bims-bicyki Biomed News
on Bicaudal-C1 and interactors in cystic kidney disease
Issue of 2021‒03‒28
twenty-five papers selected by
Céline Gagnieux
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)

  1. Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Mar 23. pii: S0163-7258(21)00043-7. [Epub ahead of print] 107841
      Ciliopathies are a family of rather diverse conditions, which have been grouped based on the finding of altered or dysfunctional cilia, potentially motile, small cellular antennae extending from the surface of postmitotic cells. Cilia-related disorders include embryonically arising conditions such as Joubert, Usher or Kartagener syndrome, but also afflictions with a postnatal or even adult onset phenotype, i.e. autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. The majority of ciliopathies are syndromic rather than affecting only a single organ due to cilia being found on almost any cell in the human body. Overall ciliopathies are considered rare diseases. Despite that, pharmacological research and the strive to help these patients has led to enormous therapeutic advances in the last decade. In this review we discuss new treatment options for certain ciliopathies, give an outlook on promising future therapeutic strategies, but also highlight the limitations in the development of therapeutic approaches of ciliopathies.
    Keywords:  Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; Cilia; Ciliopathy; Primary cilia dyskinesia; Retinopathies
  2. Kidney360. 2020 Dec 31. 1(12): 1363-1372
      Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has been associated with metabolic disturbances characterized by downregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a critical sensor of the cellular energy status. Therapeutic activation of AMPK by metformin could inhibit cyst enlargement by inhibition of both the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and fluid secretion via the CFTR chloride channel.Methods: We designed a phase-2, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of metformin on total kidney volume in adults without diabetes (age 18-60 years) with ADPKD and eGFR of ≥50 ml/min per 1.73 m2. There were no eligibility criteria relating to kidney volume. In addition to demographics and clinical/family history, baseline parameters included eGFR, total kidney and liver volumes measured by MRI, and patient-reported outcomes were ascertained by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, the Gastrointestinal Safety Rating Scale, and the HALT-PKD pain questionnaire.
    Results: We successfully randomized 97 participants recruited from two university-based clinical sites in Baltimore and Boston. The mean age of participants was 41.9 years, 72% were female, and 94% of participants were White. The majority of study participants had early stage disease, with a mean eGFR of 86.8±19.0 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Approximately half of the study participants (48%) were classified as high risk for progression (Mayo imaging classes 1C, 1D, or 1E). There was no correlation between kidney and/or liver size and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) or gastrointestinal symptom severity.
    Conclusions: We report successful recruitment in this ongoing, novel, clinical trial of metformin in ADPKD, with a study sample comprising patients with early stage disease and nearly a half of participants considered at high estimated risk for progression. Participants reported a low gastrointestinal symptom burden at baseline, and HRQoL similar to that of the general population, with no differences in symptoms or HRQoL related to organomegaly.
    Clinical Trial registry name and registration number: Metformin as a Novel Therapy for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (TAME), NCT02656017.
  3. BMC Nephrol. 2021 Mar 25. 22(1): 110
      BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent hereditary renal disease. There is an increased rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ADPKD. In this study, we evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, the achievement rates for treatment goals and cardiovascular events (CVE) in ADPKD and their relations with asymptomatic CVD in CKD from other etiologies (CKDoe) and controls.METHODS: We evaluated 2445 CKD patients (2010-2012). The information collected was: clinical, anthropometric and analytical parameters, treatments and CVD evaluation (intima-media thickness (IMT), atheromatous plaque presence and ankle-brachial index (ABI)). Laboratory, vital status, CVE and hospitalizations were collected for 4 years.
    RESULTS: ADPKD patients had a worse renal function and worst achievement of blood pressure, higher parathormone levels but lower proteinuria compared to CKDoe. ADPKD patients presented lower IMT values than other groups, however, an intermediate rate of pathologic ABI and atheromatous plaque was present. More than half of the patients received statins, achieving LDL-c levels < 100 only in 50 and 39.8% of them (ADPKD and CKDoe respectively). The number of CVE during the follow-up period was low. In adjusted Cox regression model, ADPDK had the lowest occurrence of CVE of all three groups (HR:0.422, 95%CI 0.221-0.808, p = 0.009).
    CONCLUSION: ADPKD patients show intermediate control rates of CVD. A better control of CVD risk seems to be related with a lower load of CVD compared to other groups, which may lead in the long term to a better prognosis. Further investigation is necessary to determine cardiovascular prognosis in ADPKD.
    Keywords:  Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; Cardiovascular disease; Chronic kidney disease; Nephropathy
  4. Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 23. 11(1): 6629
      Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most commonly inherited kidney disease. Although children with ADPKD show normal renal function, cyst development is already occurring. In this study, we aimed to identify markers and associated molecular pathways of disease progression in children and young adults with ADPKD. Plasma samples were collected during a 3-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III clinical trial that was designed to test the efficacy of pravastatin on slowing down ADPKD progression in pediatric patients. Samples from 58 patients were available at baseline and at the 3-year endpoint of the study, respectively. Furthermore, plasma samples from 98 healthy children were used as controls. Metabolomic analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and differences in metabolic profiles over time and within study groups were evaluated. While pravastatin therapy led to a decrease in a percent change of total kidney volume (HtTKV) in ADPKD patients, it had minimal effects on metabolite changes. Oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and immune response were the most affected signaling pathways that distinguished healthy from diseased children. Pathway analysis revealed that metabolites in the arginine metabolism (urea and nitric oxide cycles), asparagine and glutamine metabolism, in the methylation cycle and kynurenine pathway were significantly changed between healthy and children with ADPDK and continued to diverge from the control levels while the disease progressed. Detected metabolite changes were primarily governed by disease progression, and less by pravastatin treatment. Identified metabolic pathways, from arginine and asparagine to kynurenine metabolism could present therapeutic targets and should be further investigated for potential to treat ADPKD progression at an early stage.
  5. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 622302
      Cilia, which either generate coordinated motion or sense environmental cues and transmit corresponding signals to the cell body, are highly conserved hair-like structures that protrude from the cell surface among diverse species. Disruption of ciliary functions leads to numerous human disorders, collectively referred to as ciliopathies. Cilia are mechanically supported by axonemes, which are composed of microtubule doublets. It has been recognized for several decades that tubulins in axonemes undergo glutamylation, a post-translational polymodification, that conjugates glutamic acid chains onto the C-terminal tail of tubulins. However, the physiological roles of axonemal glutamylation were not uncovered until recently. This review will focus on how cells modulate glutamylation on ciliary axonemes and how axonemal glutamylation regulates cilia architecture and functions, as well as its physiological importance in human health. We will also discuss the conventional and emerging new strategies used to manipulate glutamylation in cilia.
    Keywords:  chemically inducible dimerization; ciliopathies; motile cilia; primary cilia; tubulin glutamylation
  6. Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 09. 11(1): 5479
      Since the recent discovery of prostaglandin-associated peri-orbitopathy, a great deal of interest has developed concerning the side effects of anti-glaucoma medications toward periocular fatty tissue, especially their adipogenesis. Two- or three-dimension (2D or 3D) cultures of the 3T3-L1 cells were employed to elucidate the effects of the Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase inhibitor (ROCK-i) the anti-glaucoma drug, Ripasudil, and other ROCK-i, such as Y27632 on adipogenesis. Ultrastructure by electron microscopy and physical stiffness measurements by a micro-squeezer demonstrated the 3D organoids had essentially matured during the 7-day culture. The effects of ROCK-i on 3D organoid sizes, lipid staining, the mRNA expression of adipogenesis related genes, Pparγ, Cebpa and Leptin, and extracellular matrix (ECM) including collagen (COL) 1, 4 and 6, and fibronectin, and physical stiffness were then conducted. Upon adipogenesis, the sizes, lipid staining and mRNA expressions of adipogenesis related genes, Col 4 and Col 6 were dramatically increased, and were further enhanced by ROCK-i. Micro-squeezer analysis demonstrated that adipogenesis resulted in a marked less stiffed 3D organoid and this was further enhanced by ROCK-i. Our present study indicates that ROCK-i significantly enhanced the production of large lipid-enriched 3T3-L1 3D organoids.
  7. Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Mar 17. pii: S0163-7258(21)00038-3. [Epub ahead of print] 107836
      The primary cilium projects from the surface of most vertebrate cells, where it senses extracellular signals to regulate diverse cellular processes during tissue development and homeostasis. Dysfunction of primary cilia underlies the pathogenesis of severe diseases, commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Primary cilia contain a unique protein repertoire that is distinct from the cell body and the plasma membrane, enabling the spatially controlled transduction of extracellular cues. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key in sensing environmental stimuli that are transmitted through second messenger signaling into a cellular response. Here, we will give an overview of the role of GPCR signaling in primary cilia, and how ciliary GPCR signaling can be targeted by pharmacology, chemogenetics, and optogenetics.
    Keywords:  Ca(2+); Cilia; GPCR; Second messengers; cAMP
  8. Mol Med Rep. 2021 May;pii: 379. [Epub ahead of print]23(5):
      Osteoblasts are sensitive to ionizing radiation. The small GTPase RhoA and its effector Rho‑associated protein kinase (ROCK) are critical to several cellular functions, including cytoskeleton reorganization, cell survival, and cell differentiation. However, whether the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of osteoblast cytoskeleton reorganization and differentiation induced by low‑dose X‑ray irradiation remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway in mediating differentiation of osteoblasts and reorganization of the cytoskeleton under low‑dose X‑ray irradiation. Osteoblasts were pretreated with the ROCK kinase‑specific inhibitor (Y‑27632) before exposure to low‑dose X‑ray irradiation. The changes of F‑actin in MC3T3 cells were observed at different time points following X‑ray irradiation. Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay, alkaline phosphatase activity, Alizarin red staining and western blotting were used to detect the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts after 0.5‑Gy X‑ray irradiation. In the present study, low‑dose X‑ray irradiation promoted the expression of genes associated with the cytoskeleton reorganization. Indeed, the results showed that, 0.5‑Gy X‑ray irradiation can induce reorganization of cytoskeleton and promote differentiation of osteoblasts through the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. Additionally, inhibiting ROCK activity blocked low‑dose X‑ray irradiation‑induced LIMK2 phosphorylation, stress fiber formation and cell differentiation. Thus, these results demonstrated the excitatory effects of low‑dose X‑ray irradiation on MC3T3‑E1 cells, including reorganization of the cytoskeleton and differentiation of osteoblasts.
  9. J Reprod Dev. 2021 Mar 21.
      The underlying functional and molecular changes in canine primary uterine inertia (PUI) are still not clarified. Leptin (Lep) and obesity negatively affect uterine contractility in women, partly mediated by the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway, affecting myometrial calcium sensitization. We hypothesized that increased uterine Lep/Lep receptor (LepR) or decreased RhoA/Rho kinase expression contributes to PUI in dogs, independent of obesity. Dogs presented for dystocia were grouped into PUI (n = 11) or obstructive dystocia (OD, still showing strong labor contractions; n = 7). Interplacental full-thickness uterine biopsies were collected during Cesarean section for relative gene expression (RGE) of RhoA, its effector kinases (ROCK1, ROCK2), Lep and LepR by qPCR. Protein and/or mRNA expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. RGE was compared between groups by one-way ANOVA using body weight as covariate with statistical significance P < 0.05. Uterine ROCK1 and ROCK2 gene expression was significantly higher in PUI than OD, while RhoA and Lep did not differ. LepR RGE was below the detection limit in 5 PUI and all OD dogs. Litter size had no influence. Lep, LepR, RhoA, ROCK1, ROCK2 protein and/or mRNA were localized in the myometrium and endometrium. Uterine protein expression appeared similar between groups. LepR mRNA signals appeared stronger in PUI than OD. In conclusion, lasting, strong labor contractions in OD resulted in downregulation of uterine ROCK1 and ROCK2, contrasting the higher expression in PUI dogs with insufficient contractions. The Lep-LepR system may affect uterine contractility in non-obese PUI dogs in a paracrine-autocrine manner.
    Keywords:  Canine; Contractility; Dystocia; ROCK; Uterus
  10. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 623734
      Ciliopathies are a group of heterogeneous inherited disorders associated with dysfunction of the cilium, a ubiquitous microtubule-based organelle involved in a broad range of cellular functions. Most ciliopathies are syndromic, since several organs whose cells produce a cilium, such as the retina, cochlea or kidney, are affected by mutations in ciliary-related genes. In the retina, photoreceptor cells present a highly specialized neurosensory cilium, the outer segment, stacked with membranous disks where photoreception and phototransduction occurs. The daily renewal of the more distal disks is a unique characteristic of photoreceptor outer segments, resulting in an elevated protein demand. All components necessary for outer segment formation, maintenance and function have to be transported from the photoreceptor inner segment, where synthesis occurs, to the cilium. Therefore, efficient transport of selected proteins is critical for photoreceptor ciliogenesis and function, and any alteration in either cargo delivery to the cilium or intraciliary trafficking compromises photoreceptor survival and leads to retinal degeneration. To date, mutations in more than 100 ciliary genes have been associated with retinal dystrophies, accounting for almost 25% of these inherited rare diseases. Interestingly, not all mutations in ciliary genes that cause retinal degeneration are also involved in pleiotropic pathologies in other ciliated organs. Depending on the mutation, the same gene can cause syndromic or non-syndromic retinopathies, thus emphasizing the highly refined specialization of the photoreceptor neurosensory cilia, and raising the possibility of photoreceptor-specific molecular mechanisms underlying common ciliary functions such as ciliary transport. In this review, we will focus on ciliary transport in photoreceptor cells and discuss the molecular complexity underpinning retinal ciliopathies, with a special emphasis on ciliary genes that, when mutated, cause either syndromic or non-syndromic retinal ciliopathies.
    Keywords:  ciliary transport; ciliopathy; inherited retinal dystrophies; intraflagellar transport; photoreceptor; sensory cilium
  11. Mol Med Rep. 2021 May;pii: 392. [Epub ahead of print]23(5):
      Tight junction dysregulation and epithelial damage contribute to intestinal barrier loss in patients with acute liver failure (ALF); however, the regulatory mechanisms of these processes remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes of intestinal tight junction and intestinal mucosa in mice with ALF and their mechanisms. In the present study, ALF was induced in mice through an intraperitoneal injection of D‑galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide (D‑GalN/LPS), and the morphological changes of the liver or small intestine were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The intestinal tissues and isolated serum were analyzed using western blotting, immunofluorescence staining and ELISA. D‑GalN/LPS‑induced mice exhibited signs of hepatocyte necrosis, alongside inflammatory cell infiltration into the liver tissue and partial microvilli detachment in the small intestinal mucosa. TEM demonstrated that the intestinal epithelial tight junctions were impaired, whereas SEM micrographs revealed the presence of abnormal microvilli in D‑GalN/LPS‑induced mice. In addition, the expression levels of phosphorylated (p)‑myosin light chain (MLC), MLC kinase (MLCK) and Rho‑associated kinase (ROCK) were significantly increased in the D‑GalN/LPS‑induced mice compared with those in the control mice, whereas the subsequent inhibition of MLCK or ROCK significantly reduced p‑MLC expression levels. Conversely, the expression levels of occludin and zonula occludens‑1 (ZO‑1) were significantly decreased in the D‑GalN/LPS‑induced mice, and the inhibition of MLCK or ROCK significantly increased occludin and ZO‑1 protein expression levels compared with those in the control group. Changes in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) and interleukin (IL)‑6 were similar to the trend observed in p‑MLC expression levels. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggested that in a D‑GalN/LPS‑induced ALF model, TNF‑α and IL‑6 signaling may increase MLCK and ROCK expression levels, further mediate phosphorylation of MLC, which may result in tight junction dysregulation and intestinal barrier dysfunction.
  12. J Cell Sci. 2021 Mar 26. pii: jcs.258364. [Epub ahead of print]
      The lipid composition of the primary cilia membrane is emerging as a critical regulator of cilia formation, maintenance, and function. Here, we show that conditional deletion of the phosphoinositide 5'-phosphatase gene, Inpp5e, causative of Joubert syndrome in terminally developed mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) led to a dramatic remodeling of ciliary phospholipids that was accompanied by marked elongation of cilia. PI(4,5)P2 normally restricted to the proximal segment redistributed to the entire length of cilia in Inpp5e knockout mice with a reduction in PI(3,4)P2 and elevation of PI(3,4,5)P3 in the dendritic knob. The redistribution of phosphoinositides impaired odor adaptation, resulting in less efficient recovery and altered inactivation kinetics of the odor-evoked electrical response and the odor-induced elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ Gene replacement by adenoviral expression of Inpp5e restored the ciliary localization of PI(4,5)P2 and odor response kinetics in OSNs. Our findings support the role of phosphoinositides as a modulator of the odor response and in ciliary biology of native multi-ciliated OSNs.
    Keywords:  INPP5E; Mouse; Odor response; Olfactory cilia; Phospholipids
  13. Math Biosci Eng. 2021 Jan 15. 18(2): 1215-1237
      Primary cilia are non-motile, solitary (one per cell) microtubule-based organelles that emerge from the mother centriole after cells have exited the mitotic cycle. Identified as a mechanosensing organelle that responds to both mechanical and chemical stimuli, the primary cilium provides a fertile ground for integrative investigations of mathematical modeling, numerical simulations, and experiments. Recent experimental findings revealed considerable complexity to the underlying mechanosensory mechanisms that transmit extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling many of which include primary cilia. In this invited review, we provide a brief survey of experimental findings on primary cilia and how these results lead to various mathematical models of the mechanics of the primary cilium bent under an external forcing such as a fluid flow or a trap. Mathematical modeling of the primary cilium as a fluid-structure interaction problem highlights the importance of basal anchorage and the anisotropic moduli of the microtubules. As theoretical modeling and numerical simulations progress, along with improved state-of-the-art experiments on primary cilia, we hope that details of ciliary regulated mechano-chemical signaling dynamics in cellular physiology will be understood in the near future.
    Keywords:   cilium ; elastohydrodynamics ; fluid-structure interactions ; mechanosensing ; slender-body
  14. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 632882
      Background: Hair follicle tissue engineering is a promising strategy for treating hair loss. Human hair follicle stem cells (hHFSCs), which play a key role in the hair cycle, have potential applications in regenerative medicine. However, previous studies did not achieve efficient hHFSC expansion in vitro using feeder cells. Therefore, there is a need to develop an efficient primary culture system for the expansion and maintenance of hHFSCs.Methods: The hHFSCs were obtained by two-step proteolytic digestion combined with microscopy. The cell culture dishes were coated with human fibronectin and inoculated with hHFSCs. The hHFSCs were harvested using a differential enrichment procedure. The effect of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632, supplemented in keratinocyte serum-free medium (K-SFM), on adhesion, proliferation, and stemness of hHFSCs and the underlying molecular mechanisms were evaluated.
    Results: The hHFSCs cultured in K-SFM, supplemented with Y-27632, exhibited enhanced adhesion and proliferation. Additionally, Y-27632 treatment maintained the stemness of hHFSCs and promoted the ability of hHFSCs to regenerate hair follicles in vivo. However, Y-27632-induced proliferation and stemness in hHFSCs were conditional and reversible. Furthermore, Y-27632 maintained propagation and stemness of hHFSCs through the ERK/MAPK pathway.
    Conclusion: An efficient short-term culture system for primary hHFSCs was successfully established using human fibronectin and the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632, which promoted the proliferation, maintained the stemness of hHFSCs and promoted the ability to regenerate hair follicles in vivo. The xenofree culturing method used in this study provided a large number of high-quality seed cells, which have applications in hair follicle tissue engineering and stem cell therapy.
    Keywords:  ERK/MAPK pathway; Y-27632; hair follicle tissue engineering; human hair follicle stem cells; primary culture system
  15. Gerontology. 2021 Mar 22. 1-15
      INTRODUCTION: Vasoconstriction is triggered by an increase in intracellular-free calcium concentration. Growing evidence indicates that contraction is also regulated by calcium-independent mechanisms involving RhoA-Rho kinase (ROCK), protein kinase C (PKC), and so on. In this study, we studied the changes of vascular reactivity as well as the underlying signaling pathways in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).METHODS: The artery tension induced by α1-adrenergic receptor activator (α1-AR) phenylephrine (PE) was measured in the absence or presence of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), PKC, and ROCK inhibitors. The α1-AR, PKC, ROCK, phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC), and PKC-potentiated phosphatase inhibitors of 17 kDa (CPI-17) of rat mesenteric arteries were analyzed at the mRNA level or protein level.
    RESULTS: The vascular tension measurements showed that there was a significant increase in the mesenteric artery contraction induced by PE in old SHR. MLCK inhibitor ML-7 can similarly inhibit PE-induced vasoconstriction. PKC inhibitor GF109203X has the weakest inhibitory effect on PE-induced contraction in old SHR. At the presence of ROCK inhibitor H1152, PE-induced contraction was significantly reduced in young Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, but this phenomenon disappeared in other rats. Furthermore, in old SHR the protein expression of α1-AR decreased and phosphorylation of MLC and CPI-17 were upregulated and MLC phosphatase (MLCP) activity was significantly lower. The expressions of PKC were upregulated in SHR and old rats. In addition, the expression of ROCK-1 was decreased and ROCK-2 was significantly upregulated with age in SHR.
    CONCLUSION: In aging hypertension, the expression/activity of PKC or ROCK-2/CPI-17 excessively increased, MLCP activity decreased and MLC phosphorylation enhanced, leading to increased α1-AR-induced vasoconstriction.
    Keywords:  Aging hypertension; Mesenteric artery smooth muscle; Myosin light chain phosphorylation; Protein kinase C; α1-Adrenergic receptor-induced contraction
  16. Metab Brain Dis. 2021 Mar 20.
      Ischemic stroke is one of the most common and undertreated cerebral diseases with high mortality and disability rate. Various intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate the onset, severity, and progression of ischemic stroke. As an integral part of the neuronal glia system, astrocytes provide many housekeeping functions in nervous system, and perform multiple functions both beneficial and detrimental for neuronal survival after ischemic stroke. In addition, the small GTPase Rho and its downstream Rho kinase (ROCK) are associated with various neuronal functions such as dendrite development, migration and axonal extension, and numerous central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The aim of this review is to summarize the role of RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway and astrocytes on neurological function after ischemic stroke. We also discuss the interaction of RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway and astrocytes on the tissue repair after brain injury.
    Keywords:  Angiogenesis; Astrocyte; Ischemic stroke; Neurogenesis; Shh
  17. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2021 Mar 26. 1-9
      It has been clearly indicated that osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory and degenerative disease that could be promoted by Rho-kinase (ROCK); however, little is known about the role of ROCK/inhibitor κB alpha (IκB-α)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 pathway activation in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress in primary human chondrocytes. To test this hypothesis, we focused on determining ROCK-II, IκB-α, p-IκB-α, NF-κB p65, p-NF-κB p65, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p22phox, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subtype 4 (NOX4) protein expression, ROCK-II activity, NADPH oxidase levels, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the presence and absence of ROCK-inhibitor fasudil. IL-1β (2 ng·mL-1, 24 h) increased the expression of ROCK-II, p-IκB-α, NF-κB p65, p-NF-κB p65, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, and p22phox proteins, and decreased the expression of IκB-α, and the NOX4 protein level did not alter. ROCK activity and NADPH oxidase levels were increased, whereas the TAC was decreased by IL-1β. Fasudil (10-5-10-7 M) reversed all these changes induced by IL-1β. These results demonstrate that ROCK/IκB-α/NF-κB p65 pathway activation contributes to the IL-1β-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress, and thus, ROCK inhibition might be a beneficial treatment option for OA patients mainly based on its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
    Keywords:  IL-1β; IκB-α; NF-κB; Rho-kinase; arthrose; chondrocytes humains; human chondrocytes; osteoarthritis
  18. J Immunol. 2021 Mar 24. pii: ji2001266. [Epub ahead of print]
      Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) composed of a scaffold subunit, a catalytic subunit, and multiple regulatory subunits is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine phosphatase. We have previously shown that the PP2A catalytic subunit is increased in T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and promotes IL-17 production by enhancing the activity of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) in T cells. However, the molecular mechanism whereby PP2A regulates ROCK activity is unknown. In this study, we show that the PP2A regulatory subunit PPP2R2A is increased in T cells from people with systemic lupus erythematosus and binds to, dephosphorylates, and activates the guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEF-H1 at Ser885, which in turn increases the levels of RhoA-GTP and the activity of ROCK in T cells. Genetic PPP2R2A deficiency in murine T cells reduced Th1 and Th17, but not regulatory T cell differentiation and mice with T cell-specific PPP2R2A deficiency displayed less autoimmunity when immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide. Our studies indicate that PPP2R2A is the regulatory subunit that dictates the PP2A-directed enhanced Th1 and Th17 differentiation, and therefore, it represents a therapeutic target for pathologies linked to Th1 and Th17 cell expansion.
  19. J Cell Biol. 2021 May 03. pii: e202008090. [Epub ahead of print]220(5):
      Centrioles form centrosomes and cilia. In most proliferating cells, centrioles assemble through canonical duplication, which is spatially, temporally, and numerically regulated by the cell cycle and the presence of mature centrioles. However, in certain cell types, centrioles assemble de novo, yet by poorly understood mechanisms. Herein, we established a controlled system to investigate de novo centriole biogenesis, using Drosophila melanogaster egg explants overexpressing Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4), a trigger for centriole biogenesis. We show that at a high Plk4 concentration, centrioles form de novo, mature, and duplicate, independently of cell cycle progression and of the presence of other centrioles. Plk4 concentration determines the temporal onset of centriole assembly. Moreover, our results suggest that distinct biochemical kinetics regulate de novo and canonical biogenesis. Finally, we investigated which other factors modulate de novo centriole assembly and found that proteins of the pericentriolar material (PCM), and in particular γ-tubulin, promote biogenesis, likely by locally concentrating critical components.
  20. Br J Surg. 2021 Mar 24. pii: znab101. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Preoperative SARS-CoV-2 vaccination could support safer elective surgery. Vaccine numbers are limited so this study aimed to inform their prioritization by modelling.METHODS: The primary outcome was the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent one COVID-19-related death in 1 year. NNVs were based on postoperative SARS-CoV-2 rates and mortality in an international cohort study (surgical patients), and community SARS-CoV-2 incidence and case fatality data (general population). NNV estimates were stratified by age (18-49, 50-69, 70 or more years) and type of surgery. Best- and worst-case scenarios were used to describe uncertainty.
    RESULTS: NNVs were more favourable in surgical patients than the general population. The most favourable NNVs were in patients aged 70 years or more needing cancer surgery (351; best case 196, worst case 816) or non-cancer surgery (733; best case 407, worst case 1664). Both exceeded the NNV in the general population (1840; best case 1196, worst case 3066). NNVs for surgical patients remained favourable at a range of SARS-CoV-2 incidence rates in sensitivity analysis modelling. Globally, prioritizing preoperative vaccination of patients needing elective surgery ahead of the general population could prevent an additional 58 687 (best case 115 007, worst case 20 177) COVID-19-related deaths in 1 year.
    CONCLUSION: As global roll out of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination proceeds, patients needing elective surgery should be prioritized ahead of the general population.
  21. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Mar 30. pii: e2021942118. [Epub ahead of print]118(13):
      Activation of autophagy is one of the responses elicited by high intraocular pressure (IOP) and mechanical stretch in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. However, the mechanosensor and the molecular mechanisms by which autophagy is induced by mechanical stretch in these or other cell types is largely unknown. Here, we have investigated the mechanosensor and downstream signaling pathway that regulate cyclic mechanical stretch (CMS)-induced autophagy in TM cells. We report that primary cilia act as a mechanosensor for CMS-induced autophagy and identified a cross-regulatory talk between AKT1 and noncanonical SMAD2/3 signaling as critical components of primary cilia-mediated activation of autophagy by mechanical stretch. Furthermore, we demonstrated the physiological significance of our findings in ex vivo perfused eyes. Removal of primary cilia disrupted the homeostatic IOP compensatory response and prevented the increase in LC3-II protein levels in response to elevated pressure challenge, strongly supporting a role of primary cilia-mediated autophagy in regulating IOP homeostasis.
    Keywords:  autophagy; glaucoma; primary cilia; stretching; trabecular meshwork
  22. Shock. 2021 Mar 23.
      ABSTRACT: Vascular hypo-reactivity plays a critical role inducing organ injury during hemorrhagic shock. 17β-estradiol (E2) can induce vasodilation to increase blood flow in various vascular beds. This study observed whether E2 can restore vascular hypo-reactivity induced by hemorrhagic shock, and whether E2 effects are associated with RhoA - Rho kinase (ROCK)- myosin light chain kinase phosphatase (MLCP) pathway. The hemorrhagic shock model (40 ± 2 mmHg for 1 h, resuscitation for 4 h) was established in ovary intact sham operation (OVI), ovariectomized (OVX) and OVX plus E2 supplement female mice. Intestinal microvascular loop was used to assess blood flow in vivo, mRNA expression and vascular reactivity in vitro. Hemorrhagic shock significantly reduced norepinephrine microvascular reactivity. Decreased microvascular reactivity was exacerbated by OVX and reversed by E2 supplement. U-46619 (RhoA agonist) increased microvascular reactivity, and C3 transferase (an ADP ribosyl transferase that selectively induces RhoA ribosylation) or Y-27632 (ROCK inhibitor) inhibited sham mice microvascular reactivity. Similarly, U-46619 increased microvascular reactivity in OVI and OVX mice following hemorrhagic shock, which was abolished by Y-27632 or concomitant incubation of okadaic acid (OA) (MLCP inhibitor) and Y-27632. In OVX plus E2 supplement mice with hemorrhagic shock, Y-27632 inhibited microvascular reactivity, which was abolished by concomitant U-46619 application. Lastly, hemorrhagic shock remarkably decreased intestinal loop blood flow, RhoA and ROCK mRNA expressions in vascular tissues in OVX females, but not in OVI females, which were reversed by E2 supplement. These results indicate that estrogen improves microvascular reactivity during hemorrhagic shock, and RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway may mediate E2 effects.
  23. BMC Gastroenterol. 2021 Mar 09. 21(1): 115
      BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) remains the curative treatment for symptomatic Polycystic Liver Disease (PCLD) patients and is associated with excellent survival rates. The aim of the study is to review the Ontario experience in LT for PCLD.METHODS: A retrospective study was performed from pre-existing LT databases from the LT Units at Toronto General Hospital and London Health Sciences Center, which are the two LT programs in Ontario, Canada. This database contains demographic, clinical parameters and follow-up of all patients transplanted for PCLD. Data was extracted for patients who underwent LT between January 2000-April 2017 and included follow up until December 31st, 2018.
    RESULTS: A total of 3560 patients underwent LT, of whom 51 (1.4%) had PCLD and met inclusion criteria. 43 (84%) of these patients were female. The median physiologic Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD-Na) score at time of referral was 13 (IQR = 7-22), however all patients required MELD-Na exception points to receive LT. The median age of transplant was 62 years (IQR = 59-64) for male vs. 52 (IQR = 45-56) for female patients. 33 (65%) of our cohort had PCLD while 9 (17.5%) had ADPKD and 9 (17.5%) had both diseases. 39 (76%) had LT due to symptoms of mass effect, while 8 (16%) had portal hypertensive complications. After a median follow-up of 6.3 (IQR = 2.9-12.5) years, the probability of survival was 96% (95% CI: 90%, 100%). Log-rank test, comparing survival analysis between males and females did not show a statistically significant difference (p = 0.26).
    CONCLUSION: Most patients underwent LT for PCLD due to symptoms of mass effect with women being more likely than men to undergo LT. LT for PCLD had excellent long-term survival.
    Keywords:  Liver transplantation; PCLD outcome; Polycystic liver disease
  24. Mol Biol Rep. 2021 Mar 23.
      Nesfatin-1 as a new energy-regulating peptide has been known to display a pivotal role in modulation of cardiovascular functions and protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the detailed knowledge about molecular mechanisms underlying this protection has not been completely investigated yet. This study was designed to clarify the molecular mechanisms by which nesfatin-1 exert cardioprotection effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R). Left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was ligated for 30 min to create a MI/R model in rats. MI/R rats were treated with three concentrations of nesfatin-1 (10, 15 and 20 µg/kg) then expression of necroptosis and necrosis mediators were measured by western blotting assay. Fibrosis, morphological damages, cardiac function, myocardial injury indictors and oxidative stress factors were evaluated as well. Induction of MI/R model resulted in cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, increased activity of RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL axis and RhoA/ROCK pathway, extension of fibrosis and heart tissue damage. Highest tested concentration of nesfatin-1 markedly improved cardiac function. Moreover, it reduced oxidative stress, collagen deposition, and morphological damages, through inhibiting the expression of necroptosis mediators and also, necrosis including RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL, ROCK1, and ROCK2 proteins. The lowest and middle tested concentrations of nesfatin-1 failed to exert protective effects against MI/R. These findings have shown that nesfatin-1 can exert cardioprotection against MI/R in a dose dependent manner by suppressing necroptosis via modulation of RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL axis and RhoA/ROCK/RIP3 signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  Myocardial infarction; Necroptosis; Nesfatin-1; RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL axis
  25. Dev Cell. 2021 Mar 16. pii: S1534-5807(21)00203-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Adenosine N6-methylation (m6A) is one of the most pervasive mRNA modifications, and yet the physiological significance of m6A removal (demethylation) remains elusive. Here, we report that the m6A demethylase FTO functions as a conserved regulator of motile ciliogenesis. Mechanistically, FTO demethylates and thereby stabilizes the mRNA that encodes the master ciliary transcription factor FOXJ1. Depletion of Fto in Xenopus laevis embryos caused widespread motile cilia defects, and Foxj1 was identified as one of the major phenocritical targets. In primary human airway epithelium, FTO depletion also led to FOXJ1 mRNA destabilization and a severe loss of ciliated cells with an increase of neighboring goblet cells. Consistently, Fto knockout mice showed strong asthma-like phenotypes upon allergen challenge, a result owing to defective ciliated cells in the airway epithelium. Altogether, our study reveals a conserved role of the FTO-FOXJ1 axis in embryonic and homeostatic motile ciliogenesis.
    Keywords:  FOXJ1; FTO; N6-methyladenosine; RNA modification; airway epithelium; asthma; m6A; motile ciliogenesis