology and distribution in cells via mitochondrial division and fusion. In addition, mitochondrial division and fusion control the autophagic degradation of dysfunctional mitochondria to maintain a healthy population. Defects in these dynamic membrane processes are linked to many human diseases that include metabolic syndrome, myopathy and neurodegenerative disorders. In the last several years, our fundamental understanding of mitochondrial fusion, division and degradation has been significantly advanced by high resolution structural analyses, protein-lipid biochemistry, super resolution microscopy and in vivo analyses using animal models. Here, we summarize and discuss this exciting recent progress in the mechanisms and function of mitochondrial division and fusion.
    Keywords:  Actin; Dynamin-related GTPase; ER-mitochondria contact; Lipids; Mitochondrial DNA; Mitophagy; NASH
  6. Biogerontology. 2019 Dec 04.
    Whitehall JC, Greaves LC.
      Alterations in mitochondrial metabolism have been described as one of the major hallmarks of both ageing cells and cancer. Age is the biggest risk factor for the development of a significant number of cancer types and this therefore raises the question of whether there is a link between age-related mitochondrial dysfunction and the advantageous changes in mitochondrial metabolism prevalent in cancer cells. A common underlying feature of both ageing and cancer cells is the presence of somatic mutations of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) which we postulate may drive compensatory alterations in mitochondrial metabolism that are advantageous for tumour growth. In this review, we discuss basic mitochondrial functions, mechanisms of mtDNA mutagenesis and their metabolic consequences, and review the evidence for and against a role for mtDNA mutations in cancer development.
    Keywords:  Ageing; Cancer; Metabolism; Mitochondria; mtDNA mutations
  7. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Dec 03.
    McGarrah RW, Zhang GF, Christopher BA, Deleye Y, Walejko JM, Page S, Ilkayeva OR, White PJ, Newgard CB.
      Elevations in circulating levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are associated with a variety of cardiometabolic diseases and conditions. Restriction of dietary BCAA in rodent models of obesity lowers circulating BCAA levels and improves whole animal and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and lipid homeostasis, but the impact of BCAA supply on heart metabolism has not been studied. Here we report that feeding a BCAA-restricted chow diet to Zucker fatty rats (ZFR) causes a shift in cardiac fuel metabolism that favors fatty acid relative to glucose catabolism. This is illustrated by an increase in labeling of acetyl CoA from [1-13C]palmitate and a decrease in labeling of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA from [U-13C]glucose, accompanied by a decrease in cardiac hexokinase II and GLUT4 protein levels. Metabolomic profiling of heart tissue supports these findings by demonstrating an increase in levels of a host of fatty acid-derived metabolites in hearts from ZFR and Zucker lean rats (ZLR) fed the BCAA-restricted diet. In addition, the two-fold increase in cardiac triglyceride stores in ZFR compared to ZLR fed on chow diet is eliminated in ZFR fed on the BCAA-restricted diet. Finally, the enzymatic activity of branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) is not influenced by BCAA restriction, and levels of BCAA in heart instead reflect their levels in circulation. In summary, reducing BCAA supply in obesity improves cardiac metabolic health by a mechanism independent of alterations in BCKDH activity.
    Keywords:  Branched chain amino acids; Heart metabolism; Obesity; Zucker fatty rat; cardio metabolic diseases
  8. Mol Genet Metab. 2019 Nov 21. pii: S1096-7192(19)30671-7. [Epub ahead of print]
    Farah BL, Yen PM, Koeberl DD.
      The glycogen storage diseases are a group of inherited metabolic disorders that are characterized by specific enzymatic defects involving the synthesis or degradation of glycogen. Each disorder presents with a set of symptoms that are due to the underlying enzyme deficiency and the particular tissues that are affected. Autophagy is a process by which cells degrade and recycle unneeded or damaged intracellular components such as lipids, glycogen, and damaged mitochondria. Recent studies showed that several of the glycogen storage disorders have abnormal autophagy which can disturb normal cellular metabolism and/or mitochondrial function. Here, we provide a clinical overview of the glycogen storage disorders, a brief description of autophagy, and the known links between specific glycogen storage disorders and autophagy.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Cori disease; Glycogen Storage Disease (GSD); Glycogenosis; Lafora disease; Metabolism; Pompe disease; Signaling; von Gierke disease
  9. Cell Discov. 2019 ;5 62
    Palaskas NJ, Garcia JD, Shirazi R, Shin DS, Puig-Saus C, Braas D, Ribas A, Graeber TG.
      Metabolic obstacles of the tumor microenvironment remain a challenge to T-cell-mediated cancer immunotherapies. To better understand the interplay of immune checkpoint signaling and immune metabolism, this study developed and used an optimized metabolite extraction protocol for non-adherent primary human T-cells, to broadly profile in vitro metabolic changes effected by PD-1 signaling by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and isotopomer analysis. Inhibitory signaling reduced aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis. A general scarcity across the panel of metabolites measured supported widespread metabolic regulation by PD-1. Glucose carbon fate analysis supported tricarboxylic acid cycle reliance on pyruvate carboxylation, catabolic-state fluxes into acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA, and a block in de novo nucleoside phosphate synthesis that was accompanied by reduced mTORC1 signaling. Nonetheless, exogenous administration of nucleosides was not sufficient to ameliorate proliferation of T-cells in the context of multiple metabolic insufficiencies due to PD-L1 treatment. Carbon fate analysis did not support the use of primarily glucose-derived carbons to fuel fatty acid beta oxidation, in contrast to reports on T-memory cells. These findings add to our understanding of metabolic dysregulation by PD-1 signaling and inform the effort to rationally develop metabolic interventions coupled with immune-checkpoint blockade for increased treatment efficacy.
    Keywords:  Cancer microenvironment; DNA metabolism; Metabolomics; RNA metabolism; Tumour immunology
  10. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2019 Dec 02.
    Cable J, Finley L, Tu BP, Patti GJ, Oliver TG, Vardhana S, Mana M, Ericksen R, Khare S, DeBerardinis R, Stockwell BR, Edinger A, Haigis M, Kaelin W.
      Tumor cells have devised unique metabolic strategies to garner enough nutrients to sustain continuous growth and cell division. Oncogenic mutations may alter metabolic pathways to unlock new sources of energy, and cells take the advantage of various scavenging pathways to ingest material from their environment. These changes in metabolism result in a metabolic profile that, in addition to providing the building blocks for macromolecules, can also influence cell signaling pathways to promote tumor initiation and progression. Understanding what pathways tumor cells use to synthesize the materials necessary to support metabolic growth can pave the way for new cancer therapeutics. Potential strategies include depriving tumors of the materials needed to grow or targeting pathways involved in dependencies that arise by virtue of their altered metabolis.
    Keywords:  cancer; cell signaling; ferroptosis; metabolism; micropinocytosis
  11. Curr Biol. 2019 Nov 19. pii: S0960-9822(19)31432-0. [Epub ahead of print]
    Chiang AC, McCartney E, O'Farrell PH, Ma H.
      A mutant mitochondrial genome arising amid the pool of mitochondrial genomes within a cell must compete with existing genomes to survive to the next generation. Even weak selective forces can bias transmission of one genome over another to affect the inheritance of mitochondrial diseases and guide the evolution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Studies in several systems suggested that purifying selection in the female germline reduces transmission of detrimental mitochondrial mutations [1-7]. In contrast, some selfish genomes can take over despite a cost to host fitness [8-13]. Within individuals, the outcome of competition is therefore influenced by multiple selective forces. The nuclear genome, which encodes most proteins within mitochondria, and all external regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics can influence the competition between mitochondrial genomes [14-18], yet little is known about how this works. Previously, we established a Drosophila line transmitting two mitochondrial genomes in a stable ratio enforced by purifying selection benefiting one genome and a selfish advantage favoring the other [8]. Here, to find nuclear genes that impact mtDNA competition, we screened heterozygous deletions tiling ∼70% of the euchromatic regions and examined their influence on this ratio. This genome-wide screen detected many nuclear modifiers of this ratio and identified one as the catalytic subunit of mtDNA polymerase gene (POLG), tam. A reduced dose of tam drove elimination of defective mitochondrial genomes. This study suggests that our approach will uncover targets for interventions that would block propagation of pathogenic mitochondrial mutations.
    Keywords:  mito-nuclear interaction; mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy; mtDNA competition; mtDNA polymerase gamma; mtDNA transmission and inheritance
  12. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019 Dec 02. pii: S0006-291X(19)32312-5. [Epub ahead of print]
    Isono Y, Furuya M, Kuwahara T, Sano D, Suzuki K, Jikuya R, Mitome T, Otake S, Kawahara T, Ito Y, Muraoka K, Nakaigawa N, Kimura Y, Baba M, Nagahama K, Takahata H, Saito I, Schmidt LS, Linehan WM, Kodama T, Yao M, Oridate N, Hasumi H.
      FLCN is a tumor suppressor gene which controls energy homeostasis through regulation of a variety of metabolic pathways including mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and autophagy. Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome which is driven by germline alteration of the FLCN gene, predisposes patients to develop kidney cancer, cutaneous fibrofolliculomas, pulmonary cysts and less frequently, salivary gland tumors. Here, we report metabolic roles for FLCN in the salivary gland as well as their clinical relevance. Screening of salivary glands of BHD patients using ultrasonography demonstrated increased cyst formation in the salivary gland. Salivary gland tumors that developed in BHD patients exhibited an upregulated mTOR-S6R pathway as well as increased GPNMB expression, which are characteristics of FLCN-deficient cells. Salivary gland-targeted Flcn knockout mice developed cytoplasmic clear cell formation in ductal cells with increased mitochondrial biogenesis, upregulated mTOR-S6K pathway, upregulated TFE3-GPNMB axis and upregulated lipid metabolism. Proteomic and metabolite analysis using LC/MS and GC/MS revealed that Flcn inactivation in salivary gland triggers metabolic reprogramming towards the pentose phosphate pathway which consequently upregulates nucleotide synthesis and redox regulation, further supporting that Flcn controls metabolic homeostasis in salivary gland. These data uncover important roles for FLCN in salivary gland; metabolic reprogramming under FLCN deficiency might increase nucleotide production which may feed FLCN-deficient salivary gland cells to trigger tumor initiation and progression, providing mechanistic insight into salivary gland tumorigenesis as well as a foundation for development of novel therapeutics for salivary gland tumors.
    Keywords:  Birt-hogg-dubé (BHD) syndrome; FLCN; Mitochondria; Salivary gland tumor; mTOR-TFE3 pathway
  13. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Jan 20. 375(1790): 20190179
    Elbassiouny AA, Lovejoy NR, Chang BSW.
      The ability to generate and detect electric fields has evolved in several groups of fishes as a means of communication, navigation and, occasionally, predation. The energetic burden required can account for up to 20% of electric fishes' daily energy expenditure. Despite this, molecular adaptations that enable electric fishes to meet the metabolic demands of bioelectrogenesis remain unknown. Here, we investigate the molecular evolution of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in the two most diverse clades of weakly electric fishes-South American Gymnotiformes and African Mormyroidea, using codon-based likelihood approaches. Our analyses reveal that although mitochondrial OXPHOS genes are generally subject to strong purifying selection, this constraint is significantly reduced in electric compared to non-electric fishes, particularly for complexes IV and V. Moreover, analyses of concatenated mitochondrial genes show strong evidence for positive selection in complex I genes on the two branches associated with the independent evolutionary origins of electrogenesis. These results suggest that adaptive evolution of proton translocation in the OXPHOS cellular machinery may be associated with the evolution of bioelectrogenesis. Overall, we find striking evidence for remarkably similar effects of electrogenesis on the molecular evolution of mitochondrial OXPHOS genes in two independently derived clades of electrogenic fishes. This article is part of the theme issue 'Linking the mitochondrial genotype to phenotype: a complex endeavour'.
    Keywords:  bioelectrogenesis; convergent evolution; electric organ; electrosensory; metabolism
  14. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Jan 20. 375(1790): 20190178
    Nagarajan-Radha V, Aitkenhead I, Clancy DJ, Chown SL, Dowling DK.
      Evolutionary theory proposes that maternal inheritance of mitochondria will facilitate the accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations that are harmful to males but benign or beneficial to females. Furthermore, mtDNA haplotypes sampled from across a given species distribution are expected to differ in the number and identity of these 'male-harming' mutations they accumulate. Consequently, it is predicted that the genetic variation which delineates distinct mtDNA haplotypes of a given species should confer larger phenotypic effects on males than females (reflecting mtDNA mutations that are male-harming, but female-benign), or sexually antagonistic effects (reflecting mutations that are male-harming, but female-benefitting). These predictions have received support from recent work examining mitochondrial haplotypic effects on adult life-history traits in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we explore whether similar signatures of male-bias or sexual antagonism extend to a key physiological trait-metabolic rate. We measured the effects of mitochondrial haplotypes on the amount of carbon dioxide produced by individual flies, controlling for mass and activity, across 13 strains of D. melanogaster that differed only in their mtDNA haplotype. The effects of mtDNA haplotype on metabolic rate were larger in males than females. Furthermore, we observed a negative intersexual correlation across the haplotypes for metabolic rate. Finally, we uncovered a male-specific negative correlation, across haplotypes, between metabolic rate and longevity. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that maternal mitochondrial inheritance has led to the accumulation of a sex-specific genetic load within the mitochondrial genome, which affects metabolic rate and that may have consequences for the evolution of sex differences in life history. This article is part of the theme issue 'Linking the mitochondrial genotype to phenotype: a complex endeavour'.
    Keywords:  mitochondrial DNA; pleiotropy; rate of living; sex specific selective sieve; sexual conflict; sexually antagonistic selection
  15. Trends Biochem Sci. 2019 Nov 28. pii: S0968-0004(19)30229-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Ruprecht JJ, Kunji ERS.
      Members of the mitochondrial carrier family (SLC25) provide the transport steps for amino acids, carboxylic acids, fatty acids, cofactors, inorganic ions, and nucleotides across the mitochondrial inner membrane and are crucial for many cellular processes. Here, we use new insights into the transport mechanism of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier to examine the structure and function of other mitochondrial carriers. They all have a single substrate-binding site and two gates, which are present on either side of the membrane and involve salt-bridge networks. Transport is likely to occur by a common mechanism, in which the coordinated movement of six structural elements leads to the alternating opening and closing of the matrix or cytoplasmic side of the carriers.
    Keywords:  adenine nucleotide translocase; energetics; mitochondrial transport; salt-bridge networks; transport mechanism; uncoupling protein
  16. Front Oncol. 2019 ;9 1201
    Han S, Wei R, Zhang X, Jiang N, Fan M, Huang JH, Xie B, Zhang L, Miao W, Butler AC, Coleman MA, Vaughan AT, Wang Y, Chen HW, Liu J, Li JJ.
      Tumor cells, including cancer stem cells (CSCs) resistant to radio- and chemotherapy, must enhance metabolism to meet the extra energy demands to repair and survive such genotoxic conditions. However, such stress-induced adaptive metabolic alterations, especially in cancer cells that survive radiotherapy, remain unresolved. In this study, we found that CPT1 (Carnitine palmitoyl transferase I) and CPT2 (Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II), a pair of rate-limiting enzymes for mitochondrial fatty acid transportation, play a critical role in increasing fatty acid oxidation (FAO) required for the cellular fuel demands in radioresistant breast cancer cells (RBCs) and radiation-derived breast cancer stem cells (RD-BCSCs). Enhanced CPT1A/CPT2 expression was detected in the recurrent human breast cancers and associated with a worse prognosis in breast cancer patients. Blocking FAO via a FAO inhibitor or by CRISPR-mediated CPT1A/CPT2 gene deficiency inhibited radiation-induced ERK activation and aggressive growth and radioresistance of RBCs and RD-BCSCs. These results revealed that switching to FAO contributes to radiation-induced mitochondrial energy metabolism, and CPT1A/CPT2 is a potential metabolic target in cancer radiotherapy.
    Keywords:  CPT1A/CPT2; FAO; breast cancer; breast cancer stem cells; metabolism; radioresistance
  17. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Jan 20. 375(1790): 20190176
    Knorre DA.
      Eukaryotic cells can harbour mitochondria with markedly different transmembrane potentials. Intracellular mitochondrial quality-control mechanisms (e.g. mitophagy) rely on this intracellular variation to distinguish functional and damaged (depolarized) mitochondria. Given that intracellular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic variation can induce mitochondrial heterogeneity, mitophagy could remove deleterious mtDNA variants in cells. However, the reliance of mitophagy on the mitochondrial transmembrane potential suggests that mtDNAs with deleterious mutations in ATP synthase can evade the control. This evasion is possible because inhibition of ATP synthase can increase the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Moreover, the linkage of the mtDNA genotype to individual mitochondrial performance is expected to be weak owing to intracellular mitochondrial intercomplementation. Nonetheless, I reason that intracellular mtDNA quality control is possible and crucial at the zygote stage of the life cycle. Indeed, species with biparental mtDNA inheritance or frequent 'leakage' of paternal mtDNA can be vulnerable to invasion of selfish mtDNAs at the stage of gamete fusion. Here, I critically review recent findings on intracellular mtDNA quality control by mitophagy and discuss other mechanisms by which the nuclear genome can affect the competition of mtDNA variants in the cell. This article is part of the theme issue 'Linking the mitochondrial genotype to phenotype: a complex endeavour'.
    Keywords:  epistasis; heterogeneity; heteroplasmy; mtDNA; selection; zygote
  18. Front Plant Sci. 2019 ;10 1479
    Furukawa K, Innokentev A, Kanki T.
      Mitochondria produce the majority of ATP required by cells via oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, regulation of mitochondrial quality and quantity is important for maintaining cellular activities. Mitophagy, the selective degradation of mitochondria, is thought to contribute to control of mitochondrial quality and quantity. In recent years, the molecular mechanism of mitophagy has been extensively studied in yeast and mammalian cells. In particular, identification of the mitophagy receptor Atg32 has contributed to substantial progress in understanding of mitophagy in yeast. This review summarizes the molecular mechanism of mitophagy in yeast and compares it to the mechanism of mitophagy in mammals. We also discuss the current understanding of mitophagy in plants.
    Keywords:  Atg32; CK2; Far complex; Ppg1; mitochondria; mitophagy; yeast
  19. Elife. 2019 Dec 03. pii: e51031. [Epub ahead of print]8
    Yambire KF, Rostosky C, Watanabe T, Pacheu-Grau D, Torres-Odio S, Sanchez-Guerrero A, Senderovich O, Meyron-Holtz EG, Milosevic I, Frahm J, West AP, Raimundo N.
      Lysosomal acidification is a key feature of healthy cells. Inability to maintain lysosomal acidic pH is associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms elicited by impaired lysosomal acidification remain poorly understood. We show here that inhibition of lysosomal acidification triggers cellular iron deficiency, which results in impaired mitochondrial function and non-apoptotic cell death. These effects are recovered by supplying iron via a lysosome-independent pathway. Notably, iron deficiency is sufficient to trigger inflammatory signaling in cultured primary neurons. Using a mouse model of impaired lysosomal acidification, we observed a robust iron deficiency response in the brain, verified by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, the brains of these mice present a pervasive inflammatory signature associated with instability of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), both corrected by supplementation of the mice diet with iron. Our results highlight a novel mechanism linking impaired lysosomal acidification, mitochondrial malfunction and inflammation in vivo.
    Keywords:  cell biology; human; human biology; medicine; mouse
  20. Eur J Cell Biol. 2019 Nov 15. pii: S0171-9335(19)30141-4. [Epub ahead of print] 151057
    Moosavi B, Zhu XL, Yang WC, Yang GF.
      Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), also named as complex II or succinate:quinone oxidoreductases (SQR) is a critical enzyme in bioenergetics and metabolism. This is because the enzyme is located at the intersection of oxidative phosphorylation and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA); the two major pathways involved in generating energy within cells. SDH is composed of 4 subunits and is assembled through a multi-step process with the aid of assembly factors. Not surprisingly malfunction of this enzyme has marked repercussions in metabolism leading to devastating tumors such as paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma. It is already known that mutations in the genes encoding subunits lead to tumorigenesis, but recent discoveries have indicated that mutations in the genes encoding the assembly factors also contribute to tumorigenesis. The mechanisms of pathogenesis of tumorigenesis have not been fully understood. However, a multitude of signaling pathways including succinate signaling was determined. We, here discuss how defective SDH may lead to tumor development at the molecular level and describe how yeast, as a model system, has contributed to understanding the molecular pathogenesis of tumorigenesis resulting from defective SDH.
    Keywords:  Hereditary paraganglioma; Mitochondria; Pheochromocytoma; ROS; Signaling; Succinate dehydrogenase
  21. Sci Adv. 2019 Nov;5(11): eaaw7215
    Gao J, Qin A, Liu D, Ruan R, Wang Q, Yuan J, Cheng TS, Filipovska A, Papadimitriou JM, Dai K, Jiang Q, Gao X, Feng JQ, Takayanagi H, Zhang C, Zheng MH.
      Mitochondrial transfer plays a crucial role in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and resistance to cancer chemotherapy. Osteocytes have interconnecting dendritic networks and are a model to investigate its mechanism. We have demonstrated, in primary murine osteocytes with photoactivatable mitochondria (PhAM)floxed and in MLO-Y4 cells, mitochondrial transfer in the dendritic networks visualized by high-resolution confocal imaging. Normal osteocytes transferred mitochondria to adjacent metabolically stressed osteocytes and restored their metabolic function. The coordinated movement and transfer of mitochondria within the dendritic network rely on contact between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), a GTPase that tethers ER to mitochondria, predominantly mediates the transfer. A decline in Mfn2 expression with age occurs concomitantly with both impaired mitochondrial distribution and transfer in the osteocyte dendritic network. These data show a previously unknown function of ER-mitochondrial contact in mediating mitochondrial transfer and provide a mechanism to explain the homeostasis of osteocytes.
  22. Nat Commun. 2019 Dec 06. 10(1): 5604
    Luengo A, Abbott KL, Davidson SM, Hosios AM, Faubert B, Chan SH, Freinkman E, Zacharias LG, Mathews TP, Clish CB, DeBerardinis RJ, Lewis CA, Vander Heiden MG.
      Increased glucose uptake and metabolism is a prominent phenotype of most cancers, but efforts to clinically target this metabolic alteration have been challenging. Here, we present evidence that lactoylglutathione (LGSH), a byproduct of methylglyoxal detoxification, is elevated in both human and murine non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Methylglyoxal is a reactive metabolite byproduct of glycolysis that reacts non-enzymatically with nucleophiles in cells, including basic amino acids, and reduces cellular fitness. Detoxification of methylglyoxal requires reduced glutathione (GSH), which accumulates to high levels in NSCLC relative to normal lung. Ablation of the methylglyoxal detoxification enzyme glyoxalase I (Glo1) potentiates methylglyoxal sensitivity and reduces tumor growth in mice, arguing that targeting pathways involved in detoxification of reactive metabolites is an approach to exploit the consequences of increased glucose metabolism in cancer.
  23. Cell Rep. 2019 Dec 03. pii: S2211-1247(19)31463-9. [Epub ahead of print]29(10): 3280-3292.e7
    Wall CE, Rose CM, Adrian M, Zeng YJ, Kirkpatrick DS, Bingol B.
      Dysregulation of mitophagy, whereby damaged mitochondria are labeled for degradation by the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin with phosphorylated ubiquitin chains (p-S65 ubiquitin), may contribute to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Here, we identify a phosphatase antagonistic to PINK1, protein phosphatase with EF-hand domain 2 (PPEF2), that can dephosphorylate ubiquitin and suppress PINK1-dependent mitophagy. Knockdown of PPEF2 amplifies the accumulation of p-S65 ubiquitin in cells and enhances baseline mitophagy in dissociated cortical cultures. Overexpressing enzymatically active PPEF2 reduces the p-S65 ubiquitin signal in cells, and partially purified PPEF2 can dephosphorylate recombinant p-S65 ubiquitin chains in vitro. Using a mass spectrometry approach, we have identified several p-S65-ubiquitinated proteins following mitochondrial damage that are inversely regulated by PPEF2 and PINK1. Interestingly, many of these proteins are involved in nuclear processes such as DNA repair. Collectively, PPEF2 functions to suppress mitochondrial quality control on a cellular level through dephosphorylation of p-S65 ubiquitin.
    Keywords:  PINK1; PPEF2; Parkin; Parkinson’s disease; mitochondria; mitophagy; ubiquitin
  24. Nat Commun. 2019 Dec 05. 10(1): 5566
    Cheng A, Zhang P, Wang B, Yang D, Duan X, Jiang Y, Xu T, Jiang Y, Shi J, Ding C, Wu G, Sang Z, Wu Q, Wang H, Wu M, Zhang Z, Pan X, Pan YY, Gao P, Zhang H, Zhou CZ, Guo J, Yang Z.
      Overexpressed Aurora-A kinase promotes tumor growth through various pathways, but whether Aurora-A is also involved in metabolic reprogramming-mediated cancer progression remains unknown. Here, we report that Aurora-A directly interacts with and phosphorylates lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB), a subunit of the tetrameric enzyme LDH that catalyzes the interconversion between pyruvate and lactate. Aurora-A-mediated phosphorylation of LDHB serine 162 significantly increases its activity in reducing pyruvate to lactate, which efficiently promotes NAD+ regeneration, glycolytic flux, lactate production and bio-synthesis with glycolytic intermediates. Mechanistically, LDHB serine 162 phosphorylation relieves its substrate inhibition effect by pyruvate, resulting in remarkable elevation in the conversions of pyruvate and NADH to lactate and NAD+. Blocking S162 phosphorylation by expression of a LDHB-S162A mutant inhibited glycolysis and tumor growth in cancer cells and xenograft models. This study uncovers a function of Aurora-A in glycolytic modulation and a mechanism through which LDHB directly contributes to the Warburg effect.
  25. Cell Rep. 2019 Dec 03. pii: S2211-1247(19)31450-0. [Epub ahead of print]29(10): 3331-3348.e7
    Stein BD, Calzolari D, Hellberg K, Hu YS, He L, Hung CM, Toyama EQ, Ross DS, Lillemeier BF, Cantley LC, Yates JR, Shaw RJ.
      Metformin is the front-line treatment for type 2 diabetes worldwide. It acts via effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in metabolic tissues, leading to enhanced insulin sensitivity. Despite significant effort, the molecular basis for metformin response remains poorly understood, with a limited number of specific biochemical pathways studied to date. To broaden our understanding of hepatic metformin response, we combine phospho-protein enrichment in tissue from genetically engineered mice with a quantitative proteomics platform to enable the discovery and quantification of basophilic kinase substrates in vivo. We define proteins whose binding to 14-3-3 are acutely regulated by metformin treatment and/or loss of the serine/threonine kinase, LKB1. Inducible binding of 250 proteins following metformin treatment is observed, 44% of which proteins bind in a manner requiring LKB1. Beyond AMPK, metformin activates protein kinase D and MAPKAPK2 in an LKB1-independent manner, revealing additional kinases that may mediate aspects of metformin response. Deeper analysis uncovered substrates of AMPK in endocytosis and calcium homeostasis.
    Keywords:  AMPK3; LKB1; PKD1; STIM1; aging; calcium; diabetes; kinases; liver; metformin
  26. Eur J Cell Biol. 2019 Nov 15. pii: S0171-9335(19)30142-6. [Epub ahead of print] 151058
    Wang H, Liu C, Zhao Y, Gao G.
      Ferroptosis is recognized as a new form of regulated cell death which is initiated by severe lipid peroxidation relying on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and iron overload. This iron-dependent cell death manifests evident morphological, biochemical and genetic differences from other forms of regulated cell death, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis and pyroptosis. Ferroptosis was primarily characterized by condensed mitochondrial membrane densities and smaller volume than normal mitochondria, as well as the diminished or vanished of mitochondria crista and outer membrane ruptured. Mitochondria take the center role in iron metabolism, as well as substance and energy metabolism as it's the major organelle in iron utilization, catabolic and anabolic pathways. Interference of key regulators of mitochondrial lipid metabolism (e.g., ASCF2 and CS), iron homeostasis (e.g., ferritin, mitoferrin1/2 and NEET proteins), glutamine metabolism and other signaling pathways make a difference to ferroptotic sensitivity. Targeted induction of ferroptosis was also considered as a potential therapeutic strategy to some oxidative stress diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia-reperfusion injury, traumatic spinal cord injury. However, the pertinence between mitochondria and ferroptosis is still in dispute. Here we systematic elucidate the morphological characteristics and metabolic regulation of mitochondria in the regulation of ferroptosis.
    Keywords:  Ferroptosis; Iron; Lipid peroxidation; Mitochondria
  27. Mol Neurobiol. 2019 Dec 06.
    Dolinko AH, Chwa M, Atilano SR, Kenney MC.
      Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common cause of blindness for individuals under the age of 65. This loss of vision can be due to ischemia, neovascularization, and/or diabetic macular edema, which are caused by breakdown of the blood-retina barrier at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and inner retinal vasculature. The prevalence of diabetes and its complications differ between Caucasian-Americans and certain minority populations, such as African-Americans and Asian-Americans. Individuals can be classified by their mitochondrial haplogroups, which are collections of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) representing ancient geographic origins of populations. In this study, we compared the responses of diabetic human RPE cybrids, cell lines containing identical nuclei but mitochondria from either European (maternal European) or maternal African or Asian individuals, to hypoxia and high glucose levels. The African and Asian diabetic ([Afr+Asi]/DM) cybrids showed (1) resistance to both hyperglycemic and hypoxic stresses; (2) downregulation of pro-apoptotic indicator BAX; (3) upregulation of DNA methylation genes, such as DNMT3A and DNMT3B; and (4) resistance to DNA demethylation by the methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) compared to European diabetic (Euro/DM) cybrids. Our findings suggest that mitochondria from African and Asian diabetic subjects possess a "metabolic memory" that confers resistance against hyperglycemia, hypoxia, and demethylation, and that this "metabolic memory" can be transferred into the RPE cybrid cell lines in vitro.
    Keywords:  African and Asian mitochondrial DNA haplogroups; Cybrid cell model; Diabetic retinopathy (DR); Hyperglycemic and hypoxic stresses; Retinal pigment epithelial cells
  28. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Jan 20. 375(1790): 20190173
    Schaack S, Ho EKH, Macrae F.
      Understanding and quantifying the rates of change in the mitochondrial genome is a major component of many areas of biological inquiry, from phylogenetics to human health. A critical parameter in understanding rates of change is estimating the mitochondrial mutation rate (mtDNA MR). Although the first direct estimates of mtDNA MRs were reported almost 20 years ago, the number of estimates has not grown markedly since that time. This is largely owing to the challenges associated with time- and labour-intensive mutation accumulation (MA) experiments. But even MA experiments do not solve a major problem with estimating mtDNA MRs-the challenge of disentangling the role of mutation from other evolutionary forces acting within the cell. Now that it is widely understood that any newly generated mutant allele in the mitochondria will initially be at very low frequency (1/N, where N is the number of mtDNA molecules in the cell), the importance of understanding the effective population size (Ne) of the mtDNA and the size of genetic bottlenecks during gametogenesis and development has come into the spotlight. In addition to these factors regulating the role of genetic drift, advances in our understanding of mitochondrial replication and turnover allow us to more easily envision how natural selection within the cell might favour or purge mutations in multi-copy organellar genomes. Here, we review the unique features of the mitochondrial genome that pose a challenge for accurate MR estimation and discuss ways to overcome those challenges. Estimates of mtDNA MRs remain one of the most widely used parameters in biology, thus accurate quantification and a deeper understanding of how and why they may vary within and between individuals, populations and species is an important goal. This article is part of the theme issue 'Linking the mitochondrial genotype to phenotype: a complex endeavour'.
    Keywords:  effective population size; genetic bottleneck; heteroplasmy; mtDNA; mutation accumulation; mutation rate
  29. PLoS Biol. 2019 Dec 04. 17(12): e3000535
    Hipolito VEB, Diaz JA, Tandoc KV, Oertlin C, Ristau J, Chauhan N, Saric A, Mclaughlan S, Larsson O, Topisirovic I, Botelho RJ.
      The mechanisms that govern organelle adaptation and remodelling remain poorly defined. The endo-lysosomal system degrades cargo from various routes, including endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy. For phagocytes, endosomes and lysosomes (endo-lysosomes) are kingpin organelles because they are essential to kill pathogens and process and present antigens. During phagocyte activation, endo-lysosomes undergo a morphological transformation, going from a collection of dozens of globular structures to a tubular network in a process that requires the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-AKT-mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway. Here, we show that the endo-lysosomal system undergoes an expansion in volume and holding capacity during phagocyte activation within 2 h of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation. Endo-lysosomal expansion was paralleled by an increase in lysosomal protein levels, but this was unexpectedly largely independent of the transcription factor EB (TFEB) and transcription factor E3 (TFE3), which are known to scale up lysosome biogenesis. Instead, we demonstrate a hitherto unappreciated mechanism of acute organelle expansion via mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent increase in translation, which appears to be mediated by both S6Ks and 4E-BPs. Moreover, we show that stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line with LPS alters translation of a subset but not all of mRNAs encoding endo-lysosomal proteins, thereby suggesting that endo-lysosome expansion is accompanied by functional remodelling. Importantly, mTORC1-dependent increase in translation activity was necessary for efficient and rapid antigen presentation by dendritic cells. Collectively, we identified a previously unknown and functionally relevant mechanism for endo-lysosome expansion that relies on mTORC1-dependent translation to stimulate endo-lysosome biogenesis in response to an infection signal.
  30. Front Mol Biosci. 2019 ;6 128
    Sun D, Wei Y, Zheng HX, Jin L, Wang J.
      Mitochondria are the main producers of energy in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations (haplogroups), and these variations can contribute to human disease. East Asian populations show enrichment of many mitochondrial haplogroups, including A, B, D, G, M7, M8, M9, N9, R9, and exhibit half of the known haplogroups of worldwide. In this review, we summarize the current research in the field of mtDNA variation and associated disease in East Asian populations and discuss the physiological and pathological relevance of mitochondrial biology. mtDNA haplogroups are associated with various metabolic disorders ascribed to altered oxidative phosphorylation. The same mitochondrial haplogroup can show either a negative or positive association with different diseases. Mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy, and mitochondrial oxidative stress, ultimately influence susceptibility to various diseases. In addition, mitochondrial retrograde signaling pathways may have profound effects on nuclear-mitochondrial interactions, affecting cellular morphology, and function. Other complex networks including proteostasis, mitochondrial unfolded protein response and reactive oxygen species signaling may also play pivotal roles in metabolic performance.
    Keywords:  East Asian; chronic disease; haplogroup; mitochondrial DNA; variation
  31. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2019 Nov 27.
    Issaq SH, Heske CM.
      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In an attempt to identify potential new therapeutic targets, efforts to describe the metabolic features unique to cancer cells are increasingly being reported. Although current standard of care regimens for several pediatric malignancies incorporate agents that target tumor metabolism, these drugs have been part of the therapeutic landscape for decades. More recent research has focused on the identification and targeting of new metabolic vulnerabilities in pediatric cancers. The purpose of this review is to describe the most recent translational findings in the metabolic targeting of pediatric malignancies.RECENT FINDINGS: Across multiple pediatric cancer types, dependencies on a number of key metabolic pathways have emerged through study of patient tissue samples and preclinical modeling. Among the potentially targetable vulnerabilities are glucose metabolism via glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid and polyamine metabolism, and NAD metabolism. Although few agents have yet to move forward into clinical trials for pediatric cancer patients, the robust and promising preclinical data that have been generated suggest that future clinical trials should rationally test metabolically targeted agents for relevant disease populations.
    SUMMARY: Recent advances in our understanding of the metabolic dependencies of pediatric cancers represent a source of potential new therapeutic opportunities for these diseases.
  32. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Jan 20. 375(1790): 20190187
    Klucnika A, Ma H.
      The animal mitochondrial genome, although small, can have a big impact on health and disease. Non-pathogenic sequence variation among mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes influences traits including fertility, healthspan and lifespan, whereas pathogenic mutations are linked to incurable mitochondrial diseases and other complex conditions like ageing, diabetes, cancer and neurodegeneration. However, we know very little about how mtDNA genetic variation contributes to phenotypic differences. Infrequent recombination, the multicopy nature and nucleic acid-impenetrable membranes present significant challenges that hamper our ability to precisely map mtDNA variants responsible for traits, and to genetically modify mtDNA so that we can isolate specific mutants and characterize their biochemical and physiological consequences. Here, we summarize the past struggles and efforts in developing systems to map and edit mtDNA. We also assess the future of performing forward and reverse genetic studies on animal mitochondrial genomes. This article is part of the theme issue 'Linking the mitochondrial genotype to phenotype: a complex endeavour'.
    Keywords:  genetic engineering; genotype to phenotype; linkage mapping; mitochondrial DNA
  33. Biomed Opt Express. 2019 Nov 01. 10(11): 5852-5861
    Miyazaki J, Toumon Y.
      The dynamic activities of mitochondria and lysosomes, which play important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis, were observed without labeling by using highly sensitive photothermal (PT) microscopy. This imaging modality allows for the direct observation of cellular organelles that contain endogenous chromophores, with high temporal and spatial resolution. We identified mitochondria and lysosomes inside living mammalian cells via simultaneous dual-color imaging. Moreover, dynamic imaging revealed that the lysosomes make contact with mitochondria and move between sites within the dynamic mitochondrial network. Since mitochondrial and lysosomal functions are intricately connected, PT microscopy should provide in-depth understanding of cellular functions associated with mitochondria-lysosome communication as well as insights into various human diseases caused by dysfunction of these organelles.
  34. Cell Metab. 2019 Dec 03. pii: S1550-4131(19)30616-3. [Epub ahead of print]30(6): 1004-1006
    White CW, Pratt K, Villeda SA.
      Remyelination declines in the aging central nervous system due to oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) dysfunction. In the latest issue of Cell Stem Cell, Neumann et al. (2019) demonstrate that aged OPCs are amenable to functional rejuvenation by systemic interventions involving alternate-day fasting or treatment with the fasting mimetic metformin.
  35. Sci Adv. 2019 Nov;5(11): eaax7525
    Wu Y, Chen K, Xing G, Li L, Ma B, Hu Z, Duan L, Liu X.
      Metabolic reprogramming has emerged as a key regulator of cell fate decisions. Roles of glucose and amino acid metabolism have been extensively documented, whereas lipid metabolism in pluripotency remains largely unexplored. Using a high-coverage lipidomics approach, we reveal dynamic changes in phospholipids occurring during reprogramming and show that the CDP-ethanolamine (CDP-Etn) pathway for phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) synthesis is required at the early stage of reprogramming. Mechanistically, the CDP-Etn pathway inhibits NF-κB signaling and mesenchymal genes in a Pebp1-dependent manner, without affecting autophagy, resulting in accelerated mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) and enhanced reprogramming. Furthermore, PE binding to Pebp1 enhances the interaction of Pebp1 with IKKα/β and reduces the phosphorylation of IKKα/β. The CDP-Etn-Pebp1 axis is associated with EMT/MET in hepatocyte differentiation, indicating that Etn/PE is a broad-spectrum MET/EMT-regulating metabolite. Collectively, our study reveals an unforeseen connection between phospholipids, cell migration, and pluripotency and highlights the importance of phospholipids in cell fate transitions.
  36. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Jan 20. 375(1790): 20190174
    Dubie JJ, Caraway AR, Stout MM, Katju V, Bergthorsson U.
      Mitochondrial genomes can sustain mutations that are simultaneously detrimental to individual fitness and yet, can proliferate within individuals owing to a replicative advantage. We analysed the fitness effects and population dynamics of a mitochondrial genome containing a novel 499 bp deletion in the cytochrome b(1) (ctb-1) gene (Δctb-1) encoding the cytochrome b of complex III in Caenorhabditis elegans. Δctb-1 reached a high heteroplasmic frequency of 96% in one experimental line during a mutation accumulation experiment and was linked to additional spontaneous mutations in nd5 and tRNA-Asn. The Δctb-1 mutant mitotype imposed a significant fitness cost including a 65% and 52% reduction in productivity and competitive fitness, respectively, relative to individuals bearing wild-type (WT) mitochondria. Deletion-bearing worms were rapidly purged within a few generations when competed against WT mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) bearing worms in experimental populations. By contrast, the Δctb-1 mitotype was able to persist in large populations comprising heteroplasmic individuals only, although the average intracellular frequency of Δctb-1 exhibited a slow decline owing to competition among individuals bearing different frequencies of the heteroplasmy. Within experimental lines subjected to severe population bottlenecks (n = 1), the relative intracellular frequency of Δctb-1 increased, which is a hallmark of selfish drive. A positive correlation between Δctb-1 and WT mtDNA copy-number suggests a mechanism that increases total mtDNA per se, and does not discern the Δctb-1 mitotype from the WT mtDNA. This study demonstrates the selfish nature of the Δctb-1 mitotype, given its transmission advantage and substantial fitness load for the host, and highlights the importance of population size for the population dynamics of selfish mtDNA. This article is part of the theme issue 'Linking the mitochondrial genotype to phenotype: a complex endeavour'.
    Keywords:  fitness; genomic conflict; heteroplasmy; mitochondrial deletion; selection; selfish genetic element
  37. Cell Metab. 2019 Dec 03. pii: S1550-4131(19)30612-6. [Epub ahead of print]30(6): 1002-1004
    Moraes CT.
      The segregation of heteroplasmic mtDNA species was thought to be mostly stochastic. However, recent findings, including a study by Latorre-Pellicer et al. (2019) published in this issue of Cell Metabolism, provide evidence that nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA interactions play an important role in the sorting process.
  38. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Jan 20. 375(1790): 20190175
    Barrett A, Arbeithuber B, Zaidi A, Wilton P, Paul IM, Nielsen R, Makova KD.
      Heteroplasmy is the presence of variable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) within the same individual. The dynamics of heteroplasmy allele frequency among tissues of the human body is not well understood. Here, we measured allele frequency at heteroplasmic sites in two to eight hairs from each of 11 humans using next-generation sequencing. We observed a high variance in heteroplasmic allele frequency among separate hairs from the same individual-much higher than that for blood and cheek tissues. Our population genetic modelling estimated the somatic bottleneck during embryonic follicle development of separate hairs to be only 11.06 (95% confidence interval 0.6-34.0) mtDNA segregating units. This bottleneck is much more drastic than somatic bottlenecks for blood and cheek tissues (136 and 458 units, respectively), as well as more drastic than, or comparable to, the germline bottleneck (equal to 25-32 or 7-10 units, depending on the study). We demonstrated that hair undergoes additional genetic drift before and after the divergence of mtDNA lineages of individual hair follicles. Additionally, we showed a positive correlation between donor's age and variance in heteroplasmy allele frequency in hair. These findings have important implications for forensics and for our understanding of mtDNA dynamics in the human body. This article is part of the theme issue 'Linking the mitochondrial genotype to phenotype: a complex endeavour'.
    Keywords:  forensics; hair development; heteroplasmy; mitochondrion; mtDNA; somatic bottleneck
  39. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Jan 20. 375(1790): 20190188
    Rand DM, Mossman JA.
      The mitonuclear genome is the most successful co-evolved mutualism in the history of life on Earth. The cross-talk between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes has been shaped by conflict and cooperation for more than 1.5 billion years, yet this system has adapted to countless genomic reorganizations by each partner, and done so under changing environments that have placed dramatic biochemical and physiological pressures on evolving lineages. From putative anaerobic origins, mitochondria emerged as the defining aerobic organelle. During this transition, the two genomes resolved rules for sex determination and transmission that made uniparental inheritance the dominant, but not a universal pattern. Mitochondria are much more than energy-producing organelles and play crucial roles in nutrient and stress signalling that can alter how nuclear genes are expressed as phenotypes. All of these interactions are examples of genotype-by-environment (GxE) interactions, gene-by-gene (GxG) interactions (epistasis) or more generally context-dependent effects on the link between genotype and phenotype. We provide evidence from our own studies in Drosophila, and from those of other systems, that mitonuclear interactions-either conflicting or cooperative-are common features of GxE and GxG. We argue that mitonuclear interactions are an important model for how to better understand the pervasive context-dependent effects underlying the architecture of complex phenotypes. Future research in this area should focus on the quantitative genetic concept of effect size to place mitochondrial links to phenotype in a proper context. This article is part of the theme issue 'Linking the mitochondrial genotype to phenotype: a complex endeavour'.
    Keywords:  GxE; GxG; conflict; cooperation; epistasis; mitonuclear
  40. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Jan 20. 375(1790): 20190416
    Camus MF, O'Leary M, Reuter M, Lane N.
      Mitochondria are central to both energy metabolism and biosynthesis. Mitochondrial function could therefore influence resource allocation. Critically, mitochondrial function depends on interactions between proteins encoded by the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Severe incompatibilities between these genomes can have pervasive effects on both fitness and longevity. How milder deficits in mitochondrial function affect life-history trade-offs is less well understood. Here, we analyse how mitonuclear interactions affect the trade-off between fecundity and longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. We consider a panel of 10 different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes against two contrasting nuclear backgrounds (w1118 (WE) and Zim53 (ZIM)) in response to high-protein versus standard diet. We report strikingly different responses between the two nuclear backgrounds. WE females have higher fecundity and decreased longevity on high protein. ZIM females have much greater fecundity and shorter lifespan than WE flies on standard diet. High protein doubled their fecundity with no effect on longevity. Mitochondrial haplotype reflected nuclear life-history trade-offs, with a negative correlation between longevity and fecundity in WE flies and no correlation in ZIM flies. Mitonuclear interactions had substantial effects but did not reflect genetic distance between mitochondrial haplotypes. We conclude that mitonuclear interactions can have significant impact on life-history trade-offs, but their effects are not predictable by relatedness. This article is part of the theme issue 'Linking the mitochondrial genotype to phenotype: a complex endeavour'.
    Keywords:  fecundity; life-history trade-off; longevity; mitonuclear interactions; nutrition; resource allocation
  41. Nat Metab. 2019 Nov;1(11): 1074-1088
    Guerrero A, Herranz N, Sun B, Wagner V, Gallage S, Guiho R, Wolter K, Pombo J, Irvine EE, Innes AJ, Birch J, Glegola J, Manshaei S, Heide D, Dharmalingam G, Harbig J, Olona A, Behmoaras J, Dauch D, Uren AG, Zender L, Vernia S, Martínez-Barbera JP, Heikenwalder M, Withers DJ, Gil J.
      Senescence is a cellular stress response that results in the stable arrest of old, damaged or preneoplastic cells. Oncogene-induced senescence is tumor suppressive but can also exacerbate tumorigenesis through the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors from senescent cells. Drugs that selectively kill senescent cells, termed senolytics, have proved beneficial in animal models of many age-associated diseases. Here, we show that the cardiac glycoside, ouabain, is a senolytic agent with broad activity. Senescent cells are sensitized to ouabain-induced apoptosis, a process mediated in part by induction of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2-family protein NOXA. We show that cardiac glycosides synergize with anti-cancer drugs to kill tumor cells and eliminate senescent cells that accumulate after irradiation or in old mice. Ouabain also eliminates senescent preneoplastic cells. Our findings suggest that cardiac glycosides may be effective anti-cancer drugs by acting through multiple mechanism. Given the broad range of senescent cells targeted by cardiac glycosides their use against age-related diseases warrants further exploration.
  42. Cancer Sci. 2019 Dec 04.
    Loo TM, Miyata K, Tanaka Y, Takahashi A.
      Cellular senescence is historically regarded as a tumor suppression mechanism to prevent damaged cells from aberrant proliferation in benign and pre-malignant tumors. However, recent findings have suggested that senescent cells contribute to tumorigenesis and age-associated pathologies through the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Therefore, in order to control age-associated cancer, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of the SASP in the cancer microenvironment. New findings have suggested that the cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase (cGAS)-Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) signaling pathway, known as a critical indicator of innate immune response, triggers the SASP in response to accumulation of cytoplasmic DNA (cytoplasmic chromatin fragments, mtDNA, and cDNA) in senescent cells. Notably, the cGAS-STING signaling pathway promotes or inhibits tumorigenesis depending on the biological context in vivo, indicating that it may be a potential therapeutic target for cancer. Herein, we review the regulatory machinery and biological function of the SASP via the cGAS-STING signaling pathway in cancer.
    Keywords:  Cellular senescence; DNA damage; SASP; cGAS-STING; tumorigenesis
  43. Front Oncol. 2019 ;9 1215
    Vanhove K, Graulus GJ, Mesotten L, Thomeer M, Derveaux E, Noben JP, Guedens W, Adriaensens P.
      Metabolism encompasses the biochemical processes that allow healthy cells to keep energy, redox balance and building blocks required for cell development, survival, and proliferation steady. Malignant cells are well-documented to reprogram their metabolism and energy production networks to support rapid proliferation and survival in harsh conditions via mutations in oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Despite the histologic and genetic heterogeneity of tumors, a common set of metabolic pathways sustain the high proliferation rates observed in cancer cells. This review with a focus on lung cancer covers several fundamental principles of the disturbed glucose metabolism, such as the "Warburg" effect, the importance of the glycolysis and its branching pathways, the unanticipated gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial metabolism. Furthermore, we highlight our current understanding of the disturbed glucose metabolism and how this might result in the development of new treatments.
    Keywords:  genetic alterations; glucose; lung cancer; metabolism; targeting metabolism
  44. Ann Transl Med. 2019 Oct;7(20): 594
    Dasgupta S.
      Apart from reliable management of the "powerhouse" of the cell, mitochondria faithfully orchestrate a diverse array of important and critical functions in governing cellular signaling, apoptosis, autophagy, mitophagy and innate and adaptive immune system. Introduction of instability and imbalance in the mitochondrial own genome or the nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteome would result in the manifestation of various diseases through alterations in the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) and nuclear-mitochondria retrograde signaling. Understanding mitochondrial biology and dynamism are thus of paramount importance to develop strategies to prevent or treat various diseases caused due to mitochondrial alterations.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria; biomarker; cancer; genetic disorders; therapy
  45. Nat Rev Cancer. 2019 Dec 05.
    Bi J, Chowdhry S, Wu S, Zhang W, Masui K, Mischel PS.
      Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of gliomas. Propelled by a set of recent technological advances, new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying glioma metabolism are rapidly emerging. In this Review, we focus on the dynamic nature of glioma metabolism and how it is shaped by the interaction between tumour genotype and brain microenvironment. Recent advances integrating metabolomics with genomics are discussed, yielding new insight into the mechanisms that drive glioma pathogenesis. Studies that shed light on interactions between the tumour microenvironment and tumour genotype are highlighted, providing important clues as to how gliomas respond to and adapt to their changing tissue and biochemical contexts. Finally, a road map for the discovery of potential new glioma drug targets is suggested, with the goal of translating these new insights about glioma metabolism into clinical benefits for patients.
  46. Cell Metab. 2019 Dec 03. pii: S1550-4131(19)30618-7. [Epub ahead of print]30(6): 1075-1090.e8
    Marin E, Bouchet-Delbos L, Renoult O, Louvet C, Nerriere-Daguin V, Managh AJ, Even A, Giraud M, Vu Manh TP, Aguesse A, Bériou G, Chiffoleau E, Alliot-Licht B, Prieur X, Croyal M, Hutchinson JA, Obermajer N, Geissler EK, Vanhove B, Blancho G, Dalod M, Josien R, Pecqueur C, Cuturi MC, Moreau A.
      Cell therapy is a promising strategy for treating patients suffering from autoimmune or inflammatory diseases or receiving a transplant. Based on our preclinical studies, we have generated human autologous tolerogenic dendritic cells (ATDCs), which are being tested in a first-in-man clinical trial in kidney transplant recipients. Here, we report that ATDCs represent a unique subset of monocyte-derived cells based on phenotypic, transcriptomic, and metabolic analyses. ATDCs are characterized by their suppression of T cell proliferation and their expansion of Tregs through secreted factors. ATDCs produce high levels of lactate that shape T cell responses toward tolerance. Indeed, T cells take up ATDC-secreted lactate, leading to a decrease of their glycolysis. In vivo, ATDCs promote elevated levels of circulating lactate and delay graft-versus-host disease by reducing T cell proliferative capacity. The suppression of T cell immunity through lactate production by ATDCs is a novel mechanism that distinguishes ATDCs from other cell-based immunotherapies.
    Keywords:  cell therapy in humans; immunometabolism; lactate; tolerance induction; tolerogenic dendritic cells
  47. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 Jan 20. 375(1790): 20190169
    Ghiselli F, Milani L.
      Finding causal links between genotype and phenotype is a major issue in biology, even more in mitochondrial biology. First of all, mitochondria form complex networks, undergoing fission and fusion and we do not know how such dynamics influence the distribution of mtDNA variants across the mitochondrial network and how they affect the phenotype. Second, the non-Mendelian inheritance of mitochondrial genes can have sex-specific effects and the mechanism of mitochondrial inheritance is still poorly understood, so it is not clear how selection and/or drift act on mtDNA genetic variation in each generation. Third, we still do not know how mtDNA expression is regulated; there is growing evidence for a convoluted mechanism that includes RNA editing, mRNA stability/turnover, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications. Fourth, mitochondrial activity differs across species as a result of several interacting processes such as drift, adaptation, genotype-by-environment interactions, mitonuclear coevolution and epistasis. This issue will cover several aspects of mitochondrial biology along the path from genotype to phenotype, and it is subdivided into four sections focusing on mitochondrial genetic variation, on the relationship among mitochondria, germ line and sex, on the role of mitochondria in adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, and on some future perspectives in mitochondrial research. This article is part of the theme issue 'Linking the mitochondrial genotype to phenotype: a complex endeavour'.
    Keywords:  heteroplasmy; mitochondrial bottleneck; mitochondrial expression manipulation; mitonuclear interactions; mtDNA editing; mtDNA genetic variation
  48. Front Microbiol. 2019 ;10 2624
    Walvekar AS, Laxman S.
      Studies using a fungal model, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of sulfur metabolism in eukaryotes. Sulfur metabolites, particularly methionine and its derivatives, induce anabolic programs in yeast, and drive various processes integral to metabolism (one-carbon metabolism, nucleotide synthesis, and redox balance). Thereby, methionine also connects these processes with autophagy and epigenetic regulation. The direct involvement of methionine-derived metabolites in diverse chemistries such as transsulfuration and methylation reactions comes from the elegant positioning and safe handling of sulfur through these molecules. In this mini-review, we highlight studies from yeast that reveal how this amino acid holds a unique position in both metabolism and cell signaling, and illustrate cell fate decisions that methionine governs. We further discuss the interconnections between sulfur and NADPH metabolism, and highlight critical nodes around methionine metabolism that are promising for antifungal drug development.
    Keywords:  NADPH; S-adenosyl methionine; cell fate decisions; metabolism; methionine; pentose phosphate pathway; reductive biosynthesis; saccharomyces
  49. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Dec 02. pii: 201913095. [Epub ahead of print]
    Zhang N, Meng Y, Li X, Zhou Y, Ma L, Fu L, Schwarzländer M, Liu H, Xiong Y.
      Circadian clocks usually run with a period close to 24 h, but are also plastic and can be entrained by external environmental conditions and internal physiological cues. Two key nutrient metabolites, glucose and vitamin B3 (nicotinamide), can influence the circadian period in both mammals and plants; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is still largely unclear. We reveal that the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase, a conserved central growth regulator, is essential for glucose- and nicotinamide-mediated control of the circadian period in Arabidopsis Nicotinamide affects the cytosolic adenosine triphosphate concentration, and blocks the effect of glucose-TOR energy signaling on period length adjustment, meristem activation, and root growth. Together, our results uncover a missing link between cellular metabolites, energy status, and circadian period adjustment, and identify TOR kinase as an essential energy sensor to coordinate circadian clock and plant growth.
    Keywords:  Arabidopsis; TOR; circadian clock; glucose; nicotinamide
  50. Cell Metab. 2019 Dec 03. pii: S1550-4131(19)30615-1. [Epub ahead of print]30(6): 999-1001
    Goncalves RLS, Hotamisligil GS.
      Cells utilize multiple mechanisms to support endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function. The unfolded protein response, UPRER, is engaged during proteotoxic challenges to either mitigate ER stress or promote apoptosis. In a CRISPR-based genetic screen, Schinzel et al. (2019) identified TMEM2 as a mediator of ER stress tolerance independent of the individual branches of the canonical UPRER and linked this path to nematode longevity.
  51. Biochem J. 2019 Dec 05. pii: BCJ20190543. [Epub ahead of print]
    Salerno AG, Rentz T, Dorighello GG, Marques AC, Lorza-Gil E, Wanschel ACBA, de Moraes A, Vercesi AE, Oliveira HCF.
      The atherosclerosis prone LDL receptor knockout mice (Ldlr -/-, C57BL/6J background)carry a deletion of the NADP(H)-transhydrogenase gene (Nnt) encoding the mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes NADPH synthesis. Here we hypothesize that both increased NADPH consumption (due to increased steroidogenesis) and decreased NADPH generation (due to Nnt deficiency) in Ldlr-/- mice contribute to establish a macrophage oxidative stress and increase atherosclerosis development. Thus, we compared peritoneal macrophages and liver mitochondria from three C57BL/6J mice lines: Ldlr and Nnt double mutant, single Nnt mutant and wild-type. We found increased oxidants production in both mitochondria and macrophages according to a gradient: double mutant > single mutant > wild-type. We also observed a parallel upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1a, TFAM and respiratory complexes levels) and inflammatory (iNOS, IL6 and IL1b) markers in single and double mutant macrophages. When exposed to modified LDL, the single and double mutant cells exhibited significant increases in lipid accumulation leading to foam cell formation, the hallmark of atherosclerosis. Nnt deficiency cells showed upregulation of CD36 and downregulation of ABCA1 transporters what may explain lipid accumulation in macrophages. Finally, Nnt wild-type bone marrow transplantation into LDLr-/- mice resulted in reduced diet induced atherosclerosis. Therefore, Nnt plays a critical role in the maintenance of macrophage redox, inflammatory and cholesterol homeostasis, which is relevant for delaying the atherogenesis process.
    Keywords:  atherosclerosis; macrophages; mitochondria; nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT); oxidative stress
  52. Nature. 2019 Dec;576(7785): 169-170
    Pivodic L.
    Keywords:  Careers; Geography; Lab life
  53. Annu Rev Immunol. 2019 Dec 04.
    Hu MM, Shu HB.
      DNA has been known to be a potent immune stimulus for more than half a century. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of DNA-triggered immune response have remained elusive until recent years. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a major cytoplasmic DNA senor in various types of cells that detect either invaded foreign DNA or aberrantly located self-DNA. Upon sensing of DNA, cGAS catalyzes the formation of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which in turn activates the ER-localized adaptor protein MITA (also named STING) to elicit the innate immune response. The cGAS-MITA axis not only plays a central role in host defense against pathogen-derived DNA but also acts as a cellular stress response pathway by sensing aberrantly located self-DNA, which is linked to the pathogenesis of various human diseases. In this review, we summarize the spatial and temporal mechanisms of host defense to cytoplasmic DNA mediated by the cGAS-MITA axis and discuss the association of malfunctions of this axis with autoimmune and other diseases. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology, Volume 38 is April 26, 2020. Please see for revised estimates.