bims-bicyki Biomed News
on Bicaudal-C1 and interactors in cystic kidney disease
Issue of 2021‒08‒08
eighteen papers selected by
Céline Gagnieux
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)

  1. J Nephrol. 2021 Aug 06.
      BACKGROUND: Causative mutations in the GANAB gene have been described in only 14 families, 9 diagnosed with late-onset Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) and 5 with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Liver Disease (ADPLD).CASE: Diagnosis of ADPKD was made in a 45-year old man during screening for hernia repair. CT scan showed enlarged cystic kidneys, nephrolithiasis and normal-sized liver with multiple cysts. Hematuria, hypertension and aortic root dilatation were also documented. Renal function was normal. Molecular analysis of PKD genes disclosed a heterozygous p.R839W GANAB variant inherited from the mother. Both his elderly parents presented normal-sized bilateral cystic kidneys but normal renal function. The GANAB-ADPKD mother had no liver cysts. The father was screened for PKD-related genes and no variant was found.
    GENETIC ANALYSIS: We describe a new family with late-onset ADPKD due to the p.R839W GANAB variant, previously reported in a severe ADPLD patient, requiring liver transplantation.
    DISCUSSION: Since ADPKD-GANAB is an ultrarare, recently described disease, reporting further patients may help unraveling gene-related phenotype. In our patients the p.R839W GANAB variant was not related to severe ADPLD, as previously reported, but with mild ADPKD and a plethora of renal and extrarenal manifestations, usually described in PKD1/PKD2 patients. The evidence that the GANAB variant may cause both ADPKD and ADPLD of variable severity supports that renal and hepatic cystogenesis are the result of a common defective polycystin-1 pathway.
    Keywords:  Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; GANAB; Molecular genetics; Polycystic liver disease; next generation sequencing
  2. Cells. 2021 Jul 02. pii: 1662. [Epub ahead of print]10(7):
      Primary cilia biogenesis has been closely associated with cell cycle progression. Cilia assemble when cells exit the cell cycle and enter a quiescent stage at the post-mitosis phase, and disassemble before cells re-enter a new cell cycle. Studies have focused on how the cell cycle coordinates with the cilia assembly/disassembly process, and whether and how cilia biogenesis affects the cell cycle. Appropriate regulation of the functions and/or expressions of ciliary and cell-cycle-associated proteins is pivotal to maintaining bodily homeostasis. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and histone/chromatin modifications, are involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and cilia biogenesis. In this review, first, we discuss how epigenetic mechanisms regulate cell cycle progression and cilia biogenesis through the regulation of DNA methylation and chromatin structures, to either promote or repress the transcription of genes associated with those processes and the modification of cytoskeleton network, including microtubule and actin. Next, we discuss the crosstalk between the cell cycle and ciliogenesis, and the involvement of epigenetic regulators in this process. In addition, we discuss cilia-dependent signaling pathways in cell cycle regulation. Understanding the mechanisms of how epigenetic regulators contribute to abnormal cell cycle regulation and ciliogenesis defects would lead to developing therapeutic strategies for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, such as cancers, polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and other ciliopathy-associated disorders.
    Keywords:  cell cycle; ciliogenesis; epigenetic regulator; primary cilia
  3. PLoS One. 2021 ;16(8): e0252156
      BACKGROUND: Kidney organoids have been broadly obtained from commercially available induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); however, it has been a great challenge to efficiently produce renal organoid models from patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) that recapitulate both embryogenesis and the mechanisms of cystogenesis.METHODS: Blood erythroid progenitors (EPs) from two ADPKD patients and one healthy donor (HC) was used as a comparative control to normalize the many technical steps for reprogramming EPs and for the organoids generation. EPs were reprogrammed by an episomal vector into iPSCs, which were differentiated into renal tubular organoids and then stimulated by forskolin to induce cysts formation.
    RESULTS: iPSCs derived from EPs exhibited all characteristics of pluripotency and were able to differentiate into all three germ layers. 3D tubular organoids were generated from single cells after 28 days in Matrigel. HC and ADPKD organoids did not spontaneously form cysts, but upon forskolin stimulation, cysts-like structures were observed in the ADPKD organoids but not in the HC-derived organoids.
    CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that kidney organoids were successfully generated from the blood EP cells of ADPKD patients and a healthy control donor. This approach should contribute as a powerful tool for embryonic kidney development model, which is able to recapitulate the very early pathophysiological mechanisms involved in cytogenesis.
  4. J Med Case Rep. 2021 Aug 03. 15(1): 421
      BACKGROUND: Polycystic liver disease is a clinical feature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and it can sometimes cause health damage more serious than polycystic kidney. Dialysis therapy can be used for renal failure, but liver transplantation is the only method available for liver failure. Thus, giant and multiple hepatic cysts may affect mortality. However, liver transplantation is not indicated in many cases because of the preserved liver function.CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old Japanese woman with polycystic liver disease was transferred back to our hospital for abdominal pain caused by liver cyst infection with abdominal wall herniation. She had been diagnosed with polycystic liver disease associated with sporadic autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease 25 years earlier. Although she had several surgical interventions to reduce her liver volume, including right hepatic lobectomy and fenestration for liver cysts in another hospital, she needed further repair of the recurrent incisional herniation with patch graft surgery using fascia lata to cover the herniation site. However, new herniation sites reemerged in the fragile abdominal wall area around the patch, and therefore, she reduced the recurrent abdominal wall herniation by herself. Recurrent intestinal obstructions were luckily released by fasting with decompression treatment via nasogastric tube insertion, but multiple skin ulcers around the enlarged hernia sac gradually developed, and ascites was extremely difficult to control with any medication. At final admission, her abdominal wall was even more prominent, causing shortness of breath, and it spontaneously ruptured many times, which was accompanied by discharge of around 5 liters of ascites each time. She died from sepsis caused by drug-resistant Enterococcus.
    CONCLUSIONS: We report a case of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with ruptured abdominal wall resulting from a hepatic cyst enlargement despite multiple laparotomy operations. Throughout the entire disease course, her liver volume increased rapidly, and her quality of life was severely impaired, but she could not undergo liver transplantation after readmission to our hospital. We will discuss the therapeutic strategy for this patient, including the timing and indication for liver transplantation.
    Keywords:  Abdominal wall herniation; Case report; Polycystic liver disease
  5. Biol Open. 2021 Aug 15. pii: bio058531. [Epub ahead of print]10(8):
      Primary cilia are compartmentalised from the rest of the cell by a ciliary gate comprising transition fibres and a transition zone. The ciliary gate allows the selective import and export of molecules such as transmembrane receptors and transport proteins. These are required for the assembly of the cilium, its function as a sensory and signalling centre and to maintain its distinctive composition. Certain motile cilia can also form within the cytosol as exemplified by human and Drosophila sperm. The role of transition fibre proteins has not been well described in the cytoplasmic cilia. Drosophila have both compartmentalised primary cilia, in sensory neurons, and sperm flagella that form within the cytosol. Here, we describe phenotypes for twitchy the Drosophila orthologue of a transition fibre protein, mammalian FBF1/C. elegans dyf-19. Loss-of-function mutants in twitchy are adult lethal and display a severely uncoordinated phenotype. Twitchy flies are too uncoordinated to mate but RNAi-mediated loss of twitchy specifically within the male germline results in coordinated but infertile adults. Examination of sperm from twitchy RNAi-knockdown flies shows that the flagellar axoneme forms, elongates and is post-translationally modified by polyglycylation but the production of motile sperm is impaired. These results indicate that twitchy is required for the function of both sensory cilia that are compartmentalised from the rest of the cell and sperm flagella that are formed within the cytosol of the cell. Twitchy is therefore likely to function as part of a molecular gate in sensory neurons but may have a distinct function in sperm cells.
    Keywords:   Drosophila ; Cilia; Distal appendage; Spermiogenesis; Transition fibre proteins
  6. J Cell Sci. 2021 Aug 04. pii: jcs.259013. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mutations in the PKD2 gene cause autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease but the physiological role of polycystin-2, the protein product of PKD2, remains elusive. Polycystin-2 belongs to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of non-selective cation channels. To test the hypothesis that altered ion channel properties of polycystin-2 compromise its putative role in a control circuit controlling lumen formation of renal tubular structures, we generated a mouse model in which we exchanged the pore loop of polycystin-2 with that of the closely related cation channel polycystin-2L1, thereby creating the protein polycystin-2poreL1. Functional characterization of this mutant channel in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that its electrophysiological properties differed from those of polycystin-2 but rather resembled the properties of polycystin-2L1, in particular regarding its permeability for Ca2+ ions. Homology modeling of the ion translocation pathway of polycystin-2poreL1 argues for a wider pore in polycystin-2poreL1 than in polycystin-2. In Pkd2poreL1 knock-in mice in which the endogenous polycystin-2 protein was replaced by polycystin-2poreL1 the diameter of collecting ducts was increased and collecting duct cysts developed in a strain-dependent fashion.
    Keywords:  Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease; Electrophysiology; Knock-in mice; PKD2; Polycystin-2; Tubular diameter; Xenopus oocytes
  7. Elife. 2021 Aug 04. pii: e67121. [Epub ahead of print]10
      The role of compartmentalized signaling in primary cilia during tissue morphogenesis is not well understood. The cilia-localized G-protein-coupled receptor-Gpr161 represses hedgehog pathway via cAMP signaling. We engineered a knock-in at Gpr161 locus in mice to generate a variant (Gpr161mut1), which was ciliary localization defective but cAMP signaling competent. Tissue phenotypes from hedgehog signaling depend on downstream bifunctional Gli transcriptional factors functioning as activators/repressors. Compared to knockout (ko), Gpr161mut1/ko had delayed embryonic lethality, moderately increased hedgehog targets and partially down-regulated Gli3-repressor. Unlike ko, the Gpr161mut1/ko neural tube did not show Gli2-activator-dependent expansion of ventral-most progenitors. Instead, the intermediate neural tube showed progenitor expansion that depends on loss of Gli3-repressor. Increased extraciliary receptor (Gpr161mut1/mut1) prevented ventralization. Morphogenesis in limb buds and midface requires Gli-repressor; these tissues in Gpr161mut1/mut1 manifested hedgehog hyperactivation phenotypes-polydactyly and midfacial widening. Thus, ciliary and extraciliary Gpr161 pools likely establish tissue-specific Gli-repressor thresholds in determining morpho-phenotypic outcomes.
    Keywords:  cell biology; developmental biology; mouse
  8. Genes (Basel). 2021 Jul 14. pii: 1073. [Epub ahead of print]12(7):
      Craniosynostosis (CS) is the second most prevalent inborn craniofacial malformation; it results from the premature fusion of cranial sutures and leads to dimorphisms of variable severity. CS is clinically heterogeneous, as it can be either a sporadic isolated defect, more frequently, or part of a syndromic phenotype with mendelian inheritance. The genetic basis of CS is also extremely heterogeneous, with nearly a hundred genes associated so far, mostly mutated in syndromic forms. Several genes can be categorised within partially overlapping pathways, including those causing defects of the primary cilium. The primary cilium is a cellular antenna serving as a signalling hub implicated in mechanotransduction, housing key molecular signals expressed on the ciliary membrane and in the cilioplasm. This mechanical property mediated by the primary cilium may also represent a cue to understand the pathophysiology of non-syndromic CS. In this review, we aimed to highlight the implication of the primary cilium components and active signalling in CS pathophysiology, dissecting their biological functions in craniofacial development and in suture biomechanics. Through an in-depth revision of the literature and computational annotation of disease-associated genes we categorised 18 ciliary genes involved in CS aetiology. Interestingly, a prevalent implication of midline sutures is observed in CS ciliopathies, possibly explained by the specific neural crest origin of the frontal bone.
    Keywords:  ciliopathies; craniofacial malformations; craniosynostosis; mechanotransduction; mesenchymal stromal cells; osteogenic pathways; primary cilium; suture ossification
  9. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2021 08 02.
      The relevance of primary cilia shortening in kidney disease and its pathomechanism are largely unknown. Tubular damage in acute kidney injury (AKI) is strongly associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, we investigated the interaction between primary cilia and mitochondria in cisplatin-induced AKI mouse models. We observed that the expression of intraflagellar transport 88 (IFT88), a ciliary maintenance protein, was decreased in the renal cortex following tubular damage due to cisplatin-induced AKI. This result was consistent with the decreased IFT88 expression in cisplatin-treated RPTEC/TERT1 cells-human primary proximal tubular cells-parallel to the shortening of primary cilia, suggesting a causative link between tubular damage and IFT88-mediated cilia regulation. To address the effect of impaired primary cilia with decreased IFT88 expression on tubular function, RPTEC/TERT1 cells treated with cisplatin and knocked down for IFT88 using siRNA (IFT88-KD) were assessed for phenotypic changes and mitochondrial metabolic function. Both cisplatin and IFT88-KD caused primary cilia shortening, downregulated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, defective fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and decreased ATP production. Furthermore, IFT88 overexpression enhanced mitochondrial respiration, which partially counteracted cisplatin-induced defective FAO. These results are indicative of the contribution of IFT88 to mitochondrial homeostasis. Our findings suggest that tubular mitochondrial dysfunction in cisplatin-induced AKI is mediated, at least in part, by a decrease in IFT88 expression with primary cilia shortening. That is, tubular mitochondrial damage followed by tubular injury in AKI may occur through alteration of IFT88 expression and subsequent ciliary shortening in tubular cells.
    Keywords:  acute kidney injury; cisplatin nephropathy; mitochondria; primary cilia; proximal tubular cells
  10. Genes (Basel). 2021 Jul 16. pii: 1078. [Epub ahead of print]12(7):
      Renal cystic diseases are characterized by genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Congenital renal cysts can be classified as developmental disorders and are commonly diagnosed prenatally using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Progress in molecular diagnostics and availability of exome sequencing procedures allows diagnosis of single-gene disorders in the prenatal period. Two patients with a prenatal diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease are presented in this article. TMEM67 mutations were identified in both fetuses using a whole-exome sequencing (WES) study. In one of them, the phenotypic syndrome diagnosed prenatally was different from that diagnosed in the postnatal period.
    Keywords:  Joubert syndrome; Meckel–Gruber syndrome; TMEM67 gene; genetic and phenotypic diagnosis; prenatal and postnatal diagnosis
  11. Elife. 2021 Aug 04. pii: e66322. [Epub ahead of print]10
      Cilia are hairlike organelles involved in both sensory functions and motility. We discuss the question of whether the location of chemical receptors on cilia provides an advantage in terms of sensitivity and whether motile sensory cilia have a further advantage. Using a simple advection-diffusion model, we compute the capture rates of diffusive molecules on a cilium. Because of its geometry, a non-motile cilium in a quiescent fluid has a capture rate equivalent to a circular absorbing region with ~4x its surface area. When the cilium is exposed to an external shear flow, the equivalent surface area increases to ~6x. Alternatively, if the cilium beats in a non-reciprocal way in an otherwise quiescent fluid, its capture rate increases with the beating frequency to the power of 1/3. Altogether, our results show that the protruding geometry of a cilium could be one of the reasons why so many receptors are located on cilia. They also point to the advantage of combining motility with chemical reception.
    Keywords:  none; physics of living systems
  12. J Cell Sci. 2021 Aug 01. pii: jcs258626. [Epub ahead of print]134(15):
      Axonemal dyneins power the beating of motile cilia and flagella. These massive multimeric motor complexes are assembled in the cytoplasm, and subsequently trafficked to cilia and incorporated into the axonemal superstructure. Numerous cytoplasmic factors are required for the dynein assembly process, and, in mammals, defects lead to primary ciliary dyskinesia, which results in infertility, bronchial problems and failure to set up the left-right body axis correctly. Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has been proposed to underlie the formation of numerous membrane-less intracellular assemblies or condensates. In multiciliated cells, cytoplasmic assembly of axonemal dyneins also occurs in condensates that exhibit liquid-like properties, including fusion, fission and rapid exchange of components both within condensates and with bulk cytoplasm. However, a recent extensive meta-analysis suggests that the general methods used to define LLPS systems in vivo may not readily distinguish LLPS from other mechanisms. Here, I consider the time and length scales of axonemal dynein heavy chain synthesis, and the possibility that during translation of dynein heavy chain mRNAs, polysomes are crosslinked via partially assembled proteins. I propose that axonemal dynein factory formation in the cytoplasm may be a direct consequence of the sheer scale and complexity of the assembly process itself.
    Keywords:  Axoneme; Cilia; Cytoplasmic assembly; Dynein; Flagella; Liquid–liquid phase separation
  13. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jul 31. pii: 8272. [Epub ahead of print]22(15):
      Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare inherited condition affecting motile cilia and leading to organ laterality defects, recurrent sino-pulmonary infections, bronchiectasis, and severe lung disease. Research over the past twenty years has revealed variability in clinical presentations, ranging from mild to more severe phenotypes. Genotype and phenotype relationships have emerged. The increasing availability of genetic panels for PCD continue to redefine these genotype-phenotype relationships and reveal milder forms of disease that had previously gone unrecognized.
    Keywords:  genotype-phenotype association; molecular genetics; primary ciliary dyskinesia
  14. Diagnostics (Basel). 2021 Jul 16. pii: 1278. [Epub ahead of print]11(7):
      Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, under-recognized disease that affects respiratory ciliary function, resulting in chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease. The PCD clinical phenotype overlaps with other common respiratory conditions and no single diagnostic test detects all forms of PCD. In 2018, PCD experts collaborated with the American Thoracic Society (ATS) to create a clinical diagnostic guideline for patients across North America, specifically considering the local resources and limitations for PCD diagnosis in the United States and Canada. Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) testing is recommended for first-line testing in patients ≥5 years old with a compatible clinical phenotype; however, all low nNO values require confirmation with genetic testing or ciliary electron micrograph (EM) analysis. Furthermore, these guidelines recognize that not all North American patients have access to nNO testing and isolated genetic testing is appropriate in cases with strong clinical PCD phenotypes. For unresolved diagnostic cases, referral to a PCD Foundation accredited center is recommended. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide insight on the North American PCD diagnostic process, to enhance the understanding of and adherence to current guidelines, and to promote collaboration with diagnostic pathways used outside of North America.
    Keywords:  North America; PCD; diagnostic guidelines; primary ciliary dyskinesia
  15. EMBO Rep. 2021 Aug 02. e52911
      Cilia are thin microtubule-based protrusions of eukaryotic cells. The swimming of ciliated protists and sperm cells is propelled by the beating of cilia. Cilia propagate the flow of mucus in the trachea and protect the human body from viral infections. The main force generators of ciliary beating are the outer dynein arms (ODAs) which attach to the doublet microtubules. The bending of cilia is driven by the ODAs' conformational changes caused by ATP hydrolysis. Here, we report the native ODA complex structure attaching to the doublet microtubule by cryo-electron microscopy. The structure reveals how the ODA complex is attached to the doublet microtubule via the docking complex in its native state. Combined with coarse-grained molecular dynamic simulations, we present a model of how the attachment of the ODA to the doublet microtubule induces remodeling and activation of the ODA complex.
    Keywords:  cilia; cryo-electron microscopy; doublet microtubule; outer arm dynein
  16. Front Pharmacol. 2021 ;12 667644
      Background: The total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot (TFA), a compound that is extracted from Abelmoschus manihot, has been widely used in China to reduce podocyte injury in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). However, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of this compound have yet to be elucidated. Podocyte pyroptosis is characterized by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and plays an important role in inflammation-mediated diabetic kidneys. Regulation of the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway is an effective strategy for improving podocyte damage in DKD. Previous research has also shown that N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is involved in DKD and that m6A-modified PTEN regulates the PI3K/Akt pathway. In this study, we investigated whether TFA alleviates podocyte pyroptosis and injury by targeting m6A modification-mediated NLRP3-inflammasome activation and PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling. Methods: We used MPC-5 cells under high glucose (HG) conditions to investigate the key molecules that are involved in podocyte pyroptosis and injury, including activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway. We detected alterations in the levels of three methyltransferases that are involved in m6A modification. We also investigated changes in the levels of these key molecules in podocytes with the overexpression or knockdown of methyltransferase-like (METTL)3. Results: Analysis showed that TFA and MCC950 protected podocytes against HG-induced pyroptosis and injury by reducing the protein expression levels of gasdermin D, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-18, and by increasing the protein expression levels of nephrin, ZO-1, WT1 and podocalyxin. TFA and 740Y-P inhibited activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome via the PI3K/Akt pathway by inhibiting the protein levels of NIMA-related kinase7, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1, and by increasing the protein expression levels of p-PI3K and p-Akt. TFA improved pyroptosis and injury in HG-stimulated podocytes by regulating METTL3-dependent m6A modification. Conclusion: Collectively, our data indicated that TFA could ameliorate pyroptosis and injury in podocytes under HG conditions by adjusting METTL3-dependent m6A modification and regulating NLRP3-inflammasome activation and PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling. This study provides a better understanding of how TFA can protect podocytes in DKD.
    Keywords:  NLRP3-inflammasome activation; PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling; diabetic kidney disease; m6A modification; podocyte pyroptosis; total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot
  17. Sisli Etfal Hastan Tip Bul. 2021 ;55(2): 188-192
      Objectives: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a chronic genetic disease that affects the respiratory tract, characterized by different clinical and laboratory features. It has a very difficult diagnosis, and high morbidity. In recent years, with the advances in genetics, the rate of diagnosis has increased considerably. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the relationship between PCD patients' clinical, radiological and laboratory features and genetic analysis.Methods: The study included 14 children who were diagnosed with PCD between 2015-2019 and underwent exome analysis. Diagnostic ages, body mass indexes (BMI)- Z score, clinical and radiological findings, pulmonary function tests, sputum culture reproduction and gene analysis were evaluated and compared.
    Results: Six of the patients (43%) were girls and 8 (57%) were boys, and the median age at the time of diagnosis was 9 (min-max: 3-16) years. Genetic analysis revealed pathogenic mutations in DNAH5 (n=4, 29%), DNAH11 (n=2, 14%), RSPH4A (n=2, 14%), CCDC40 (n=2, 14%), DNAH9 (n=1, 7%), HYDIN (n=1, 7%), DNAH1 (n=1, 7%), and ARMC4 (n=1, 7%). Although not statistically significant, it was found that the diagnosis age was lower and the BMI Z-score was lower in CCDC40 mutations. Growth parametres were normal in DNAH5, DNAH11, RSPH4A and ARMC4 pathogenic variants. No significant correlation was found between genetic analysis and clinical features, culture reproduction and pulmonary function tests of the patients.
    Conclusion: It is thought that more detailed information about the possible clinical features and prognosis of the disease can be obtained by genetic examinations of PCD. However, clinical trials with higher patient numbers are still needed.
    Keywords:  Bronchiectasis; genetic analysis; primary ciliary dyskinesia; situs inversus totalis