bims-bicyki Biomed News
on Bicaudal-C1 and interactors in cystic kidney disease
Issue of 2021‒03‒21
ten papers selected by
Céline Gagnieux
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)

  1. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 623753
      Primary cilia act as crucial regulators of embryo development and tissue homeostasis. They are instrumental for modulation of several signaling pathways, including Hedgehog, WNT, and TGF-β. However, gaps exist in our understanding of how cilia formation and function is regulated. Recent work has implicated WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in the regulation of ciliogenesis, yet the results are conflicting. One model suggests that WNT/β-catenin signaling negatively regulates cilia formation, possibly via effects on cell cycle. In contrast, second model proposes a positive role of WNT/β-catenin signaling on cilia formation, mediated by the re-arrangement of centriolar satellites in response to phosphorylation of the key component of WNT/β-catenin pathway, β-catenin. To clarify these discrepancies, we investigated possible regulation of primary cilia by the WNT/β-catenin pathway in cell lines (RPE-1, NIH3T3, and HEK293) commonly used to study ciliogenesis. We used WNT3a to activate or LGK974 to block the pathway, and examined initiation of ciliogenesis, cilium length, and percentage of ciliated cells. We show that the treatment by WNT3a has no- or lesser inhibitory effect on cilia formation. Importantly, the inhibition of secretion of endogenous WNT ligands using LGK974 blocks WNT signaling but does not affect ciliogenesis. Finally, using knock-out cells for key WNT pathway components, namely DVL1/2/3, LRP5/6, or AXIN1/2 we show that neither activation nor deactivation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway affects the process of ciliogenesis. These results suggest that WNT/β-catenin-mediated signaling is not generally required for efficient cilia formation. In fact, activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway in some systems seems to moderately suppress ciliogenesis.
    Keywords:  HEK293; NIH3T3; RPE-1; Wnt/β-catenin; Wnt3a; cell signaling; ciliogenesis; primary cilia
  2. Kidney Int Rep. 2021 Mar;6(3): 755-767
      Introduction: Cystic expansion damaging the parenchyma is thought to lead to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Here we characterized genotypic and phenotypic attributes of ADPKD at time of ESKD.Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with ADPKD with ESKD evaluated at Mayo Clinic with available abdominal computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Kidney volumes were measured (total kidney volume adjusted for height [HtTKV]), Mayo Image Class (MIC) calculated, ADPKD genotype determined, and clinical and laboratory features obtained from medical records.
    Results: Differences in HtTKV at ESKD were associated with patient age and sex; older patients and women had smaller HtTKV at ESKD. HtTKV at ESKD was observed to be 12.3% smaller with each decade of age (P < 0.01); but significant only in women (17.8%, P < 0.01; men 6.9%, P = 0.06). Patients with onset of ESKD at <47, 47-61, or >61 years had different characteristics, with a shift from youngest to oldest in male to female enrichment, MIC from 1D/1E to 1B/1C, likely fully penetrant PKD1 mutations from 95% to 42%, and presence of macrovascular disease from 8% to 40%. Macrovascular disease was associated with smaller kidneys in female patients.
    Conclusion: HtTKV at ESKD was smaller with advancing age in patients with ADPKD, particularly in women. These novel findings provide insight into possible underlying mechanisms leading to ESKD, which differ between younger and older individuals. Cystic growth is the predominant mechanism in younger patients with ESKD, whereas aging-related factors, including vascular disease, becomes potentially important as patients age.
    Keywords:  ADPKD; Aging; Characteristics of ESKD in ADPKD; ESKD; Gender; Polycystic Kidney Disease; TKV; Total Kidney Volume
  3. Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Mar 11. pii: S0753-3322(21)00239-0. [Epub ahead of print]138 111454
      Metformin is an oral antihyperglycemic drug widely used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), acting via indirect activation of 5' Adenosine monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK). Beyond the anti-diabetic effect, accumulative pieces of evidence have revealed that metformin also everts a beneficial effect in diverse kidney diseases. In various acute kidney diseases (AKI) animal models, metformin protects renal tubular cells from inflammation, apoptosis, reactive oxygen stress (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via AMPK activation. In diabetic kidney disease (DKD), metformin also alleviates podocyte loss, mesangial cells apoptosis, and tubular cells senescence through AMPK-mediated signaling pathways. Besides, metformin inhibits cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated fluids secretion and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-involved cyst formation negatively regulated by AMPK in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (APDKD). Furthermore, metformin also contributes to the alleviation of urolithiasis and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). As the common pathway for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progressing towards end-stage renal disease (ESRD), renal fibrosis is ameliorated by metformin, to a great extent dependent on AMPK activation. However, clinical data are not always consistent with preclinical data, some clinical investigations showed the unmeaningful even detrimental effect of metformin on T2DM patients with kidney diseases. Most importantly, metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) is a vital issue restricting the application of metformin. Thus, we conclude the application of metformin in kidney diseases and uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms in this review.
    Keywords:  Acute kidney injury; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; Diabetic kidney disease; Metformin; Metformin-associated lactic acidosis; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  4. Commun Biol. 2021 Mar 16. 4(1): 341
      During the developmental processes of embryos, cells undergo massive deformation and division that are regulated by mechanical cues. However, little is known about how embryonic cells change their mechanical properties during different cleavage stages. Here, using atomic force microscopy, we investigated the stiffness of cells in ascidian embryos from the fertilised egg to the stage before gastrulation. In both animal and vegetal hemispheres, we observed a Rho kinase (ROCK)-independent cell stiffening that the cell stiffness exhibited a remarkable increase at the timing of cell division where cortical actin filaments were organized. Furthermore, in the vegetal hemisphere, we observed another mechanical behaviour, i.e., a ROCK-associated cell stiffening, which was retained even after cell division or occurred without division and propagated sequentially toward adjacent cells, displaying a characteristic cell-to-cell mechanical variation. The results indicate that the mechanical properties of embryonic cells are regulated at the single cell level in different germ layers.
  5. Gulf J Oncolog. 2021 Jan;1(35): 42-53
      INTRODUCTION: It is well established that the PKHD1 mutations are associated with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Although, PKHD1 mutations are also detected in certain cancer types, to our knowledge in rare tumors such as, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT), primary neuro-ectodermal tumor (PNET), atypicalchoroid plexus papilloma (a-CPP), amelanotic ano-rectal melanoma (AMM), and breast phyllodes tumors PKHD1 mutations profiling is not reported.METHODS: In order to determine the PKHD1 gene mutation patterns in the brain, rectal, and breast tumors we have analyzed these tumor DNA by Ion Proton Next generation DNA sequencing.
    RESULTS: Next-generation DNA sequencing on Ion Proton identified unique and common missense mutations in the brain, breast and ano-rectal tumors. All mutations were benign, and only one pathogenic mutation in p. (Cys3346Arg) found in AMM tumor. In phyllodes tumor of breast, two unique missense variants were detected (rs113562492) p. (Met2841Val); and (rs137972270) in p. (Arg589Cys) and these variants are not present in other tumors tested. The variant rs137972270 was reported only in two cases sofar in ClinVar database. Missense variants such as rs115045643, rs116809571, rs115338476, and rs76895755 are found only in PNET, and a variant rs62406032 in a-CPP, another one rs35445653 in ATRT cases were unique for these tumors, which are not present in other tumors. Several synonymous and intronic variants of PKHD1 gene were also found in these tumors. A synonymous variant p. (Asp395Asp), rs1896976 and two intronic SNPs viz., rs1326605, and rs1571084 were found in all tumors tested. The SNP rs9395699 in IVS66 was found uniquely in IPC breast tumor only in this study. Allele coverage, allele ratio, p-value, Phred qual score, sequencing coverage, alleles frequencies were also analysed, the p-values and Phred quality score were significantly higher.
    CONCLUSION: These tumors did not have any insertion/ deletion mutations, nonsense, or truncated mutations in it. The screening of PKHD1 gene revealed signature mutations for the solid tumors studied by NGS method. This investigation may help in understanding these tumor pathology at molecular level.
  6. Exp Ther Med. 2021 Apr;21(4): 317
      Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC) are two types of head and neck cancers with high incidence rates and relatively poor prognoses. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of microRNA (miR/miRNA)-136-5p and its downstream target, Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), on LSCC and HPSCC progression and cisplatin sensitivity. The miRNA and protein expression levels in head and neck cancer cell lines were evaluated using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. MTT, wound healing assays, transwell assays and flow cytometry analysis were performed to measure cell properties. The binding between miR-136-5p and ROCK1 was detected using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Autophagy double-labeled adenoviral infection assays were used to assess cell autophagy. The results showed that miR-136-5p was expressed in LSCC and HPSCC cells. Functional experiments showed that the expression of miR-136-5p in LSCC and HPSCC cells was negatively correlated with cell viability, invasion and migration. Additionally, miR-136-5p overexpression inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition, whereas miR-136-5p knockdown had the opposite effect. Dual-luciferase reporter assays confirmed the targeting relationship between miR-136-5p and ROCK1. miR-136-5p overexpression increased the cisplatin sensitivity of LSCC and HPSCC cells by reducing cell viability, as well as promoting cell apoptosis and autophagy. miR-136-5p overexpression decreased the expression levels of its downstream target ROCK1 and attenuated activity of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in cisplatin-treated LSCC and HPSCC cells. Conversely, miR-136-5p knockdown increased ROCK1 levels and decreased cisplatin sensitivity of the LSCC and HPSCC cells by increasing cell viability and inhibiting cell apoptosis, which was reversed by ROCK1 inhibition using the ROCK1 inhibitor, Y27632. Taken together, the results showed that the miR-136-5p/ROCK1 axis inhibits cell invasion and migration, and increases the sensitivity of LSCC and HPSCC cells to cisplatin.
    Keywords:  Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1; cell invasion; cell migration; cisplatin sensitivity; hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma; laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma; microRNA-136-5p
  7. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2021 Mar 10. 1-19
      Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK1) regulates cell contraction, morphology, and motility by phosphorylating its downstream targets. ROCK1 is a proven target for many pathological conditions like cancer, atherosclerosis, glaucoma, neuro-degeneration, etc. Though many kinase inhibitors are available, there is a dearth of studies on repurposing approved drugs and novel peptide inhibitors that could potentially target ROCK1. Hence, in this study, an extensive integration of open-source pipelines was employed to probe the potential inhibitors (ligand/peptide) for targeting ROCK1. To start with, a systematic enrichment analysis was performed to delineate the most optimal ROCK1 crystal structure that can be harnessed for drug design. A comparative analysis of conformational flexibility between monomeric and dimeric forms was also performed to prioritize the optimal assembly for structural studies. Subsequently, Virtual screening of FDA-approved drugs in Drugbank was performed using POAP pipeline. Further, the top hits were probed for binding affinity, crucial interaction fingerprints, and complex stability during MD simulation. In parallel, a combinatorial tetrapeptide library was also virtually screened against ROCK1 using the PepVis pipeline. Following which, all these shortlisted inhibitors (compounds/peptides) were subjected to Kinomerun analysis to infer other potential kinase targets. Finally, Polydatin and conivaptan were prioritized as the most potential repurposable inhibitors, and WWWF, WWVW as potential inhibitory peptides for targeting ROCK1. The prioritized inhibitors are highly promising for use in therapeutics, as these are resultants of the multilevel stringent filtration process. The computational strategies implemented in this study could potentially serve as a scaffold towards selective inhibitor design for other kinases.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
    Keywords:  KinomeRun; ROCK1; repurposing; tetrapeptide screening; virtual screening
  8. Oncol Lett. 2021 Apr;21(4): 292
      Urotensin II (UII), a vital vasoconstrictor peptide, causes an inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have reported that the Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA)/Rho kinases (ROCK) pathway modulates the inflammatory response of the atherosclerotic process. However, to the best of our knowledge, whether the RhoA/ROCK pathway mediates the inflammatory effect of UII has not been previously elucidated. Salidroside and isorhamnetin are two early developed antioxidant Tibetan drugs, both displaying cardioprotective effects against atherosclerosis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of salidroside, isorhamnetin or combination of these two drugs on the UII-induced inflammatory response in vivo (rats) or in vitro [primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)], as well as to examine the role of the RhoA/ROCK pathway in these processes. The levels of inflammatory markers were measured via ELISA. The mRNA and protein expression levels of RhoA and ROCK II were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR assay and western blot analysis. It was demonstrated that salidroside, isorhamnetin and both in combination decreased the levels of the serum pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as increased the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in rats with subacute infusion of UII and in the culture supernatant from primary VSMCs-exposed to UII. Moreover, salidroside, isorhamnetin and both in combination attenuated the mRNA and protein expression levels of RhoA and ROCK II in vivo and in vitro, at concentrations corresponding to human therapeutic blood plasma concentrations. Thus, these drugs could inhibit the RhoA/ROCK II pathway under UII conditions. The combination of salidroside and isorhamnetin did not display a stronger inhibitory effect on the inflammatory response and the RhoA/ROCK II pathway compared with salidroside and isorhamnetin in isolation. Collectively, the results indicated that salidroside, isorhamnetin and both in combination inhibited the RhoA/ROCK II pathway, which then attenuated the inflammatory response under UII-induced conditions, resulting in cardioprotection in atherosclerosis.
    Keywords:  Ras homolog gene family; atherosclerosis; inflammatory response; isorhamnetin; member A/Rho kinases II pathway; salidroside; urotensin II
  9. Cell Signal. 2021 Mar 16. pii: S0898-6568(21)00070-X. [Epub ahead of print] 109982
      BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane (SEVO) inactivates the aggressiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by mediating microRNAs (miRNAs). Hence, we delved into the functional role of miR-148a-3p mediated by SEVO in HCC.METHODS: Liver cells (L02) and HCC cells (HCCLM3 and Huh7) were exposed to SEVO to detect cell viability in HCC. HCCLM3 and Huh7 cells were treated with restored miR-148a-3p or depleted Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) to elucidate their roles in HCC cells' biological characteristics. HCCLM3 and Huh7 cells were treated with SEVO, and/or vectors that changed miR-148a-3p or ROCK1 expression to identify their combined functions in HCC cell progression. Tumor xenograft in nude mice was performed to determine growth ability of tumor. The target relationship between miR-148a-3p and ROCK1 was verified.
    RESULTS: SEVO inhibited proliferation, invasion and migration and enhanced apoptosis of HCCLM3 and Huh7 cells. MiR-148a-3p up-regulation or ROCK1 down-regulation inhibited HCCLM3 and Huh7 cell progression. ROCK1 was determined to be target gene of miR-148a-3p. Down-regulating miR-148a-3p or overexpressing ROCK1 mitigated cell aggressiveness inhibition caused by SEVO.
    CONCLUSION: Our study elucidates that microRNA-148a-3p enhances the effects of sevoflurane on inhibiting proliferation, invasion and migration and enhancing apoptosis of HCC cells through suppression of ROCK1.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Invasion; Migration; Proliferation; Rho-associated kinase 1; Sevoflurane; microRNA-148a-3p