bims-auttor Biomed News
on Autophagy and mTOR
Issue of 2019‒12‒22
twenty-four papers selected by
Viktor Korolchuk
Newcastle University

  1. J Biol Chem. 2019 Dec 19. pii: jbc.RA119.010068. [Epub ahead of print]
      Human ATG8 family proteins (ATG8s) are active in all steps of the macroautophagy pathway, and their lipidation is essential for autophagosome formation. Lipidated ATG8s anchored to the outer surface of the phagophore serve as scaffolds for binding of other core autophagy proteins and various effector proteins involved in trafficking or fusion events, whereas those at the inner surface are needed for assembly of selective autophagy substrates. Their scaffolding role depends on specific interactions between the LC3-interacting region (LIR) docking site (LDS) in ATG8s and LIR motifs in various interaction partners. LC3B is phosphorylated at Thr-50 within the LDS by serine/threonine kinase 3 (STK3) and STK4. Here, we identified LIR motifs in STK3 and atypical protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) and never in mitosis A (NIMA)-related kinase 9 (NEK9). All three kinases phosphorylated LC3B Thr-50 in vitro. A phospho-mimicking substitution of Thr-50 impaired binding of several LIR-containing proteins, such as ATG4B, FYVE and coiled-coil domain-containing 1 (FYCO1), and autophagy cargo receptors p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) and neighbor of BRCA1 gene (NBR1). NEK9 knockdown or knockout enhanced degradation of the autophagy receptor and substrate p62. Of note, the suppression of p62 degradation was mediated by NEK9-mediated phosphorylation of LC3B Thr-50. Consistently, reconstitution of LC3B-KO cells with the phospho-mimicking T50E variant inhibited autophagic p62 degradation. PKCζ knockdown did not affect autophagic p62 degradation, whereas STK3/4 knockouts stimulated autophagic p62 degradation independently of LC3B Thr-50 phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that NEK9 suppresses LC3B-mediated autophagy of p62 by phosphorylating Thr-50 within the LDS of LC3B.
    Keywords:  LC3B; LDS; LIR; MST1 (Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1); MST2 (Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 2); NIMA-related kinase 9 (NEK9); autophagy; protein kinase; protein-protein interaction; serine/threonine kinase 3 (STK3)
  2. Autophagy. 2019 Dec 18. 1-15
      Dysregulation of macroautophagy/autophagy is implicated in obesity and insulin resistance. However, it remains poorly defined how autophagy regulates adipocyte development. Using adipose-specific rptor/raptor knockout (KO), atg7 KO and atg7 rptor double-KO mice, we show that inhibiting MTORC1 by RPTOR deficiency led to autophagic sequestration of lipid droplets, formation of LD-containing lysosomes, and elevation of basal and isoproterenol-induced lipolysis in vivo and in primary adipocytes. Despite normal differentiation at an early phase, progressive degradation and shrinkage of cellular LDs and downregulation of adipogenic markers PPARG and PLIN1 occurred in terminal differentiation of rptor KO adipocytes, which was rescued by inhibiting lipolysis or lysosome. In contrast, inactivating autophagy by depletion of ATG7 protected adipocytes against RPTOR deficiency-induced formation of LD-containing lysosomes, LD degradation, and downregulation of adipogenic markers in vitro. Ultimately, atg7 rptor double-KO mice displayed decreased lipolysis, restored adipose tissue development, and upregulated thermogenic gene expression in brown and inguinal adipose tissue compared to RPTOR-deficient mice in vivo. Collectively, our study demonstrates that autophagy plays an important role in regulating adipocyte maturation via a lipophagy and lipolysis-dependent mechanism.Abbreviations: ATG7: autophagy related 7; BAT: brown adipose tissue; CEBPB/C/EBPβ: CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta; DGAT1: diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1; eWAT: epididymal white adipose tissue; iWAT: inguinal white adipose tissue; KO: knockout; LD: lipid droplet; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; PLIN1: perepilin 1; PNPLA2/ATGL: patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2; PPARG/PPARγ: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; RPTOR: regulatory associated protein of MTOR complex1; TG: triglyceride; ULK1: unc-51 like kinase 1; UCP1: uncoupling protein 1; WAT: white adipose tissue.
    Keywords:  Adipocyte maturation; MTORC1; autophagy; lipolysis; lysosome
  3. Autophagy. 2019 Dec 19. 1-3
      The selective clearance of cellular components by macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis. In this punctum, we summarize and discuss our recent findings regarding a novel type of selective autophagy that targets centriolar satellites (CS) for degradation, a process we termed doryphagy from the Greek word "doryphoros", standing for "satellite". CS are microtubule-associated protein complexes that regulate centrosome composition. We show that CS degradation is mediated through a direct interaction between GABARAPs and an LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif in the CS protein PCM1. Autophagy-deficient systems accumulate large abnormal CS and consequently display centrosome reorganization and abnormal mitoses. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between macroautophagy deficiency and centrosome abnormalities and exemplify how mammalian Atg8-family proteins (mATG8s) can regulate substrate specificity.
    Keywords:  Centriolar satellites; PCM1; centrosome; doryphagy; mitosis; selective autophagy
  4. Autophagy. 2019 Dec 17.
      How lysosome and MTORC1 signaling interact remains elusive in terminally differentiated cells. A G4C2 repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (C9ALS-FTD). We previously identified a C9orf72-SMCR8-containing complex. Here we found that c9orf72 and smcr8 double-knockout (dKO) mice exhibit similar but more severe immune defects than the individual knockouts. In c9orf72 or smcr8 mutant macrophages, lysosomal degradation and exocytosis were impaired due to the disruption of autolysosome acidification. As a result of impaired lysosomal degradation, MTOR protein was aberrantly increased, resulting in MTORC1 signaling overactivation. Inhibition of hyperactive MTORC1 partially rescued macrophage dysfunction, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy in c9orf72 or smcr8 mutant mice. Pharmacological inhibition of lysosomal degradation upregulated MTOR protein and MTORC1 signaling in differentiated wild-type macrophages, which resemble phenotypes in KO mice. In contrast, C9orf72 or Smcr8 depletion in proliferating macrophages decreased MTORC1 signaling. Our studies causatively link C9orf72-SMCR8's cellular functions in lysosomal degradation, exocytosis, and MTORC1 signaling with their organism-level immune regulation, suggesting cell state (proliferation vs. differentiation)-dependent regulation of MTOR signaling via lysosomes.
    Keywords:  C9orf72; MTORC1; SMCR8; lysosomal degradation; lysosomal exocytosis; macrophage; mice
  5. Mol Biol Cell. 2019 Dec 18. mbcE19080477
      COPII protein assembles at the endoplasmic reticulum exit site (ERES) to form vesicle carrier for transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. Sec16 has a critical role in COPII assembly to form ERES. Sec16∆565N mutant, which lacks the N-terminal 565 amino acids, is defective in ERES formation and ER export. Several phosphoproteomic studies have identified 108 phosphorylated Ser/Thr/Tyr residues in Sec16 of S. cerevisiae, of which 30 residues are located in the truncated part of Sec16∆565N. The exact role of the phosphorylation in Sec16 function remains to be determined. Therefore we analyzed nonphosphorylatable Sec16 mutants, in which all identified phosphorylation sites are substituted with Ala. These mutants show ERES and ER export comparable to those of wild-type Sec16, although the nonphosphorylatable mutant binds the COPII subunit Sec23 more efficiently than the wild-type protein. Since nutrient starvation-induced autophagy depends on Sec16, Sec16∆565N impairs autophagy, whereas the nonphosphorylatable mutants do not affect autophagy. We conclude that Sec16 phosphorylation is not essential for its function.
  6. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2019 ;7 308
      Autophagy is a major cellular recycling process that delivers cellular material and entire organelles to lysosomes for degradation, in a selective or non-selective manner. This process is essential for the maintenance of cellular energy levels, components, and metabolites, as well as the elimination of cellular molecular damage, thereby playing an important role in numerous cellular activities. An important function of autophagy is to enable survival under starvation conditions and other stresses. The majority of factors implicated in aging are modifiable through the process of autophagy, including the accumulation of oxidative damage and loss of proteostasis, genomic instability and epigenetic alteration. These primary causes of damage could lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, deregulation of nutrient sensing pathways and cellular senescence, finally causing a variety of aging phenotypes. Remarkably, advances in the biology of aging have revealed that aging is a malleable process: a mild decrease in signaling through nutrient-sensing pathways can improve health and extend lifespan in all model organisms tested. Consequently, autophagy is implicated in both aging and age-related disease. Enhancement of the autophagy process is a common characteristic of all principal, evolutionary conserved anti-aging interventions, including dietary restriction, as well as inhibition of target of rapamycin (TOR) and insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS). As an emerging and critical process in aging, this review will highlight how autophagy can be modulated for health improvement.
    Keywords:  DNA damage; aging; anti-aging drugs; autophagy; insulin/IGF-1 signaling; mitophagy; proteostasis; target of rapamycin
  7. Neurobiol Aging. 2019 Nov 02. pii: S0197-4580(19)30382-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Several studies reported amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked mutations in TBK1, OPTN, VCP, UBQLN2, and SQSTM1 genes encoding proteins involved in autophagy. SQSTM1 was originally identified by a candidate gene approach because it encodes p62, a multifunctional protein involved in protein degradation both through proteasomal regulation and autophagy. Both p62 and optineurin (encoded by OPTN) are direct interaction partners and substrates of TBK1, and these 3 proteins form the core of a genetic and functional network that may connect autophagy with ALS. Considering the molecular and conceptual relevance of the TBK1/OPTN/SQSTM1 "triangle," we here performed a targeted screen for SQSTM1 variants in 486 patients with familial ALS from Germany and Sweden by analyzing whole-exome sequencing data. We report 9 novel and 5 previously reported rare variants in SQSTM1 and discuss the current evidence for SQSTM1 as a primary disease gene for ALS. We conclude that the evidence for causality remains vague for SQSTM1 and is weaker than for the other autophagy genes, for example, TBK1 and OPTN.
    Keywords:  ALS; Motor neuron disease; SQSTM1; p62
  8. Nat Commun. 2019 Dec 19. 10(1): 5792
      Autophagy receptor p62/SQSTM1 promotes the assembly and removal of ubiquitylated proteins by forming p62 bodies and mediating their encapsulation in autophagosomes. Here we show that under nutrient-deficient conditions, cellular p62 specifically undergoes acetylation, which is required for the formation and subsequent autophagic clearance of p62 bodies. We identify K420 and K435 in the UBA domain as the main acetylation sites, and TIP60 and HDAC6 as the acetyltransferase and deacetylase. Mechanically, acetylation at both K420 and K435 sites enhances p62 binding to ubiquitin by disrupting UBA dimerization, while K435 acetylation also directly increases the UBA-ubiquitin affinity. Furthermore, we show that acetylation of p62 facilitates polyubiquitin chain-induced p62 phase separation. Our results suggest an essential role of p62 acetylation in the selective degradation of ubiquitylated proteins in cells under nutrient stress, by specifically regulating the assembly of p62 bodies.
  9. Mech Ageing Dev. 2019 Dec 13. pii: S0047-6374(19)30201-5. [Epub ahead of print] 111196
      Mitophagy is a natural phenomenon and entails the lysosomal degradation of mitochondria by the autophagy pathway. In recent years, the development of fluorescent pH-sensitive mitochondrial reporters has greatly facilitated the monitoring of mitophagy by distinguishing between cytosolic mitochondria or those delivered to acidic lysosomes. We recently published the mito-QC reporter, which consists of a mitochondrial outer membrane-localised tandem mCherry-GFP tag. This allows the quantification of mitophagy via the increase in red-only mCherry signal that arises when the GFP signal is quenched upon mitochondrial delivery to lysosomes. Here we develop a macro for FIJI, the mito-QC Counter, and describe its use to allow reliable and consistent semi-automated quantification of mitophagy. In this methods article we describe step-by-step how to detect and quantify mitophagy and show that mitophagy levels can be reliably calculated in different cell lines and under distinct stimuli. Finally, we show that the mito-QC Counter can be used to quantify mitophagy in tissues of mito-QC transgenic mice. We demonstrate that mitophagy levels in skeletal muscle correlates with glycolytic activity. Our present data show that the mito-QC Counter macro for FIJI enables the robust quantification of mitophagy both in vitro and in vivo.
    Keywords:  FIJI; autophagy; mito-QC; mitochondria; mitolysosome; mitophagy
  10. Cell Rep. 2019 Dec 17. pii: S2211-1247(19)31554-2. [Epub ahead of print]29(12): 4053-4068.e6
      The Met/hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is deregulated in many cancers and is a recognized target for cancer therapies. Following HGF stimulation, the signaling output of Met is tightly controlled by receptor internalization and sorting for degradation or recycling. Here, we uncover a role for autophagy in selective degradation of Met and regulation of Met-dependent cell migration and invasion. Met engagement with the autophagic pathway is dependent on complex formation with the mammalian ATG8 family member MAP1LC3C. LC3C deletion abrogates Met entry into the autophagy-dependent degradative pathway, allowing identification of LC3C domains required for rescue. Cancer cells with low LC3C levels show enhanced Met stability, signaling, and cell invasion. These findings provide mechanistic insight into RTK recruitment to autophagosomes and establish distinct roles for ATG8 proteins in this process, supporting that differential expression of ATG8 proteins can shape the functional consequences of autophagy in cancer development and progression.
    Keywords:  LC3C; MET; RTK; VHL; autophagy; cancer; cell migration; cell signaling; endocytosis; membrane trafficking
  11. Mitochondrion. 2019 Dec 17. pii: S1567-7249(19)30001-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      It has long been known that there is decreased mitochondrial function in several tissues of Niemann-Pick C1 model mice and cultured cells. These defects contribute to the accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and tissue damage. It is also well established that there is increased unesterified cholesterol, stored in late endosomes/lysosomes, in many tissues in mutant humans, mouse models, and mutant cultured cells. Using a mouse model with an NPC1 point mutation that is more typical of the most common form of the disease, and highly purified liver mitochondria, we find markedly decreased mitochondrial membrane cholesterol. This is compared to previous reports of increased mitochondrial membrane cholesterol. We also find that, although in wild-type or heterozygous mitochondria cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity decreases with age as expected, surprisingly, COX activity in homozygous mutant mice improves with age. COX activity is less than half of wild-type amounts in young mutant mice but later reaches wild-type levels while total liver cholesterol is decreasing. Mutant mice also contain a decreased number of mitochondria that are morphologically abnormal. We suggest that the decreased mitochondrial membrane cholesterol is causative for the mitochondrial energy defects. In addition, we find that the mitochondrial stress regulator protein MNRR1 can stimulate NPC1 synthesis and is deficient in mutant mouse livers. Furthermore, the age curve of MNRR1 deficiency paralleled levels of total cholesterol. The role of such altered mitochondria in initiating the abnormal autophagy and neuroinflammation found in NPC1 mouse models is discussed.
    Keywords:  Niemann-Pick C1; cytochrome c oxidase; liver; mitochondria; mitophagy; unesterified cholesterol
  12. Nat Commun. 2019 Dec 20. 10(1): 5808
      The causes of impaired skeletal muscle mass and strength during aging are well-studied in healthy populations. Less is known on pathological age-related muscle wasting and weakness termed sarcopenia, which directly impacts physical autonomy and survival. Here, we compare genome-wide transcriptional changes of sarcopenia versus age-matched controls in muscle biopsies from 119 older men from Singapore, Hertfordshire UK and Jamaica. Individuals with sarcopenia reproducibly demonstrate a prominent transcriptional signature of mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction in skeletal muscle, with low PGC-1α/ERRα signalling, and downregulation of oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial proteostasis genes. These changes translate functionally into fewer mitochondria, reduced mitochondrial respiratory complex expression and activity, and low NAD+ levels through perturbed NAD+ biosynthesis and salvage in sarcopenic muscle. We provide an integrated molecular profile of human sarcopenia across ethnicities, demonstrating a fundamental role of altered mitochondrial metabolism in the pathological loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in older people.
  13. Life Sci Alliance. 2020 Jan;pii: e201900476. [Epub ahead of print]3(1):
      Mitochondria are essential organelles whose function is upheld by their dynamic nature. This plasticity is mediated by large dynamin-related GTPases, called mitofusins in the case of fusion between two mitochondrial outer membranes. Fusion requires ubiquitylation, attached to K398 in the yeast mitofusin Fzo1, occurring in atypical and conserved forms. Here, modelling located ubiquitylation to α4 of the GTPase domain, a critical helix in Ras-mediated events. Structure-driven analysis revealed a dual role of K398. First, it is required for GTP-dependent dynamic changes of α4. Indeed, mutations designed to restore the conformational switch, in the absence of K398, rescued wild-type-like ubiquitylation on Fzo1 and allowed fusion. Second, K398 is needed for Fzo1 recognition by the pro-fusion factors Cdc48 and Ubp2. Finally, the atypical ubiquitylation pattern is stringently required bilaterally on both involved mitochondria. In contrast, exchange of the conserved pattern with conventional ubiquitin chains was not sufficient for fusion. In sum, α4 lysines from both small and large GTPases could generally have an electrostatic function for membrane interaction, followed by posttranslational modifications, thus driving membrane fusion events.
  14. Nat Commun. 2019 Dec 17. 10(1): 5755
      Autophagy perturbation represents an emerging therapeutic strategy in cancer. Although LATS1 and LATS2 kinases, core components of the mammalian Hippo pathway, have been shown to exert tumor suppressive activities, here we report a pro-survival role of LATS1 but not LATS2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Specifically, LATS1 restricts lethal autophagy in HCC cells induced by sorafenib, the standard of care for advanced HCC patients. Notably, autophagy regulation by LATS1 is independent of its kinase activity. Instead, LATS1 stabilizes the autophagy core-machinery component Beclin-1 by promoting K27-linked ubiquitination at lysine residues K32 and K263 on Beclin-1. Consequently, ubiquitination of Beclin-1 negatively regulates autophagy by promoting inactive dimer formation of Beclin-1. Our study highlights a functional diversity between LATS1 and LATS2, and uncovers a scaffolding role of LATS1 in mediating a cross-talk between the Hippo signaling pathway and autophagy.
  15. Cells. 2019 Dec 12. pii: E1627. [Epub ahead of print]8(12):
      Autophagy is a highly regulated bulk degradation process that plays a key role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. During autophagy, a double membrane-bound compartment termed the autophagosome is formed through de novo nucleation and assembly of membrane sources to engulf unwanted cytoplasmic components and targets them to the lysosome or vacuole for degradation. Central to this process are the autophagy-related (ATG) proteins, which play a critical role in plant fitness, immunity, and environmental stress response. Over the past few years, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single-particle analysis has matured into a powerful and versatile technique for the structural determination of protein complexes at high resolution and has contributed greatly to our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying autophagosome biogenesis. Here we describe the plant-specific ATG proteins and summarize recent structural and mechanistic studies on the protein machinery involved in autophagy initiation with an emphasis on those by single-particle analysis.
    Keywords:  autophagosome; autophagy-related; cryo-electron microscopy; plant autophagy; single-particle analysis
  16. Elife. 2019 Dec 17. pii: e43302. [Epub ahead of print]8
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is responsible for folding secretory and membrane proteins, but disturbed ER proteostasis may lead to protein aggregation and subsequent cellular and clinical pathologies. Chemical chaperones have recently emerged as a potential therapeutic approach for ER stress-related diseases. Here, we identified 2-phenylimidazo[2,1-b]benzothiazole derivatives (IBTs) as chemical chaperones in a cell-based high-throughput screen. Biochemical and chemical biology approaches revealed that IBT21 directly binds to unfolded or misfolded proteins and inhibits protein aggregation. Finally, IBT21 prevented cell death caused by chemically induced ER stress and by a proteotoxin, an aggression-prone prion protein. Taken together, our data show the promise of IBTs as potent chemical chaperones that can ameliorate diseases resulting from protein aggregation under ER stress.
    Keywords:  ER stress; biochemistry; cell biology; chemical biology; chemical chaperone; human; proteotoxicity
  17. J Mol Biol. 2019 Dec 04. pii: S0022-2836(19)30674-6. [Epub ahead of print]
  18. Cell Rep. 2019 Dec 17. pii: S2211-1247(19)31549-9. [Epub ahead of print]29(12): 3885-3901.e5
      Reduced expression of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein causes the neurodegenerative disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Here, we show that adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-mediated delivery of Stasimon-a gene encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident transmembrane protein regulated by SMN-improves motor function in a mouse model of SMA through multiple mechanisms. In proprioceptive neurons, Stasimon overexpression prevents the loss of afferent synapses on motor neurons and enhances sensory-motor neurotransmission. In motor neurons, Stasimon suppresses neurodegeneration by reducing phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor p53. Moreover, Stasimon deficiency converges on SMA-related mechanisms of p53 upregulation to induce phosphorylation of p53 through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and pharmacological inhibition of this kinase prevents motor neuron death in SMA mice. These findings identify Stasimon dysfunction induced by SMN deficiency as an upstream driver of distinct cellular cascades that lead to synaptic loss and motor neuron degeneration, revealing a dual contribution of Stasimon to motor circuit pathology in SMA.
    Keywords:  SMN; Stasimon; Tmem41b; motor neurons; neurodegeneration; p38 MAPK; p53; proprioceptive neurons; spinal muscular atrophy
  19. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Dec 16. pii: 201915139. [Epub ahead of print]
      Autophagy is a powerful host defense that restricts herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) pathogenesis in neurons. As a countermeasure, the viral ICP34.5 polypeptide, which is exclusively encoded by HSV, antagonizes autophagy in part through binding Beclin1. However, whether autophagy is a cell-type-specific antiviral defense or broadly restricts HSV-1 reproduction in nonneuronal cells is unknown. Here, we establish that autophagy limits HSV-1 productive growth in nonneuronal cells and is repressed by the Us3 gene product. Phosphorylation of the autophagy regulators ULK1 and Beclin1 in virus-infected cells was dependent upon the HSV-1 Us3 Ser/Thr kinase. Furthermore, Beclin1 was unexpectedly identified as a direct Us3 kinase substrate. Although disabling autophagy did not impact replication of an ICP34.5-deficient virus in primary human fibroblasts, depleting Beclin1 and ULK1 partially rescued Us3-deficient HSV-1 replication. This shows that autophagy restricts HSV-1 reproduction in a cell-intrinsic manner in nonneuronal cells and is suppressed by multiple, independent viral functions targeting Beclin1 and ULK1. Moreover, it defines a surprising role regulating autophagy for the Us3 kinase, which unlike ICP34.5 is widely encoded by alpha-herpesvirus subfamily members.
    Keywords:  Akt signaling; Beclin1; HSV-1 replication; Us3; autophagy
  20. Nat Microbiol. 2019 Dec 16.
      Viruses manipulate cellular signalling by inducing the degradation of crucial signal transducers, usually via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Here, we show that the murine cytomegalovirus (Murid herpesvirus 1) M45 protein induces the degradation of two cellular signalling proteins, the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) essential modulator (NEMO) and the receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), via a different mechanism: it induces their sequestration as insoluble protein aggregates and subsequently facilitates their degradation by autophagy. Aggregation of target proteins requires a distinct sequence motif in M45, which we termed 'induced protein aggregation motif'. In a second step, M45 recruits the retromer component vacuolar protein sorting 26B (VPS26B) and the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-interacting adaptor protein TBC1D5 to facilitate degradation of aggregates by selective autophagy. The induced protein aggregation motif is conserved in M45-homologous proteins of several human herpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, but is only partially conserved in the human cytomegalovirus UL45 protein. We further show that the HSV-1 ICP6 protein induces RIPK1 aggregation and degradation in a similar fashion to M45. These data suggest that induced protein aggregation combined with selective autophagy of aggregates (aggrephagy) represents a conserved viral immune-evasion mechanism.
  21. Cell Signal. 2019 Dec 16. pii: S0898-6568(19)30301-8. [Epub ahead of print] 109505
      Osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption and play an important role in physiological and pathological bone metabolism. Osteoclast migration across bone surfaces is essential for bone resorption, and a previous study demonstrated the role of autophagy in osteoclastogenesis and acid secretion. However, the role of autophagy in osteoclast migration remains unclear. Osteoclast migration requires the successive and rapid assembly and disassembly of podosome rings. In this study, we show that kindlin3, an important adaptor protein in the podosome, can interact with LC3B and undergo autophagy-mediated protein degradation to promote the disassembly of the podosome. Moreover, further analyses showed that the inhibition of autophagy increased kindlin3 levels and enhanced the interaction between kindlin3 and integrin β3. The over activation of integrins inhibits the disassembly of obsolete podosome rings, resulting in disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and impaired migration in osteoclasts. Our results show that LC3B affects osteoclast migration and FAK/AKT activation by modulating integrin activation via a kindlin3-mediated inside-out signal from the extracellular matrix. Based on these results, we propose that LC3 is an important target for regulating osteoclast migration.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; LC3B; Migration; Osteoclast; kindlin3
  22. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2019 ;7 301
      Methionine restriction (MR) is one of only a few dietary manipulations known to robustly extend healthspan in mammals. For example, rodents fed a methionine-restricted diet are up to 45% longer-lived than control-fed animals. Tantalizingly, ongoing studies suggest that humans could enjoy similar benefits from this intervention. While the benefits of MR are likely due, at least in part, to improved cellular stress tolerance, it remains to be determined exactly how MR extends organismal healthspan. In previous work, we made use of the yeast chronological lifespan (CLS) assay to model the extension of cellular lifespan conferred by MR and explore the genetic requirements for this extension. In these studies, we demonstrated that both dietary MR (D-MR) and genetic MR (G-MR) (i.e., impairment of the cell's methionine biosynthetic machinery) significantly extend the CLS of yeast. This extension was found to require the mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde (RTG) stress signaling pathway, and was associated with a multitude of gene expression changes, a significant proportion of which was also dependent on RTG signaling. Here, we show work aimed at understanding how a subset of the observed expression changes are causally related to MR-dependent CLS extension. Specifically, we find that multiple autophagy-related genes are upregulated by MR, likely resulting in an increased autophagic capacity. Consistent with activated autophagy being important for the benefits of MR, we also find that loss of any of several core autophagy factors abrogates the extended CLS observed for methionine-restricted cells. In addition, epistasis analyses provide further evidence that autophagy activation underlies the benefits of MR to yeast. Strikingly, of the many types of selective autophagy known, our data clearly demonstrate that MR-mediated CLS extension requires only the autophagic recycling of mitochondria (i.e., mitophagy). Indeed, we find that functional mitochondria are required for the full benefit of MR to CLS. Finally, we observe substantial alterations in carbon metabolism for cells undergoing MR, and provide evidence that such changes are directly responsible for the extended lifespan of methionine-restricted yeast. In total, our data indicate that MR produces changes in carbon metabolism that, together with the oxidative metabolism of mitochondria, result in extended cellular lifespan.
    Keywords:  ageing; aging; autophagy; healthspan; longevity; methioninase; mitochondria; yeast
  23. NPJ Parkinsons Dis. 2019 ;5 29
      Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1 are causally linked to recessively inherited Parkinson's disease (PD), with marked loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that are required for normal movement. PINK1 is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial-targeted kinase that phosphorylates a conserved serine at amino acid 65 (pS65) in ubiquitin as well as Parkin, another gene with loss-of-function mutations linked to recessive parkinsonism. The steady-state levels of PINK1 protein are very low, even in cells that express PINK1, because PINK1 is normally targeted for degradation after mitochondrial import by a process that is dependent upon mitochondrial membrane potential. Dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential with ionophores, such as CCCP and valinomycin, causes the accumulation of PINK1 on the outer mitochondrial membrane, a marked increase of pS65-ubiquitin and the recruitment of Parkin, which targets dysfunctional mitochondria for degradation by autophagy. While the high penetrance of PINK1 mutations establish its critical function for maintaining neurons, the activity of PINK1 in primary neurons has been difficult to detect. Mounting evidence implicates non-neuronal cells, including astrocytes and microglia, in the pathogenesis of both idiopathic and inherited PD. Herein we used both western analysis and immunofluorescence of pS65-ubiquitin to directly compare the activity of PINK1 in primary neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells cultured from the brains of wild-type (WT) and PINK1 knockout (KO) rat pups. Our findings that PINK1-dependent ubiquitin phosphorylation is predominantly in astrocytes supports increased priority for research on the function of PINK1 in astrocytes and the contribution of astrocyte dysfunction to PD pathogenesis.
    Keywords:  Cellular neuroscience; Experimental models of disease; Parkinson's disease
  24. Analyst. 2019 Dec 18.
      Mitophagy, the process in which cells degrade dysfunctional organelles and recycle their nutrient substances by lysosomes, plays a vital role in cell metabolism and physiology. Herein, we present a highly targeting and near-infrared (NIR) mitochondrion fluorescent probe, which can monitor the process of autophagy. The response mechanism of the probe is based on intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) for the detection of autophagy and real-time imaging of living cells. We designed a primary amine as a pH sensitizing group, and due to the ICT process, the probe exhibits green fluorescence, and when it is protonated the ICT process is broken, and the NIR fluorescence will be restored. Simultaneously, the green fluorescence of the probe disappears. This probe exhibits excellent selectivity, high sensitivity and clean responsiveness, which indicate that it can be applied for high-targeting and high-sensitive imaging of the process of autophagy in living systems.