bims-bicyki Biomed News
on Bicaudal-C1 and interactors in cystic kidney disease
Issue of 2021‒02‒07
ten papers selected by
Céline Gagnieux
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)

  1. BMJ Case Rep. 2021 Feb 01. pii: e236237. [Epub ahead of print]14(2):
      Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inheritable form of renal cystic disease and is associated with cysts in other organs. Prostatic cysts are rare though and have not been reported in the paediatric population. Reported is the presence of a prostatic cyst that was incidentally noted on routine sonogram in a 15 year old with ADPKD.
    Keywords:  congenital disorders; paediatrics; prostate; renal medicine; urology
  2. Kidney360. 2020 Oct 29. 1(10): 1126-1136
      Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disorder characterized by renal cyst formation and enlargement of the kidney. PKD severity can be staged noninvasively by measuring total kidney volume (TKV), a promising biomarker that has recently received regulatory qualification. In preclinical mouse models, where the disease is studied and potential therapeutics are evaluated, the most popular noninvasive method of measuring TKV is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although MRI provides excellent 3D resolution and contrast, these systems are expensive to operate, have long acquisition times, and, consequently, are not heavily used in preclinical PKD research. In this study, a new imaging instrument, based on robotic ultrasound (US), was evaluated as a complementary approach for assessing PKD in rodent models. The objective was to determine the extent to which TKV measurements on the robotic US scanner correlated with both in vivo and ex vivo reference standards (MRI and Vernier calipers, respectively). A cross-sectional study design was implemented that included both PKD-affected mice and healthy wild types, spanning sex and age for a wide range of kidney volumes. It was found that US-derived TKV measurements and kidney lengths were strongly associated with both in vivo MRI and ex vivo Vernier caliper measurements (R 2=0.94 and 0.90, respectively). In addition to measuring TKV, renal vascular density was assessed using acoustic angiography (AA), a novel contrast-enhanced US methodology. AA image intensity, indicative of volumetric vascularity, was seen to have a strong negative correlation with TKV (R 2=0.82), suggesting impaired renal vascular function in mice with larger kidneys. These studies demonstrate that robotic US can provide a rapid and accurate approach for noninvasively evaluating PKD in rodent models.
  3. Chin J Nat Med. 2021 Jan;pii: S1875-5364(21)60004-3. [Epub ahead of print]19(1): 36-45
      Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease, the main causes of which include abnormal lipid metabolism, endothelial injury, physical and chemical injury, hemodynamic injury, genetic factors and so on. These causes can lead to inflammatory injury of blood vessels and local dysfunction. Bunao-Fuyuan decoction (BNFY) is a traditional Chinese medicine compound that can treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, but its effect on AS is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of BNFY in proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) on AS. At first, the expression of α-SMA protein in ox-LDL-induced VSMCs, which was detected by immunofluorescence staining and western blot. CCK-8 technique and cloning technique were used to detect the cell proliferation of ox-LDL-induced VSMCs after adding BNFY. Meanwhile, the expression of proliferating protein Ki67 was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Western blot was also used to detect the expression of proliferation-related proteins CDK2, CyclinE1 and P27. Flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of BNFY on cell cycle. The effects of BNFY on proliferation and migration of cells were detected by cell scratch test and Transwell. Western blot was used to detect the expression of adhesion factors ICAM1, VCAM1, muc1, VE-cadherin and RHOA/ROCK-related proteins in cells. We found that the expression of AS marker α-SMA protein increased significantly and cells shriveled and a few floated on the medium after induction of ox-LDL on VSCMs. The proliferation rate of ox-LDL VSMCs decreased significantly after adding different doses of BNFY, and BNFY can inhibit cell cycle. Meanwhile, we also found that cell invasion and migration rate were significantly inhibited and related cell adhesion factors ICAM1, VCAM1, muc1 and VE-cadherin were inhibited too by BNFY. Finally, we found that BNFY inhibited the expression of RHOA, ROCK1, ROCK2, p-MLC proteins in the RHOA/ROCK signaling pathway. Therefore, we can summarize that BNFY may inhibit the proliferation and migration of atherosclerotic vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the activity of RHOA/ROCK signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  Atherosclerosis; Bunao-Fuyuan decoction; Migration; Proliferation; RHOA/ROCK signaling pathway
  4. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2021 Feb 03. pii: gfab019. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Inherited kidney diseases are one of the leading causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that manifests before the age of 30 years. Precise clinical diagnosis of early-onset CKD is complicated due to the high phenotypic overlap, but genetic testing is a powerful diagnostic tool. We aimed to develop a genetic testing strategy to maximize the diagnostic yield for patients presenting with early-onset CKD and to determine the prevalence of the main causative genes.METHODS: We performed genetic testing of 460 patients with early-onset CKD of suspected monogenic cause using next-generation sequencing of a custom-designed kidney disease gene panel in addition to targeted screening for c.428dupC MUC1.
    RESULTS: We achieved a global diagnostic yield of 65% (300/460), which varied depending on the clinical diagnostic group: 77% in cystic kidney diseases, 76% in tubulopathies, 67% in autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease, 61% in glomerulopathies, and 38% in congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. Among the 300 genetically diagnosed patients, the clinical diagnosis was confirmed in 77%, a specific diagnosis within a clinical diagnostic group was identified in 15%, and 7% of cases were reclassified. Of the 64 causative genes identified in our cohort, seven (COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5, HNF1B, PKD1, PKD2, and PKHD1) accounted for 66% (198/300) of the genetically diagnosed patients.
    CONCLUSIONS: Two-thirds of patients with early-onset CKD in this cohort had a genetic cause. Just seven genes were responsible for the majority of diagnoses. Establishing a genetic diagnosis is crucial to define the precise etiology of CKD, which allows accurate genetic counseling and improved patient management.
    Keywords:  early-onset CKD; genetic testing; inherited kidney diseases; next generation sequencing
  5. Biol Open. 2021 Feb 03. pii: bio055640. [Epub ahead of print]10(2):
      Regulation of cell architecture is critical in the formation of tissues during animal development. The mechanisms that control cell shape must be both dynamic and stable in order to establish and maintain the correct cellular organization. Previous work has identified Shroom family proteins as essential regulators of cell morphology during vertebrate development. Shroom proteins regulate cell architecture by directing the subcellular distribution and activation of Rho-kinase, which results in the localized activation of non-muscle myosin II. Because the Shroom-Rock-myosin II module is conserved in most animal model systems, we have utilized Drosophila melanogaster to further investigate the pathways and components that are required for Shroom to define cell shape and tissue architecture. Using a phenotype-based heterozygous F1 genetic screen for modifiers of Shroom activity, we identified several cytoskeletal and signaling protein that may cooperate with Shroom. We show that two of these proteins, Enabled and Short stop, are required for ShroomA-induced changes in tissue morphology and are apically enriched in response to Shroom expression. While the recruitment of Ena is necessary, it is not sufficient to redefine cell morphology. Additionally, this requirement for Ena appears to be context dependent, as a variant of Shroom that is apically localized, binds to Rock, but lacks the Ena binding site, is still capable of inducing changes in tissue architecture. These data point to important cellular pathways that may regulate contractility or facilitate Shroom-mediated changes in cell and tissue morphology.
    Keywords:  Cytoskeleton; Drosophila; Epithelia; Morphogenesis; Shroom
  6. Cells. 2021 Jan 28. pii: 256. [Epub ahead of print]10(2):
      Humans with biallelic inactivating mutations in Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) develop congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE). To gain mechanistic insights regarding EpCAM function in this disorder, we prepared intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) organoids and spheroids. IEC organoids and spheroids were generated from ROSA-CreERT2 EpCAMfl/fl mice. Proliferation, tight junctions, cell polarity and epithelial integrity were assessed in tamoxifen-induced EpCAM-deficient organoids via confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. Olfm4-expressing stem cells were assessed in IEC cells in vitro and in vivo via fluorescence in situ hybridization. To determine if existing drugs could ameliorate effects of EpCAM deficiency in IEC cells, a variety of pharmacologic inhibitors were screened. Deletion of EpCAM resulted in increased apoptosis and attenuated growth of organoids and spheroids. Selected claudins were destabilized and epithelial integrity was severely compromised. Epithelial integrity was improved by treatment with Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitors without restoration of claudin expression. Correspondingly, enhanced phosphorylation of myosin light chain, a serine/threonine ROCK substrate, was observed in EpCAM-deficient organoids. Strikingly, frequencies of Olfm4-expressing stem cells in EpCAM-deficient IEC cells in vitro and in vivo were decreased. Treatment with ROCK inhibitors increased numbers of stem cells in EpCAM-deficient organoids and spheroids. Thus, EpCAM regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis via a signaling pathway that includes ROCK.
    Keywords:  EpCAM; ROCK; organoid; spheroid; stem cell
  7. Int J Neurosci. 2021 Feb 05. 1-7
      PURPOSE: Spontaneous axonal plasticity and functional restoration after stroke may be limited by Nogo-A, a myelin-associated inhibitor, via activation of the Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is a rehabilitation technique based on neuroplasticity and neural recombination. We recently reported that CIMT promoted neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in part by inhibiting the Nogo-A-RhoA-ROCK pathway. Here, we examine the hypothesis that CIMT combined with the ROCK inhibitor fasudil further amplifies neurogenesis during stroke recovery.METHODS: Four groups of rats were randomized as follows: Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR), Fasudil, CIMT and CIMT + Fasudil. Seven days after stroke, CIMT and/or intraperitoneal infusion of fasudil were initiated and continued for 3 weeks. The behavioral outcomes and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis were quantified.
    RESULTS: Compared with other groups, the combination of CIMT with fasudil after IR significantly improved motor and memory function recovery. In addition, BrdU, BrdU/doublecortin and BrdU/GFAP all increased significantly in the brain tissue of the combined treatment group compared to the CIMT or Fasudil group.
    CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the effects of CIMT on neurogenesis are amplified by fasudil during the recovery phase after stroke.
    Keywords:  Constraint-induced movement therapy; cerebral ischemia; fasudil; neurogenesis
  8. Front Physiol. 2020 ;11 550506
      Rationale: The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for skeletal muscle atrophy. We showed earlier that the transcription factor EB (TFEB) plays a role by increasing E3 ubiquitin ligase muscle really interesting new gene-finger 1(MuRF1)/tripartite motif-containing 63 (TRIM63) expression. MuRF 1 ubiquitinates structural proteins and mediates their UPS-dependent degradation. We now investigated how TFEB-mediated TRIM63 expression is regulated.Objective: Because protein kinase D1 (PKD1), histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5), and TFEB belong to respective families with close structural, regulatory, and functional properties, we hypothesized that these families comprise a network regulating TRIM63 expression.
    Methods and Results: We found that TFEB and transcription factor for immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer 3 (TFE3) activate TRIM63 expression. The class IIa HDACs HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC7 inhibited this activity. Furthermore, we could map the HDAC5 and TFE3 physical interaction. PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3 reversed the inhibitory effect of all tested class IIa HDACs toward TFEB and TFE3. PKD1 mediated nuclear export of all HDACs and lifted TFEB and TFE3 repression. We also mapped the PKD2 and HDAC5 interaction. We found that the inhibitory effect of PKD1 and PKD2 toward HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC7 was mediated by their phosphorylation and 14-3-3 mediated nuclear export.
    Conclusion: TFEB and TFE3 activate TRIM63 expression. Both transcription factors are controlled by HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC7, and all PKD-family members. We propose that the multilevel PKD/HDAC/TFEB/TFE3 network tightly controls TRIM63 expression.
    Keywords:  HDAC = histone deacetylase; TFE3; muscle atrophy; muscle ring finger protein 1; protein kinase D; transcription factor EB
  9. J Cell Sci. 2021 Feb 01. pii: jcs.252080. [Epub ahead of print]
      There is compelling evidence that senescent cells, through the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), can promote malignant transformation and invasion. IL-1 is a key mediator of this cytokine network, but the control of its activity in the senescence program has not been elucidated. IL-1 signalling is regulated by IL-1RA, which has four variants. Here, we show that expression of intracellular IL-1RA type 1 (icIL-1RA1), which competitively inhibits binding of IL-1 to its receptor, is progressively lost during oral carcinogenesis ex vivo and that the pattern of expression is associated with keratinocyte replicative fate in vitro We demonstrate icIL-1RA1 is an important regulator of the SASP in mortal cells, as CRISPR-CAS9 mediated icIL-1RA1 knockdown in normal and mortal dysplastic oral keratinocytes is followed by increased IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, and rapid senescence following release from ROCK inhibition. Thus, we suggest that downregulation of icIL-1RA1 in early stages of the carcinogenesis process can enable the development of a premature and de-regulated SASP, creating a pro-inflammatory state in which cancer is more likely to arise.
    Keywords:  Head and neck cancer; IL-1RA; Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist; SASP; Senescence
  10. J Tradit Chin Med. 2021 02;41(1): 59-67
      OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anti-apoptotic efficacy of Qingnao Yizhi formula (,QNYZ) in cultured cerebral cortical neuronal cells (CNCs) and the regulation of the NogoA-Nogo receptor (NgR)/Rho-Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway.METHODS: Primary cultured CNCs were randomly divided into the following groups: normal control group (N-C), hypoxia-reoxygenation group (H/R), high-dose QNYZ group (Q-H), low-dose QNYZ group (Q-L) butylphthalide (NBP) group, and Y-27632 (a selective ROCK transduction pathway inhibiter) group. Except those in the N-C group, CNCs were placed in hypoxic conditions for 24 h and then in reoxygenation conditions for 24 h. Cell media was changed every 48 h, and various assays were performed on the 7th day. Cell viability was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, using a CCK-8 assay, in triplicate. Synapsin (SYN) protein concentrations were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NogoA and RhoA protein expression were evaluated through Western blotting. The gene expression of NogoA, NgR, RhoA, and ROCK was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Cell apoptosis was measured using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling assay.
    RESULTS: Compared with the N-C group, the cell viability of the H/R group decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The cell viability values for the Q-H and Q-L groups increased compared with that for the H/R group, and the difference was significant for the Q-H group (P < 0.05). The NogoA and RhoA protein levels and the NogoA, NgR, RhoA, and ROCK mRNA expression levels increased in the H/R group, compared with the N-C group, and decreased significantly in the Q-H and Q-L groups (P < 0.05) and in the Y-27632 group (P < 0.05) compared with the H/R group. The SYN levels in the Q-H, Q-L, and NBP groups significantly increased compared with that in the H/R group (P < 0.05). Compared with the H/R group, the numbers of apoptotic cells in the Q-H, Q-L, and NBP groups significantly decreased (P < 0.05).
    CONCLUSION: The presented study demonstrated that QNYZ exerted anti-apoptotic effects on H/R-induced CNCs, possibly through the modulation of the NogoA-NgR/Rho-ROCK signaling pathway and the promotion of synaptic plasticity in H/R CNCs.
    Keywords:  Apoptosi; Qingnao Yizhi formula; hypoxia; ignal transduction; neuronal plasticity; nogo receptor; rho-associated kinase