bims-aporos Biomed News
on Apoptosis and reactive oxygen species
Issue of 2019‒07‒07
112 papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2019 Jun 28.
    Bouchmaa N, Mrid RB, Boukharsa Y, Bouargalne Y, Nhiri M, Idir A, Taoufik J, Ansar M, Zyad A.
      BACKGROUND: In cancer cells, the intracellular antioxidant capacity and the redox homeostasis are mainly maintained by the glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent systems which are considered as promising targets for anticancer drugs. Pyridazinones constitute an interesting source of heterocyclic compounds for drug discovery. The present investigation focused on studying the in-vitro antitumor activity of newly synthesized Pyridazin-3(2h)-ones derivatives against P815 (Murin mastocytoma) cell line.METHODS: The in-vitro cytotoxic activities were investigated toward the P815 cell line using tetrazolium-based MTT assay. Lipid peroxidation and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes were also determined.
    RESULTS: The newly compounds had a selective dose-dependent cytotoxic effect without affecting normal cells (PBMCs). Apoptosis was further confirmed through the characteristic apoptotic morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. Two compounds (6F: and 7H: ) were highly cytotoxic and were submitted to extend biological testing to determine the likely mechanisms of their cytotoxicity. Results showed that these molecules may induce cytotoxicity via disturbing the redox homeostasis. Importantly, the anticancer activity of 6F: and 7H: could be due to the intracellular reactive oxygen species hypergeneration through significant loss of glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase activities. This eventually leads to oxidative stress-mediated P815 cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the co-administration of 6F: or 7H: with Methotrexate exhibited a synergistic cytotoxic effect.
    CONCLUSIONS: considering their significant anticancer activity and chemosensitivity, 6F: and 7H: may improve the therapeutic efficacy of the current treatment for cancer.
  2. Front Pharmacol. 2019 ;10 676
    Ye J, Xue M, Liu Y, Zhu S, Li Y, Liu X, Cai D, Rui J, Zhang L.
      Aim: Diosbulbin B (DB) is a major diterpenoid compound found in Dioscorea bulbifera L, a traditional medicinal herb in China. Clinical reports have confirmed that Dioscorea bulbifera L. can induce significant hepatotoxicity. In this study, we showed that DB can induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and investigated the role of autophagy in DB-induced hepatotoxicity in L-02 hepatocytes. Methods: L-02 hepatocytes were treated with different concentrations of DB for 48 h, after which indicators of autophagy and apoptosis were measured. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) and rapamycin (Rapa) were used as inhibitor and agonist of autophagy, respectively. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) was used in combination with DB to evaluate the relationship between ROS and autophagy. Results: L-02 cell viability was significantly decreased after treatment with DB for 48 h. Additionally, DB induced concentration-dependent apoptosis and autophagy and increased the activities of caspase-3, caspase-9, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST), and induced excessive leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA increased DB-induced apoptosis, resulting in aggravation of hepatotoxicity. Conversely, treatment with Rapa increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Moreover, we found that DB treatment increased the level of intracellular ROS, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, and caused abnormal opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), which were finally restored by the ROS scavenger NAC. Conclusions: Accumulation of ROS can induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and likely to play a key role in DB-induced hepatocellular injury. Activation of autophagy may inhibit apoptosis, but also reduces antioxidant capacity.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; autophagy; diosbulbin B; hepatocytes; mitochondrial dysfunction
  3. Cancers (Basel). 2019 Jun 29. pii: E916. [Epub ahead of print]11(7):
    Nguyen C, Pandey S.
      The transformation of normal cells to the cancerous stage involves multiple genetic changes or mutations leading to hyperproliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and evasion of the host immune system. However, to accomplish hyperproliferation, cancer cells undergo profound metabolic reprogramming including oxidative glycolysis and acidification of the cytoplasm, leading to hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. The majority of drug development research in the past has focused on targeting DNA replication, repair, and tubulin polymerization to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Unfortunately, these are not cancer-selective targets. Recently, researchers have started focusing on metabolic, mitochondrial, and oxidative stress vulnerabilities of cancer cells that can be exploited as selective targets for inducing cancer cell death. Indeed, the hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membranes in cancer cells can lead to selective importing of mitocans that can induce apoptotic effects. Herein, we will discuss recent mitochondrial-selective anticancer compounds (mitocans) that have shown selective toxicity against cancer cells. Increased oxidative stress has also been shown to be very effective in selectively inducing cell death in cancer cells. This oxidative stress could lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, which in turn will produce more reactive oxygen species (ROS). This creates a vicious cycle of mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production, irreversibly leading to cell suicide. We will also explore the possibility of combining these compounds to sensitize cancer cells to the conventional anticancer agents. Mitocans in combination with selective oxidative-stress producing agents could be very effective anticancer treatments with minimal effect on healthy cells.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; chemoresistance; electron transport chain; metabolic reprogramming; mitochondria; oxidative phosphorylation; reactive oxygen species; sensitization
  4. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Jun 26. pii: E198. [Epub ahead of print]8(7):
    Tiong YL, Ng KY, Koh RY, Ponnudurai G, Chye SM.
      Neuropathy is a complication that affects more than 50% of long-standing diabetic patients. One of the causes of diabetes neuropathy (DN) is the apoptosis of Schwann cells due to prolonged exposure to high glucose and build-up of oxidative stress. Melatonin is a hormone that has a known antioxidant property. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of melatonin on high glucose-induced Schwann cells' apoptosis. Our results revealed that high glucose promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial-related oxidative stress and downregulated Bcl-2 family proteins in Schwann cells. In this signalling pathway, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 proteins were down-regulated while p-BAD and Puma proteins were up-regulated by high glucose treatment. Besides, we also proved that high glucose promoted apoptosis in Schwann cells through decreasing the p-NF-κB in the NF-κB signalling pathway. Key regulators of mTOR signalling pathway such as p-mTOR, Rictor and Raptor were also down-regulated after high glucose treatment. Additionally, high glucose treatment also decreased the Wnt signalling pathway downstream proteins (Wnt 5a/b, p-Lrp6 and Axin). Our results showed that melatonin treatment significantly inhibited high glucose-induced ROS generation, restored mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibited high glucose-induced apoptosis in Schwann cells. Furthermore, melatonin reversed the alterations of protein expression caused by high glucose treatment. Our results concluded that melatonin alleviates high glucose-induced apoptosis in Schwann cells through mitigating mitochondrial-related oxidative stress and the alterations of Bcl-2, NF-κB, mTOR and Wnt signalling pathways.
    Keywords:  Bcl-2; NF-κB; Wnt; apoptosis; mTOR; melatonin; mitochondrial; reactive oxygen species
  5. Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2019 Jul 05.
    Zhen AX, Piao MJ, Kang KA, Fernando PDSM, Kang HK, Koh YS, Yi JM, Hyun JW.
      Niacinamide (NIA) is a water-soluble vitamin that is widely used in the treatment of skin diseases. Moreover, NIA displays antioxidant effects and helps repair damaged DNA. Recent studies showed that particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing disruption of DNA, lipids, and proteins; mitochondrial depolarization, and apoptosis of skin keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the protective effects of NIA on PM2.5-induced oxidative stress in human HaCaT keratinocytes. We found that NIA could inhibit the ROS generation induced by PM2.5, as well blocked the PM2.5-induced oxidation of molecules, such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Furthermore, NIA alleviated PM2.5-induced accumulation of cellular Ca2+, which caused cell membrane depolarization and apoptosis, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Collectively, the findings show that NIA can protect keratinocytes from PM2.5-induced oxidative stress and cell damage.
    Keywords:  Human HaCaT keratinocyte; Niacinamide; Oxidative stress; Particulate matter 2.5
  6. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 Jun 29. pii: S0014-2999(19)30468-6. [Epub ahead of print] 172516
    Yang Y, Tian T, Wang Y, Li Z, Xing K, Tian G.
      Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasoactive peptide that elevates arterial blood pressure and leads to hypertension. Ang II has been reported to induce endothelial dysfunction by induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells. Sirtuin6 (SIRT6) has emerged as a critical regulator for modulating Ang II-induced injury of the cardiovascular system. However, little is known about the role of SIRT6 in regulating Ang II-induced injury in vascular endothelial cells. Here, our results showed that SIRT6 expression was decreased in vascular endothelial cells exposed to Ang II. This was accompanied by decreased cell viabilities as well as increased apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species. Functional experiments showed that the overexpression of SIRT6 significantly prohibited Ang II-induced apoptosis and reactive oxygen species generation, while silencing SIRT6 resulted in the opposite effect. Notably, our results showed that overexpression of SIRT6 resulted in a significant increase in the nuclear expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated the expression of the Nrf2 target gene in vascular endothelial cells exposed to Ang II. Moreover, knockdown of Nrf2 significantly blocked the SIRT6-mediated protection effect against Ang II-induced apoptosis and reactive oxygen species generation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SIRT6 overexpression alleviates Ang II-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells by promoting Nrf2 antioxidant signaling. Our study suggests that SIRT6 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for treating hypertension associated with endothelial dysfunction.
    Keywords:  Angiotensin II; Endothelial cells; Hypertension; Nrf2; SIRT6
  7. J Cell Mol Med. 2019 Jul 06.
    Zhang S, Wang H, Li L, Chang X, Ma H, Zhang M, Qing X, Zhang L, Zhang Z.
      OBJECTIVE: Qishen Yiqi Drop Pill (QSYQ) has been recognized as a potential protective agent for various cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of QSYQ in cardiac complications associated with diabetes is not clear currently. In this study, we investigate whether QSYQ could exert cardiac protective effects against high glucose-induced injuries in cardiac H9c2 cells.METHODS: H9c2 cells were exposed to 24 hours of high glucose in presence or absence of QSYQ and LY294002. Cell cytotoxicity, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were determined. Levels of bax, bcl-2, p53, cleaved caspase-3, PI3K and Akt were evaluated by Western blot.
    RESULTS: Our data indicated that QSYQ significantly increased the cell viability and decreased cytotoxicity. By analysing the apoptotic rate as well as the expression levels of cytoapoptosis-related factors including cleaved caspase-3, bax, bcl-2, and p53, we found that QSYQ could remarkably suppress apoptosis of cardiomyoblasts caused by high glucose. In addition, it also showed that QSYQ reduced the generation of ROS. We further found that QSYQ treatment could inhibit the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and mPTP opening. Moreover, Western blot analysis showed enhanced phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt. The specific inhibitor of PI3K, LY294002 not only inhibited QSYQ induced PI3K/Akt signalling pathway activation, but alleviated its protective effects.
    CONCLUSIONS: In summary, these findings demonstrated that QSYQ effectively protected H9c2 cells against the series injuries due to high glucose at least partially by activating the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway.
    Keywords:  PI3K/Akt; Qishen Yiqi Drop Pill; diabetes cardiomyopathy; high glucose injury; traditional Chinese medicine
  8. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Aug;20(2): 1499-1508
    He T, Shen H, Zhu J, Zhu Y, He Y, Li Z, Lu H.
      Geniposide, as a type of iridoid glycoside, has antioxidative capacity. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of geniposide in cadmium (Cd)‑induced osteoblast injury remains only partly elucidated. In the present study, Cell Counting Kit‑8 (CCK‑8) was used to determine MC‑3T3‑E1 cell viability. Flow cytometry was used to determine the rate of apoptosis and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress‑related factors were assessed using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent method (ELISA). Quantitative real‑time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting were used to evaluate apoptosis‑ and bone formation‑related genes and nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor (Nrf2) signaling. It was demonstrated that geniposide increased the viability of the Cd‑treated MC‑3T3‑E1 cells. Geniposide decreased apoptosis and ROS accumulation compared to these parameters in the Cd group. Geniposide attenuated oxidative stress‑related factors, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase and increased antioxidant key enzyme superoxidase dismutase (SOD). The expression levels of Bax, Bcl‑2 and survivin were modulated by geniposide. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression of the receptor activator of NF‑κB ligand (RANKL) and osterix were significantly increased, while osteoprotegerin was decreased by geniposide treatment compared to the Cd groups. Geniposide also enhanced Nrf2, heme oxygenase‑1 (HO‑1) and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) expression. The present study identified a potential agent for the treatment of Cd‑induced osteoblast injury.
  9. Biomed Res Int. 2019 ;2019 9013904
    Zhu X, Wu S, Guo H.
      Background: It has been documented that vitamin D supplementation showed an improvement of symptoms of diabetic nephropathy; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We here tested the hypothesis that active vitamin D is able to up-regulate AKT/UCP2 signaling to alleviate oxidative stress of renal tubular cell line HK2.Methods: There are eight groups in the present study: normal glucose, osmotic control (5.5 mmol/L D-glucose+24.5 mmol/L D-mannitol), NAC control (30 mmol/L D-glucose + 1.0 mmol/L N-Methylcysteine), high glucose, high glucose+VD, high glucose (HG)+VD+siVDR, HG+VD+AKT inhibitor (AI), and high glucose+VD+UCP2 inhibitor (Gelipin). Concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was analyzed by ELISA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry. JC-1 was evaluated by flow cytometry. The presence of VDR, AKT, and UCP2 in HK cells was assessed using RT-PCR and western blot analyses.
    Results: VD administration significantly upregulated the SOD activation and downregulated MDA levels compared to HG group. siVDR, AKT inhibitor, and UCP2 inhibitor significantly suppressed the activation of SOD and increased the expression of MDA compared to VD group. ROS generation and apoptosis of HK2 cells in HG+VD group were significantly lower than those in HG, HG+VD+siVDR, HG+VD+AI, and HG+VD+Gelipin group. ΔΨm in HG+VD group was obviously higher than those in HG, HG+VD+siVDR, HG+VD+AI, and HG+VD+Gelipin group. Decreased mRNA and protein levels of VDR, p-AKT, and UCP2 were observed in HG+VD+siVDR, HG+VD+AI, and HG+VD+Gelipin group compared to those in HG+VD group.
    Conclusions: siVDR, AKT inhibitor, and UCP2 inhibitor elevated the ROS and apoptosis of HK2 cells while attenuating the mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that vitamin D protects renal tubular cell from high glucose by AKT/UCP2 signaling pathway.
  10. Nutrients. 2019 Jul 04. pii: E1515. [Epub ahead of print]11(7):
    Hao Y, Liu J, Wang Z, Yu LL, Wang J.
      This study investigated the protective effect and the molecular mechanism of piceatannol on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced retinal pigment epithelium cell (ARPE-19) damage. Piceatannol treatment significantly inhibited H2O2-induced RPE cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by 64.4% and 75.0%, respectively. Results of flow cytometry showed that H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cells apoptosis was ameliorated by piceatannol supplementation, along with decreased relative protein expressions of Bax/Bcl-2, Cleave-Caspase-3, and Cleave-PARP. Moreover, piceatannol treatment induced NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling activation, which was evidenced by increased transcription of anti-oxidant genes, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLc), SOD, and HO-1. Knockdown of Nrf2 through targeted siRNA alleviated piceatannol-mediated HO-1 transcription, and significantly abolished piceatannol-mediated cytoprotection. LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) dramatically blocked piceatannol-mediated increasing of Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression, and cytoprotective activity, indicating the involvement of PI3K/Akt pathway in the cytoprotective effect of piceatannol. The results from this suggest the potential of piceatannol in reducing the risk of age-related macular degeneration.
    Keywords:  ARPE-19 cell; PI3K/Akt signaling pathway; apoptosis; oxidative stress; piceatannol
  11. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019 Jun 26. pii: S0006-291X(19)31099-X. [Epub ahead of print]
    Shi WZ, Tian Y, Li J.
      Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among human worldwide. Unfortunately, cerebral I/R still lacks effective therapeutic targets and strategies. In the study, we found that general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) expression was increased following ischemia in the ischemic penumbra in vivo and in vitro. GCN2 suppression using its significant inhibitor, GCN2iB, exhibited a protective role in cerebral I/R injury in mice, as evidenced by the improved neurological deficits and function. GCN2 inhibition with either GCN2iB or genetic knockdown led to significant reduction of pro-apoptotic protein expression, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-related protein and oxidative stress both in I/R-induced cerebral injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) stimulation in N2a cells. OGD/R-triggered apoptosis and ERS were significantly depended on oxidative stress in vitro. In addition, Forkhead box O 3a (FoxO3a), involved in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, was increased during OGD/R stimulation-regulated apoptosis and ERS, which could be abrogated by GCN2 suppression. Consistently, FoxO3a-regulated generation of ROS was markedly ameliorated upon GCN2 suppression with GCN2iB. Thereby, our findings indicated that GCN2 suppression alleviated apoptosis and ERS in cerebral ischemia through reducing FoxO3a-dependent ROS production, illustrating that GCN2 could be a promising target for the therapeutic interventions in cerebral ischemic stroke.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis and ERS; FoxO3a; GCN2; Ischemic stroke; Oxidative stress
  12. Invest New Drugs. 2019 Jul 01.
    Zeferino RC, Mota NSRS, Grinevicius VMAS, Filipe KB, Sulis PM, Silva FRMB, Filho DW, Pich CT, Pedrosa RC.
      BackgroundWe investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the anticancer mechanism of N-benzyl-2-nitro-1-imidazole-acetamide (BZN), a drug used in Chagas' disease treatment. MethodsBALB/c mice, inoculated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC), were treated with BZN or BZN + Nacylcysteine (NAC) or NAC for 9 days. Subsequently, the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis as well as animal survival were evaluated. Apoptosis and the cell cycle were evaluated using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, while oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring TBARS content, DNA damage, calcium influx and ROS generation and antioxidant defenses (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST and GR). Immunoblotting was used to evaluate key death and cell cycle proteins. Results BZN treatment inhibited tumor progression (79%), angiogenesis (2.8-fold) and increased animal survival (29%). Moreover, BZN increased ROS levels (42%), calcium influx (55%), TBARS contents (1.9-fold), SOD (4.4-fold), GPx (17.5-fold) and GST (3-fold) activities and GSH depletion (2.5-fold) also caused DNA fragmentation (7.6-fold), increased cleaved PARP and promoted the trapping of cells in the G1 phase, as corroborated by the reduction in cyclin A and increased CDK2 protein levels. In silico DNA and molecular dynamic simulations showed H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions that were confirmed by circular dichroism. Increased apoptosis (232%), induced by treatment with BZN, was demonstrated by apoptotic cell staining and p53 level. Conclusion The current findings indicate that BZN acts as a tumor growth inhibitor and anti-angiogenic agent by ROS overgeneration, which interact with DNA causing damage and triggering apoptosis.
    Keywords:  Angiogenesis; Apoptosis; Benznidazole; In silico simulation; ROS overgeneration; Tumor growth inhibitor
  13. J Cell Biochem. 2019 Jul 01.
    Li J, Wang T, Jiang XF.
      OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possibility of microRNA (miR)-337-3p in the protection of hypoxia-induced injury in PC12 cells via modulating the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.METHODS: Dual-luciferase reporter assay analyzed the relationship between the miR-337-3p and JAK2. PC12 cells were divided into normal, CoCl2 , CoCl2 + NC, CoCl2 + inhibitors, CoCl2 + JAK2, and CoCl2 + mimics + JAK2 groups. Then, PC12 cell viability and apoptosis were measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide methods. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to determine expressions. Besides, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined by dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using JC-1.
    RESULTS: The negative targeting relationship between miR-337-3p and JAK2 was confirmed. When compared with the normal group, miR-337-3p was increased while JAK2 and STAT3 were decreased in CoCl2 -induced PC12 cells, with decreased cell viability. Moreover, either miR-337-3p inhibitor or JAK2 overexpression could partially reverse CoCl2 -induced decrease in PC12 cell viability. Besides, CoCl2 could also trigger PC12 cell apoptosis by increasing cleaved caspase 3 and Bax but decreasing Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, which, however, were abolished with the transfection of miR-337-3p inhibitors or lentivirus transfection to activate JAK2. Compared with the CoCl2 group, the average of fluorescent signals of ROS in the CoCl2 + inhibitors group and the CoCl2 + JAK2 group was lower, while the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and total anti-oxidative capacity were higher, together with an increase in MMP.
    CONCLUSION: Inhibiting miR-337-3p could activate the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway to suppress CoCl 2 -induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis and ameliorate oxidative stress and MMP in PC12 cells.
    Keywords:  JAK2/STAT3; PC12 cell; miR-337-3p
  14. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2019 Jul 04.
    Zhou B, Liu HY, Zhu BL, Yue AX.
      To understand the role of microRNA-141 (miR-141) in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced PC12 cell injury via modulation of Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway. PC12 cells were divided into Control, H/R, H/R + miR-141 mimics, H/R + NC, H/R + miR-141 inhibitor, H/R + siKeap1 and H/R + miR-141 inhibitors+siKeap1 groups. The expression of miR-141 and Keap1/Nrf2 pathway was measured by qRT-PCR and western blotting, cell viability evaluated by MTT assay while cell apoptosis tested by flow cytometry. Besides, MDA (malondialdehyde), SOD (Super Oxide Dismutase) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) levels were determined. DCFH-DA and JC-1 staining were used to measure ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) respectively. Compared with Controls, PC12 cells induced by H/R exhibited decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis rate, with elevated MDA, LDH and ROS and reduced SOD levels; and meanwhile, MMP and miR-141 expression were declined, whereas cytoplasmic Nrf2 levels were enhanced with the downregulated nuclear Nrf2 level (all P < 0.05). However, these cells treated with miR-141 mimics and siKeap1 showed obvious improvement in H/R-induced cell injury, while miR-141 inhibitors presented significantly aggravated cell injury (both P < 0.05). Besides, siKeap1 can reverse the effect of miRNA-141 inhibitors on aggravating H/R-induced PC12 cell injury. miR-141-mediated Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway to promote cell viability, inhibit cell apoptosis and reduce oxidative stress of PC12 cells, thereby alleviating H/R-induced cell injury.
    Keywords:  Hypoxia/reoxygenation; Keap1/Nrf2; PC12 cell; miR-141
  15. Anticancer Res. 2019 Jul;39(7): 3745-3755
    Ivanova D, Zhelev Z, Semkova S, Aoki I, Bakalova R.
      BACKGROUND/AIM: The study is directed to the effect of resveratrol on the redox-status and viability of leukemic and normal lymphocytes, as well as its ability to sensitize leukemic lymphocytes to anticancer drugs.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity was analyzed by trypan blue staining, apoptosis - by Annexin V test, and oxidative stress - by the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein-carbonyl products.
    RESULTS: Incubation of resveratrol in combination with the majority of anticancer drugs resulted in higher toxicity than resveratrol or drug alone. In the case of leukemic lymphocytes treated with barasertib and everolimus in the presence of resveratrol, synergistic cytotoxicity was accompanied by strong induction of apoptosis, increased levels of hydroperoxides and insignificant changes in protein-carbonyl products. None of these parameters changed in normal lymphocytes.
    CONCLUSION: Resveratrol is a promising supplementary compound for anticancer therapy, that may allow reduction of the therapeutic doses of barasertib and everolimus, minimizing their side-effects.
    Keywords:  Cancer; apoptosis; chemotherapy; oxidative stress; resveratrol
  16. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2019 Jul 03.
    Marshall KD, Klutho PJ, Song L, Krenz M, Baines CP.
      Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore leads to necrotic cell death. Excluding cyclophilin D (CypD), the makeup of the MPT pore remains conjecture. The purpose of these experiments was to identify novel MPT modulators by analyzing proteins that associate with CypD. We identified Fas-activated serine/threonine phosphoprotein kinase domain-containing protein 1 (FASTKD1) as a novel CypD interactor. Overexpression of FASTKD1 protected mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) against oxidative stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell death, whereas depletion of FASTKD1 sensitized them. However, manipulation of FASTKD1 levels had no effect on MPT responsiveness, Ca2+-induced cell death, or antioxidant capacity. Moreover, elevated FASTKD1 levels still protected against oxidative stress in CypD-deficient MEFs. FASTKD1 overexpression decreased Complex I-dependent respiration and ΔΨm in MEFs, effects that were abrogated in CypD-null cells. Additionally, overexpression of FASTKD1 in MEFs induced mitochondrial fragmentation independent of CypD, activation of Drp1, and inhibition of autophagy/mitophagy whereas knockdown of FASTKD1 had the opposite effect. Manipulation of FASTKD1 expression also modified oxidative stress-induced caspase-3 cleavage, yet did not alter apoptotic death. Finally, the effects of FASTKD1 overexpression on oxidative stress-induced cell death and mitochondrial morphology were recapitulated in cultured cardiac myocytes. Together, these data indicate that FASTKD1 supports mitochondrial homeostasis and plays a critical protective role against oxidant-induced death.
    Keywords:  Oxidative stress; apoptosis; autophagy; cell death; mitochondria
  17. Biochimie. 2019 Jul 02. pii: S0300-9084(19)30191-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    Shi B, Shao B, Yang C, Guo Y, Fu X, Gan N.
      Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are a promising tool for regenerative medicine in clinical periodontal ligament repair. However, clinical maintenance of high quality and large quantity of PDLSCs faces multiple obstacles. One of them is how PDLSCs respond to environmental stimuli such as reactive oxygen species. We aim to elucidate how PDLSCs react to oxidative stress and the underlying mechanisms.We utilized hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress to mimic ROS increase in rat PDLSCs. Our data indicated a rapid downregulation of a long non-coding RNA, lncRNA JHDM1D antisense 1 (JHDM1D-AS1), when PDLSCs were treated with hydrogen peroxide, which was negatively associated with PDLSC apoptosis. Moreover, our data showed that JHDM1D-AS1 regulated PDLSC apoptosis via inhibition of DNAJC10, a heat shock protein 40 family member. Moreover, overexpressed DNAJC10 inhibited Bcl-2 protein level and eIF2α phosphorylation level, which, in turn, contributed to PDLSC apoptosis. Our results revealed a protective role of JHDM1D-AS1 in ROS-induced apoptosis, and validated that JHDM1D-AS1/DNAJC10/phosphorylated-eIF2α/Bcl-2 pathway works as an anti-apoptotic signaling axis in PDLSCs.These findings will facilitate the in vitro culturing of PDLSCs for clinical usage and promote stem cell-based therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration.
    Keywords:  DNAJC10; JHDM1D-AS1; PDLSC; apoptosis
  18. J Cell Physiol. 2019 Jul 04.
    Liu Y, Fu Y, Hu X, Chen S, Miao J, Wang Y, Zhou Y, Zhang Y.
      Chemotherapy is the first-line treatment option for patients with lung cancer. However, therapeutic resistance occurs through an incompletely understood mechanism. Our research wants to investigate the influence of Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) on the therapeutic sensitivity of lung cancer in vitro. Results in this study demonstrated that Cav-1 levels were markedly inhibited in A549 lung cancer cells after exposure to cisplatin. Knockdown of caveolin further enhanced cisplatin-triggered cancer death in A549 cells. The functional investigation demonstrated that Cav-1 inhibition amplified the mitochondrial stress signaling induced by cisplatin, as evidenced by the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species burst, cellular metabolic disruption, mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, and mitochondrial caspase-9-related apoptosis activation. At the molecular level, cav-1 augmented cisplatin-mediated mitochondrial damage by inhibiting Parkin-related mitochondrial autophagy. Mitophagy activation effectively attenuated the promotive impact of Cav-1 knockdown on mitochondrial damage and cell death. Furthermore, our data indicated that Cav-1 affected Parkin-related mitophagy by activating the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 1 (ROCK1) pathway; inhibition of the ROCK1 axis prevented cav-1 knockdown-mediated cell death and mitochondrial damage. Taken together, our results provide ample data illuminate the necessary action exerted by Cav-1 on affecting cisplatin-related therapeutic resistance. Silencing of Cav-1 inhibited Parkin-related mitophagy, thus amplifying cisplatin-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. This finding identifies the Cav-1/ROCK1/Parkin/mitophagy axis as a potential target to overcome cisplatin-related resistance in lung cancer cells.
    Keywords:  Cav-1; ROCK1; apoptosis; lung cancer; mitophagy
  19. Dig Dis Sci. 2019 Jul 04.
    Wang J, Wu D, Zhang J, Liu H, Wu J, Dong W.
      BACKGROUND: α-Hederin has been shown promising anti-tumor potential against various cancer cell lines. However, reports about effects of α-hederin on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are still unavailable.AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effects of α-hederin on ESCC and explore the underlying mechanism.
    METHODS: Human esophageal carcinoma cell line (Eca-109) was used for the experiment. Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, enhanced ATP assay kit, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, JC-1 kit, and Western bolt were used to assess the cell viability, cycle, apoptosis, cellular ATP content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and protein expression, respectively, in vitro. Xenografted tumor model was constructed to evaluate the in vivo anti-tumor effects of α-hederin.
    RESULTS: Compared with control group, α-hederin significantly inhibited the proliferation, induced apoptosis of ESCC, and arrested the cell cycle in G1 phase (P < 0.05). α-Hederin induced the accumulation of ROS, decrement of ATP levels, and disruption of MMP (P < 0.05). The detection of mitochondrial and cytosol proteins showed that AIF, Apaf-1, and Cyt C were released and increased in cytoplasm, and then, caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bax were involved and increased, while Bcl-2 level was decreased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the above changes were amplified in the group pretreated with L-buthionine sulfoximine, while N-acetyl-L-cysteine plays an opposite role (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, α-hederin significantly inhibited the growth of xenografted tumors with favorable safety.
    CONCLUSION: α-Hederin could inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of ESCC via dissipation of the MMP with simultaneous ROS generation and activation of the mitochondrial pathway.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Mitochondria; Oxidative stress; α-Hederin
  20. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2019 Jul 04.
    Cheki M, Jafari S, Najafi M, Mahmoudzadeh A.
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Glucosamine is a widely prescribed dietary supplement used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. In present study, the chemoprotectant ability of glucosamine was evaluated against cisplatin-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in rat bone marrow cells.METHODS: Glucosamine was orally administrated to rats at doses of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight for seven consecutive days. On the seventh day, rats were treated with a single injection of cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.) at 1h after the last oral administration. The cisplatin antagonistic potential of glucosamine was assessed by micronucleus assay, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level analysis, hematological analysis, and flow cytometry.
    RESULTS: Glucosamine administration to cisplatin-treated rats significantly decreased the frequencies of Micronucleated Polychromatic Erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and Micronucleated Normchromatic Erythrocytes (MnNCEs), and also increased PCE/(PCE+NCE) ratio in bone marrow cells. Furthermore, treatment of rats with glucosamine before cisplatin significantly inhibited apoptosis, necrosis and ROS generation in bone marrow cells, and also increased red blood cells count in peripheral blood. Moreover, administered metformin at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg markedly promoted the levels of red blood cells and white blood cells in peripheral blood, and decreased the percentage of apoptotic and necrotic cells and ROS level in bone marrow cells of rats treated with cisplatin.
    CONCLUSION: This study shows glucosamine to be a new effective chemoprotector against cisplatin-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in rat bone marrow cells. The results of this study may be helpful in reducing the harmful effects of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in the future.
    Keywords:  Glucosamine; apoptosis; bone marrow cells; chemoprotector; cisplatin; genotoxicity
  21. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2019 Jul 04. 1-11
    Ji SL, Cao KK, Zhao XX, Kang NX, Zhang Y, Xu QM, Yang SL, Liu YL, Wang C.
      Exposure of PC12 cells to 10 mM glutamate caused significant viability loss, cell apoptosis, decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). In parallel, glutamate significantly increased the intracellular levels of ROS and intracellular calcium. However, pretreatment of the cells with acteoside and isoacteoside significantly suppressed glutamate-induced cellular events. Moreover, acteoside and isoacteoside reduced the glutamate-induced increase of caspase-3 activity and also ameliorated the glutamate-induced Bcl-2/Bax ratio reduction in PC12 cells. Furthermore, acteoside and isoacteoside significantly inhibited glutamate-induced DNA damage. In the mouse model, acteoside significantly attenuated cognitive deficits in the Y maze test and attenuated neuronal damage of the hippocampal CA1 regions induced by glutamate. These data indicated that acteoside and isoacteoside play neuroprotective effects through anti-oxidative stress, anti-apoptosis, and maintenance of steady intracellular calcium.
    Keywords:  Phenylethanoid glycosides; acteoside; apoptosis; glutamate; oxidative stress
  22. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2019 Jul 02. pii: E969. [Epub ahead of print]9(7):
    Gurunathan S, Arsalan Iqbal M, Qasim M, Park CH, Yoo H, Hwang JH, Uhm SJ, Song H, Park C, Do JT, Choi Y, Kim JH, Hong K.
      Graphene, a two-dimensional carbon sheet with single-atom thickness, shows immense promise in several nanoscientific and nanotechnological applications, including in sensors, catalysis, and biomedicine. Although several studies have shown the cytotoxicity of graphene oxide in different cell types, there are no comprehensive studies on human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells that include transcriptomic analysis and an in vitro investigation into the mechanisms of cytotoxicity following exposure to graphene oxide. Therefore, we exposed HEK293 cells to different concentrations of graphene oxide for 24 h and performed several cellular assays. Cell viability and proliferation assays revealed a significant dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on HEK293 cells. Cytotoxicity assays showed increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased level of oxidized glutathione indicative of oxidative stress. This detailed mechanistic approach showed that graphene oxide exposure elicits significant decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis, as well as in DNA damage and caspase 3 activity. Furthermore, our RNA-Seq analysis revealed that HEK293 cells exposed to graphene oxide significantly altered the expression of genes involved in multiple apoptosis-related biological pathways. Moreover, graphene oxide exposure perturbed the expression of key transcription factors, promoting these apoptosis-related pathways by regulating their downstream genes. Our analysis provides mechanistic insights into how exposure to graphene oxide induces changes in cellular responses and massive cell death in HEK293 cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing a combination of cellular responses and transcriptome in HEK293 cells exposed to graphene oxide nanoparticles, providing a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms of graphene oxide-induced cytotoxicity and for the development of new therapeutic strategies.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; cellular assays; graphene oxide; human embryonic kidney cells; oxidative stress; transcriptomic analysis
  23. Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Jun 28. pii: S0753-3322(19)31522-7. [Epub ahead of print]117 109170
    Chen C, Luo Y, Su Y, Teng L.
      Vitamin D deficiency is identified as a risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Forkhead box class O1 (FoxO1) is closely related to GDM; however, the role of vitamin D deficiency and the underlying pathogenesis of GDM has not been elucidated. Serum vitamin D level was detected using chemiluminescence immunoassay. FOXO1 expression was examined using Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot and immunocytochemistry analysis. Apoptosis of cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial function was assessed via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Our study demonstrated that vitamin D levels were significantly lower in 40 GDM patients. The silencing of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) decreased cell survival and increased both FoxO1 mRNA and protein expression. Overexpression of FoxO1 could cause the mitochondrial dysfunction (including production of ROS and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm)) and cell apoptosis. However, Overexpression of VDR and vitamin D treatment could induce the cell survival and alleviate the FoxO1-induced cell apoptosis, furthermore, vitamin D treatment or silencing of FoxO1 gene could reverse the ROS-induced cell apoptosis. Therefore, our results support that vitamin D may protect FoxO1-induced pancreatic beta cell apoptosis, which suggests that vitamin D may have beneficial effects in preventing and treating GDM.
    Keywords:  Forkhead box class O1 (FOXO1); Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); Vitamin D; Vitamin D receptor (VDR)
  24. Chin J Integr Med. 2019 Jun 28.
    Sun DW, Gao Q, Qi X.
      OBJECTIVE: To explore the specific molecular mechanisms of Danshensu (DSS) in the treatment of ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI).METHODS: IRI model was established with isolated rat hearts by performing global ischaemia for 30 min, and then followed by 60 min reperfusion. Also, H9C2 cells were subjected to 4-h hypoxia followed by 3-h reoxygenation. Then 10 μmol/L DSS were added in the reperfusion/reoxygenation step to intervene IRI. Cardiac function, structural change and apoptosis were respectively tested by Langendorff System, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick endabeling (TUNEL) stainings. Then lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide gasififi cation enzyme (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sirt1/FoxO1/Rab7 Signal Pathway was monitored at both protein and mRNA levels.
    RESULTS: The results showed that IRI not only greatly attenuated cardiac function (LVDP and ±dp/dtmax, P<0.01, P<0.05) and increased the level of the marker enzymes (cardiac troponin T, LDH, P<0.01) from the coronary effluents, but also markedly induced changes in the structure of cardiomyocytes and contributed to apoptosis, which were mediated by boosted endogenous ROS. However, after treatment with DSS all above indexes were improved, which was related to activating Sirt1/FoxO1/Rab7 signal pathway accompanied with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system, such as superoxide gasififi cation enzyme and glutathione peroxidase.
    CONCLUSION: DSS is able to protect hearts from IRI, which may be attributable to inhibiting excessive ROS through Sirt1/FoxO1/Rab7 signaling.
    Keywords:  Chinese medicine; Danshensu; Sirt1/FoxO1/Rab7 signal pathway; apoptosis; ischemia reperfusion injury; reactive oxygen species
  25. Biomed Khim. 2019 Apr;65(3): 165-179
    Rusetskaya NY, Fedotov IV, Koftina VA, Borodulin VB.
      Monocytes and macrophages play a key role in the development of inflammation: under the action of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), absorbed from the intestine, monocytes and macrophages form reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines, this leads to the development of oxidative stress, inflammation and/or apoptosis in all types of tissues. In the cells LPS induce an "internal" TLR4-mediated MAP-kinase inflammatory signaling pathway and cytokines through the superfamily of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) and the "death domain" (DD) initiate an "external" caspase apoptosis cascade or necrosis activation that causes necroptosis. Many of the proteins involved in intracellular signaling cascades (MYD88, ASK1, IKKa/b, NF-kB, AP-1) are redox-sensitive and their activity is regulated by antioxidants thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, nitroredoxin, and glutathione. Oxidation of these signaling proteins induced by ROS enhances the development of inflammation and apoptosis, and their reduction with antioxidants, on the contrary, stabilizes the signaling cascades speed, preventing the vicious circle of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis that follows it. Antioxidant (AO) enzymes thioredoxin reductase (TRXR), glutaredoxin reductase (GLRXR), glutathione reductase (GR) are required for reduction of non-enzymatic antioxidants (thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, nitroredoxin, glutathione), and AO enzymes (SOD, catalase, GPX) are required for ROS deactivation. The key AO enzymes (TRXR and GPX) are selenium-dependent; therefore selenium deficiency leads to a decrease in the body's antioxidant defense, the development of oxidative stress, inflammation, and/or apoptosis in various cell types. Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway activated by selenium deficiency and/or oxidative stress is necessary to restore redox homeostasis in the cell. In addition, expression of some genes is changed with selenium deficiency. Consequently, growth and proliferation of cells, their movement, development, death, and survival, as well as the interaction between cells, the redox regulation of intracellular signaling cascades of inflammation and apoptosis, depend on the selenium status of the body. Prophylactic administration of selenium-containing preparations (natural and synthetic (organic and inorganic)) is able to normalize the activity of AO enzymes and the general status of the body. Organic selenium compounds have a high bioavailability and, depending on their concentration, can act both as selenium donors to prevent selenium deficiency and as antitumor drugs due to their toxicity and participation in the regulation of signaling pathways of apoptosis. Known selenorganic compounds diphenyldiselenide and ethaselen share similarity with the Russian organo selenium compound, diacetophenonylselenide (DAPS-25), which serves as a source of bioavailable selenium, exhibits a wide range of biological activity, including antioxidant activity, that governs cell redox balance, inflammation and apoptosis regulation.
    Keywords:  DAPS-25; apoptosis; inflammation; oxidative stress; selenium; signal cascades
  26. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jun 30. pii: E3220. [Epub ahead of print]20(13):
    Choi DG, Venkatesan J, Shim MS.
      Pro-oxidant therapy exploiting pro-oxidant drugs that can trigger cytotoxic oxidative stress in cancer cells has emerged as an innovative strategy for cancer-specific therapy. Piperlongumine (PL) has gained great interest as a novel pro-oxidant agent, because it has an ability to trigger cancer-specific apoptosis through the increase of oxidative stress in cancer cells. However, the use of PL is limited in the clinic because of its hydrophobic nature. In this study, chitosan- and fucoidan-based nanoparticles were prepared for the effective intracellular delivery of PL into cancer cells. Chitosan and fucoidan formed nanoparticles by ionic gelation. The chitosan- and fucoidan-based nanoparticles (CS-F NPs) effectively encapsulated PL, and increased its water solubility and bioavailability. CS-F NPs showed very low cytotoxicity in human prostate cancer cells, demonstrating its high potential for in vivo applications. The PL-loaded chitosan-fucoidan nanoparticles (PL-CS-F NPs) efficiently killed human prostate cancer cells via PL-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This study demonstrates that CS-F NPs are promising natural polymer-based drug carriers for safe and effective PL delivery.
    Keywords:  chitosan; fucoidan; nanoparticles; piperlongumine; pro-oxidant cancer therapy
  27. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Aug;20(2): 1561-1568
    Li X, Zhang N, Zhang Y, Jia P, Guo Y, Tian Y, You S, Wu S, Sun Y.
      Oxidative stress participates in several heart diseases and is an important mechanism contributing to the pathological alterations of myocardial cell injury. In recent years, ubiquitylation has been demonstrated to be an important biochemical reaction associated with apoptosis. To investigate the effects and interactions of the E3 ligase F‑box and WD repeat domain containing 7 (Fbw7) and MCL1 apoptosis regulator, BCL2 family member (Mcl‑1) in myocardial cells during oxidative stress, Cell Counting Kit‑8, flow cytometry, western blot, reactive oxygen species and co‑immunoprecipitation assays were conducted. The current study revealed that Fbw7 may facilitate apoptosis via the Mcl‑1‑Bax pathway in oxidative stress‑induced myocardial H9c2 cell injury. Mcl‑1 inhibits the functions of Bcl‑2 family members, including the mitochondrial apoptosis factor Bax, to maintain cell viability; however, the present study suggested that Fbw7 may degrade Mcl‑1 and impaired this process. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that Fbw‑7 promotes myocardial cell injury via interacting with Mcl‑1.
  28. Food Chem Toxicol. 2019 Jun 27. pii: S0278-6915(19)30441-7. [Epub ahead of print]132 110652
    Manogaran P, Beeraka NM, Huang CY, Vijaya Padma V.
      Cisplatin (CDDP) is a potent platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent used to treat solid tumors including colorectal cancer via inducing cytotoxicity. CDDP usage is limited due to the chemoresistance and associated adverse effects. A combinatorial regimen of phytochemicals with anticancer activity along with approved anticancer drugs seems to be a hopeful strategy against cancer treatment. Lotus-derived compounds such as neferine and isoliensinine have proven significant chemosensitizing activity in different cancer cells. Present study aims to compare chemosensitizing activity/anticancer potential of neferine/isoliensinine in combinatorial regimen with CDDP. Results documented that neferine/isoliensinine with CDDP augmented 'intracellular uptake of cisplatin' consequently apoptosis in HCT-15 cells exemplified by 'apoptotic morphological changes', 'S phase cell cycle arrest', 'ROS mediated oxidative stress' with the concomitant escalation in intracellular calcium & dissipation of MMP and activation of MAPK/PI3K/AKT pathway'. Furthermore, isoliensinine combination with CDDP exclusively enhanced CDDP uptake and induced more ROS-mediated apoptosis compared to other treatment regimens. Combination regimens induced downregulation of Bcl2 and upregulation of cytochrome c, caspase 3, 9, PARP cleavage indicating apoptosis induction through the intrinsic pathway. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that CDDP combination with neferine/isoliensinine augments the anticancer potential of CDDP in an additive manner and decrease CDDP dose requirement.
    Keywords:  Cisplatin; Colon cancer HCT-15 cells; Isoliensinine; Neferine
  29. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 Jul 01. pii: S0147-6513(19)30712-2. [Epub ahead of print]182 109391
    Li X, An J, Li H, Qiu X, Wei Y, Shang Y.
      Methyl-triclosan (MTCS) is a dominant transformation product of triclosan (TCS), which has been widely used as an effective antimicrobial ingredient with increasing concentrations in the environment. MTCS shows higher persistence in environment than its parent chemical TCS. The toxic effects of MTCS and toxicological mechanism are not well understood up to now. This study investigated the cytotoxic effects of MTCS in HepG2 cells in terms of cell viability, apoptosis induction, ROS production, GSH/GSSG levels, Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP) reduction, LDH release, glucose uptake and ATP production. Moreover, the related gene transcripts were measured with RT-qPCR assay. Cytotoxic experiments in HepG2 cells revealed that MTCS exposure at micromol per liter levels had toxic effects as evidenced by decreased cell survival, elevated cell apoptosis, reduced MMP and increased LDH release. These toxic effects were associated with increased ROS production and reduced GSH/GSSG ratio. Meanwhile, elevated glucose uptake and ATP production indicated that MTCS induced membrane damages resulted not from a typical mitochondrial uncoupler, but from oxidative stress. Analysis of gene transcripts showed that MTCS exposure induced mRNA expressions alterations associated with oxidative stress response, energy production, cell cycle regulation and cell apoptosis. In general, the caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway might play a role in MTCS induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Methyl triclosan; Mitochondrial membrane potential; Oxidative stress; p53
  30. Exp Mol Pathol. 2019 Jun 28. pii: S0014-4800(19)30231-X. [Epub ahead of print] 104279
    Ruan D, Liu Y, Wang X, Yang D, Sun Y.
      Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by the elevated blood glucose levels and is regarded as one of the most threatening diseases worldwide. The dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells is a key contributor for the pathophysiology of DM. There is growing evidence showing the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of pancreatic beta cell functions. In the present study, we determined the expression of miR-149-5p in pancreatic beta cells under high-glucose (HG) stimulation and explored the underlying mechanism of miR-149-5p-mediated functions of pancreatic beta cells. The results showed the down-regulation of miR-149-5p in the pancreatic beta cell line (MIN6 cells) under HG stimulation. Overexpression of miR-149-5p protected against HG-induced cell apoptosis and impairment of insulin secretion, and attenuated HG-induced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in MIN6 cells; while inhibition of miR-149-5p suppressed cell viability, induced cell apoptosis, inhibited insulin secretion and enhanced ROS production in MIN6 cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that miR-149-5p targeted the BH3-only protein BIM 3' untranslated region and suppressed BIM expression in MIN6 cells. The rescue experimental assays showed that enforced expression of BIM attenuated the miR-149-5p-mediated effects in HG-stimulated pancreatic beta cells. In conclusion, the present study for the first time elucidated the biological functions of miR-149-5p in regulating pancreatic beta cell functions. The data from the present study provided evidence showing that miR-149-5p protected against HG-induced pancreatic beta cell apoptosis partly via suppressing BIM expression. The therapeutic potential of miR-149-5p in the treatment of DM still requires further detailed investigations.
    Keywords:  BIM; Cell apoptosis; Diabetes mellitus; Insulin secretion; ROS production; miR-149-5p
  31. Front Oncol. 2019 ;9 484
    Kuttikrishnan S, Siveen KS, Prabhu KS, Khan AQ, Ahmed EI, Akhtar S, Ali TA, Merhi M, Dermime S, Steinhoff M, Uddin S.
      Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a significant cancer of children resulting from the clonal proliferation of lymphoid precursors with arrested maturation. Although chemotherapeutic approaches have been achieving successful remission for the majority of cases of childhood ALL, development of resistance to chemotherapy has been observed. Thus, new therapeutic approaches are required to improve patient's prognosis. Therefore, we investigated the anticancer potential of curcumin in ALL. We tested a panel of B-precursor ALL (B-Pre-ALL) cell lines with various translocations after treatment with different doses of curcumin. Curcumin suppresses the viability in a concentration-dependent manner in 697, REH, SupB15, and RS4;11 cells (doses from 0 to 80 μM). Curcumin induces apoptosis in B-Pre-ALL cell lines via activation of caspase-8 and truncation of BID. Curcumin treatment increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and resulted in a leaky mitochondrial membrane that led to the discharge of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm, the activation of caspase 3 and the cleavage of PARP. Curcumin treatment of B-Pre-ALL cell lines induced a dephosphorylation of the constitutive phosphorylated AKT/PKB and a down-regulation of the expression of cIAP1, and XIAP. Moreover, curcumin mediates its anticancer activity by the generation of reactive oxygen species. Finally, the suboptimal doses of curcumin potentiated the anticancer activity of cisplatin. Altogether, these results suggest an important therapeutic role of curcumin, acting as a growth suppressor of B-Pre-ALL by apoptosis via inactivation of AKT/PKB and down-regulation of IAPs and activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway via generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Our interesting findings raise the possibility of considering curcumin as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of B-Pre-ALL.
    Keywords:  B-Pre-ALL cells; ROS; apoptosis; curcumin; signaling
  32. J Cell Biochem. 2019 Jul 03.
    Coker-Gurkan A, Ayhan-Sahin B, Keceloglu G, Obakan-Yerlikaya P, Arisan ED, Palavan-Unsal N.
      Pituitary adenoma is the most common tumor with a high recurrence rate due to a hormone-dependent JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcriptions (STAT) signaling. Atiprimod, a novel compound belonging to the azaspirane class of cationic amphiphilic drugs, has antiproliferative, anticarcinogenic effects in multiple myeloma, breast, and hepatocellular carcinoma by blocking STAT3 activation. Therapeutic agents' efficiency depends on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-autophagy regulation during drug-mediated apoptotic cell death decision. However, the molecular machinery of dose-dependent atiprimod treatment regarding ER stress-autophagy has not been investigated yet. Thus, our aim is to investigate the ER stress-autophagy axis in atiprimod-mediated apoptotic cell death in GH-secreting rat cell line (GH3) pituitary adenoma cells. Dose-dependent atiprimod treatment decreased GH3 cell viability, inhibited cell growth, and colony formation. Upregulation of Atg5, Atg12, Beclin-1 expressions, cleavage of LC-3II and formation of autophagy vacuoles were determined only after 1 µM atiprimod exposure. In addition, atiprimod-triggered ER stress was evaluated by BiP, C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), p-PERK upregulation, and Ca+2 release after 1 µM atiprimod exposure. Concomitantly, increasing concentration of atiprimod induced caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death via modulating Bcl2 family members. Moreover, by N-acetyl cycteinc pretreatment, atiprimod triggered reactive oxygen species generation and prevented apoptotic induction. Concomitantly, dose-dependent atiprimod treatment decreased both GH and STAT3 expression in GH3 cells. In addition, overexpression of STAT3 increased atiprimod-mediated cell viability loss and apoptotic cell death through suppressing autophagy and ER stress key molecules expression profile. In conclusion, a low dose of atiprimod exposure triggers autophagy and mild-ER stress as a survival mechanism, but increased atiprimod dose induced caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death by targeting STAT3 in GH3 pituitary adenoma cells.
    Keywords:  GH3 cells; apoptotic cell death; atiprimod; autophagy; endoplasmic reticulum
  33. Toxicology. 2019 Jun 29. pii: S0300-483X(19)30187-8. [Epub ahead of print] 152241
    He YT, Wang W, Shen W, Sun QY, Yin S.
      Prolonged exposure of Fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE), a post-emergence herbicide, can cause serious damage to animals through food chain. Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland in mammals and believed to protect cells from oxidative stress damage. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of FE on mouse oocyte meiosis maturation and the protective roles of melatonin on FE-exposed oocytes by in vitro maturation model. FE exposure significantly caused defects of the first polar body extrusion, which could be protected by co-culture with melatonin. Furthermore, we examined the meiotic maturation details by performing the sperm binding, actin and tubulin immunofluorescence, ROS and apoptosis detection, and histone methylation assay. Our data showed that FE exposure to oocytes led to disrupted actin filament dynamics, mis-organized spindle, and reduced the sperm binding capacity. In addition, FE-exposure increased oxidative stress level and induced oocyte apoptosis. We also found that FE exposure resulted in histone methylation changes. Treatment with melatonin could significantly improve these phenotypes in oocytes exposed to FE. In conclusion, FE exposure can cause meiotic defects by disrupting the cytoskeletal integrality and inducing excessive ROS accumulation to initiate apoptosis in oocytes, while melatonin can reduce all these damages, suggesting that melatonin has protective effects on oocytes exposed to FE during meiotic maturation.
    Keywords:  Fenoxaprop-ethyl; meiosis; melatonin; oocyte
  34. J Environ Sci Health B. 2019 Jul 04. 1-6
    Michalcova K, Roychoudhury S, Halenar M, Tvrda E, Kovacikova E, Vasicek J, Chrenek P, Baldovska S, Sanislo L, Kren V, Kolesarova A.
      Isoquercitrin is a dietary bioflavonoid used as a food supplement. We studied the mechanism underlying its effect in human ovarian cancer cells using OVCAR-3 cell line. Viability, survival, apoptosis, release of human transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and TGF-β1 receptor, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by OVCAR-3 cells were examined after isoquercitrin treatment at concentrations 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg mL-1. AlamarBlue assay revealed that isoquercitrin did not cause any significant change (P > 0.05) in cell viability as compared to control. Apoptotic assay using flow cytometry did not find any significant change (P > 0.05) in the proportion of live, dead and apoptotic cells as compared to control. ELISA also showed that the release of human TGF-β1 and TGF-β1 receptor were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by isoquercitrin as compared to control. Chemiluminescence assay demonstrated that lower concentrations (5, 10, and 25 μg mL-1) were able to exhibit beneficial effects by inhibiting the generation of intracellular ROS. In contrast, elevated concentrations of 50 and 100 μg mL-1 led to oxidative stress (P < 0.05). We concluded that the beneficial effect of isoquercitrin on ovarian cancer cells may be mediated by an antioxidative pathway that involves inhibition of intracellular ROS generation, thereby limiting oxidative stress.
    Keywords:  Isoquercitrin; ROS; TGF-β1; apoptosis; cell viability; human; ovarian cancer
  35. Biomed Res Int. 2019 ;2019 4348973
    Zhao K, Li Y, Wang Z, Han N, Wang Y.
      Diabetic nephropathy is the complication of diabetes mellitus that can lead to chronic renal failure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production plays an important role in its pathological process. Previous studies showed that carnosine may reduce diabetic nephropathy by antioxidant effect. However, the molecular mechanism of its antioxidant was not fully understood. In the current study, we developed high glucose containing different concentrations of carnosine to reduce ROS levels and podocytes apoptosis, and Cell Counting Kit-8 test was used to observe the cell viability. Carnosine (5-20mM) was found to protect mouse podocytes (MPC5) cells from HG-induced injury. Quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining revealed that high glucose induced ROS levels and podocytes apoptosis were downregulated by PI3K/AKT and Nrf2 signaling pathways. The current findings suggest that carnosine may reduce ROS levels and MPC5 cells apoptosis by PI3K/AKT and Nrf2 signaling pathways activation.
  36. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jul 01. pii: E3238. [Epub ahead of print]20(13):
    Ou-Yang F, Tsai IH, Tang JY, Yen CY, Cheng YB, Farooqi AA, Chen SR, Yu SY, Kao JK, Chang HW.
      Extracts from the Nepenthes plant have anti-microorganism and anti-inflammation effects. However, the anticancer effect of the Nepenthes plant is rarely reported, especially for breast cancer cells. Here, we evaluate the antitumor effects of the ethyl acetate extract of Nepenthes thorellii x (ventricosa x maxima) (EANT) against breast cancer cells. Cell viability and flow cytometric analyses were used to analyze apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. EANT exhibits a higher antiproliferation ability to two breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and SKBR3) as compared to normal breast cells (M10). A mechanistic study demonstrates that EANT induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells with evidence of subG1 accumulation and annexin V increment. EANT also induces glutathione (GSH) depletion, resulting in dramatic accumulations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial superoxide (MitoSOX), as well as the depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). These oxidative stresses attack DNA, respectively leading to DNA double strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage in γH2AX and 8-oxo-2'deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) assays. Overall these findings clearly revealed that EANT induced changes were suppressed by the ROS inhibitor. In conclusion, our results have shown that the ROS-modulating natural product (EANT) has antiproliferation activity against breast cancer cells through apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage.
    Keywords:  breast cancer; carnivorous plants; natural product; oxidative stress
  37. Neurochem Res. 2019 Jun 29.
    Kar F, Hacioglu C, Uslu S, Kanbak G.
      The neurotoxic effects of aluminum are generally associated with reduced antioxidant capacity, increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, which lead to the induction of neurodegenerative processes. Curcumin has a lipophilic polyphenol character and effects of antioxidant and anti-apoptotic. The present study was undertaken to examine possible aluminum exposure in rats brain synaptosomes and to investigate whether protective and therapeutic effects of curcumin on biochemical and morphological changes in both pre- and post-treated groups. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) at 50 µM concentration and curcumin at 5 and 10 µg/mL doses were applied to hippocampal synaptosomes of rats according to experimental design. Biochemical effects were evaluated by MTT cytotoxicity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, nitric oxide (NO) levels, glutathione (GSH) levels, caspase 3 activities, cytochrome c levels, DNA fragmentation values and protein levels. Morphological examinations were done by TEM analysis. AlCI3 exposure in the synaptosomes enhanced oxidative stress, triggered apoptosis and caused ultrastructural alterations which were well reflected in the TEM images. Curcumin pre-treatment slightly ameliorated the MDA levels, NO levels, cytochrome c levels and caspase 3 activities in AlCI3-exposed synaptosomes, but these results were not statistically significant. Furthermore, curcumin post-treatment significantly improved oxidative damage and morphological alterations, and suppressed cytochrome c and caspase 3 activities. Taken together, our data showed that curcumin had more therapeutic effects than protective effects in AlCI3-induced neurotoxicity. Nevertheless, the therapeutic (post-protective) effects of curcumin should be further investigated in in vivo neurodegenerative models involving behavioral tests.
    Keywords:  Aluminum chloride; Apoptosis; Curcumin; Hippocampal synaptosomes; Morphological alteration; Oxidative stress
  38. Anticancer Res. 2019 Jul;39(7): 3677-3686
    Liu Y, Kwon T, Kim JS, Chandimali N, Jin YH, Gong YX, Xie DP, Han YH, Jin MH, Shen GN, Jeong DK, Lee DS, Cui YD, Sun HN.
      BACKGROUND/AIM: Peroxiredoxin (Prx) V has been known as an antioxidant enzyme which scavenges intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Also, Prx V has been shown to mediate cell apoptosis in various cancers. However, the mechanism of Prx V-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unknown. Thus, in this study we analyzed the effects of Prx V in β-lapachone-induced apoptosis in SW480 human colon cancer cells.MATERIALS AND METHODS: β-lapachone-induced apoptosis was analyzed by the MTT assay, western blotting, fluorescence microscopy, Annexin V staining and flow cytometry.
    RESULTS: Overexpression of Prx V, significantly decreased β-lapachone-induced cellular apoptosis and Prx V silencing increased β-lapachone-induced cellular apoptosis via modulating ROS scavenging activity compared to mock SW480 cells. In addition, to further explore the mechanism of Prx V regulated β-lapachone-induced SW480 cells apoptosis, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling was studied. The Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway was found to be induced by β-lapachone.
    CONCLUSION: Prx V regulates SW480 cell apoptosis via scavenging ROS cellular levels and mediating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which was induced by β-lapachone.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Peroxiredoxin V; ROS; colon cancer; β-lapachone
  39. Toxicol Ind Health. 2019 Jul 04. 748233719856983
    Rasras S, Kalantari H, Rezaei M, Dehghani MA, Zeidooni L, Alikarami K, Dehghani F, Alboghobeish S.
      Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are broadly applicable across a variety of industrial fields. Despite their usefulness in many different applications, oxidative stress-induced toxicity of SWCNTs and MWCNTs has not been widely investigated. The present study examined the effects of SWCNTs and MWCNTs on rat brain mitochondria using the 3,4 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and indices of reactive oxygen species (ROS), based on measurements of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and mitochondrial membrane potential. Based on the MTT assay, exposure to SWCNTs and MWCNTs decreased mitochondrial survival and viability in a dose-dependent manner. Findings also indicated that MWCNTs and SWCNTs could damage mitochondrial membranes and induce the formation of ROS, as indicated by increased levels of MDA and decreased GSH content. The results of this study suggest that SWCNTs and MWCNTs likely damage brain tissue mitochondria by increasing oxidative stress and possibly activating the apoptosis pathway as well as other pathways of cytotoxicity.
    Keywords:  MWCNT; SWCNT; brain; mitochondria; oxidative stress
  40. Br J Pharmacol. 2019 Jul 02.
    Hsieh CC, Li CY, Hsu CH, Chen HL, Chen YH, Liu YP, Liu YR, Kuo HF, Liu PL.
      BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in the progression of cardiovascular diseases including heart failure. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), which inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis, show cardioprotective effects in chronic heart failure. However, the beneficial role of statins in mitochondrial protection in heart failure remains unclear.EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Rats were treated with Angiotensin II (Ang II) (1.5 mg/kg/day) or co-administered simvastatin (oral, 10 mg/kg) for 14 days; and then administration was stopped for the following 14 days. Cardiac structure/function was examined by wheat germ agglutinin staining and echocardiography. Mitochondrial morphology and the numbers of lipid droplets, lysosomes, autophagosomes, and mitophagosomes were determined by transmission electron microscopy. Human cardiomyocytes were stimulated and intracellular ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) changes were measured by flow cytometry and JC-1 staining, respectively. Autophagy and mitophagy-related and mitochondria-regulated apoptotic proteins were identified by immunohistochemistry and western blotting.
    KEY RESULTS: Simvastatin significantly reduced ROS production and attenuated the disruption of ΔΨm. Simvastatin induced the accumulation of lipid droplets to provide energy for maintaining mitochondrial function, promoted autophagy and mitophagy, and inhibited mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These findings suggest that mitochondrial protection mediated by simvastatin plays a therapeutic role in heart failure prevention by modulating antioxidant status, and promoting energy supplies for autophagy and mitophagy to inhibit mitochondrial damage and cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
    CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Mitochondria play a key role in mediating heart failure progression. Simvastatin attenuated Ang II-induced heart failure via mitochondrial protection and might provide a new therapy for heart failure prevention.
  41. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2019 Jul 01. 60(8): 2836-2847
    Wang B, Peng L, Ouyang H, Wang L, He D, Zhong J, Xiao Y, Deng Y, Li M, Li S, Yuan J.
      Purpose: To assess how DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) and autophagic flux are altered in dry eye disease and reveal the underlying mechanisms.Methods: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to desiccating stress (subcutaneous scopolamine [0.5 mg/0.2 mL] 3 times a day, humidity < 30%) for 7 days. Primary human corneal epithelial cells and cells from a human corneal epithelial cell line were cultured under hyperosmolarity. Western blot assays and immunofluorescence staining were used to measure changes in protein expression. mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. Autophagosomes were observed through electron microscopy. Cellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial function were detected with 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. Cell Counting Kit-8 and lactate dehydrogenase assays were used to measure cell death. Apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin V-PI flow cytometry.
    Results: Increased expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-II), sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), and DDIT4 were observed in corneal epithelial cells in in vitro and mice models of dry eye. The electron microscopy revealed large autophagic vacuoles with poorly degraded materials in human corneal epithelial cells under hyperosmolarity. In addition, we found that DDIT4 knockdown significantly suppressed the expression of LC3-II and SQSTM1 by disrupting reactive oxygen species release and restoring mitochondrial function under hyperosmolarity. Moreover, the ablation of DDIT4 effectively preserved cell viability and inhibited apoptosis.
    Conclusions: Excessive reactive oxygen species release through DDIT4 induction can lead to impaired autophagy and decreased cell viability in dry eye disease.
  42. Chemosphere. 2019 Jun 17. pii: S0045-6535(19)31337-2. [Epub ahead of print]234 822-829
    Li S, Baiyun R, Lv Z, Li J, Han D, Zhao W, Yu L, Deng N, Liu Z, Zhang Z.
      Mercury is one of the 10 toxic chemicals with major public health concerns. Continuous exposure to low levels of heavy metals including mercury is related to renal injury, especially in children. This study investigated the possible molecular mechanism of inorganic mercury-induced kidney injury. Twenty eight Kunming mice were divided into four groups (n = 7), and treated with 0, 20, 40, 80 mg/L mercuric chloride (HgCl2) in drinking water for 16 weeks respectively. All the HgCl2 exposure mice displayed different degrees of renal injury, which was diagnosed by hematoxylin and eosin stain, biochemical analysis, and ultrastructure examination. The treatment of HgCl2 inhibited the silent information regulator two ortholog 1 (Sirt1)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) signaling pathway and resulted the disorder of mitochondrial dynamics, as evidenced by the increasing expression of dynamin-related protein 1 and decreasing expression of mitofusin 2. Meanwhile, HgCl2 inhibited the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) axis. The abnormality of mitochondrial dynamics and the suppression of Nrf2 axis exacerbated oxidative stress, and then induced cell apoptosis. These findings demonstrated that the disorder of mitochondrial dynamics induced by HgCl2 activated oxidative stress, and further resulted in renal apoptosis through inhibiting the Sirt1/PGC-1α signaling pathway and the Nrf2 axis.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; HgCl(2); Kidney hazard; Mitochondrial dynamics; Nrf2; Sirt1/PGC-1α
  43. Ren Fail. 2019 Nov;41(1): 616-622
    Yang L, Chang B, Guo Y, Wu X, Liu L.
      Objective: By copying the uric acid nephropathy rat model, the oxidative stress injury of mitochondria was caused in renal tubular epithelial cells and the relationship between the injury and the induction of cell apoptosis was identified. Methods: All rats were randomly divided into NC (normal control, NC) group, HUA (high uric acid, HUA) group and GSH (reductive glutathione, GSH) group. The values were quantitatively tested in the kidney tissues, including 24-h urinary protein quantity, serum creatinine, blood uric acid, the MDA (malondialdehyde, MDA) and SOD (superoxide dismutase, SOD) oxidative stress indicators. The expression of p53, Bax and caspase-9/-3 were detected by immunoblotting. TUNEL assays were used to detect the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. Result: In HUA and GSH groups, the 24-h urinary protein(24UTP), serum creatinine, and blood uric acid increased gradually with the increase of the replication cycle and the increase was significant compared to the NC group (p < .05). Compared to the NC group, MDA increased whereas SOD decreased. The expression of apoptotic proteins, such as p53, Bax, and caspase-9/-3 in the mitochondria was significantly different (p < .05). TUNEL assay revealed that the renal tubular epithelial cells in HUA group were largely apoptotic, whereas the GSH group improved significantly. Conclusion: Mitochondria incurred the substantial damage due to being in a state of oxidative stress, which was the primary cause of apoptosis in the renal tubule epithelial cells. GSH exhibited the effective resistance to the influence of oxidative stress and can restore the damage in the renal tubular epithelial cells.
    Keywords:  Uric acid nephropathy; apoptosis; mitochondria; oxidative stress; reduced glutathione
  44. Life Sci. 2019 Jun 26. pii: S0024-3205(19)30536-3. [Epub ahead of print] 116610
    Cortese K, Marconi S, D'Alesio C, Calzia D, Panfoli I, Tavella S, Aiello C, Pedrelli F, Bisio A, Castagnola P.
      AIMS: The aim of this study was the characterization of the in vitro cytotoxic properties of a recently isolated diterpene compound, 7β-acetoxy-20-hydroxy-19,20-epoxyroyleanone (compound 1), extracted from Salvia corrugata, versus human cell lines.MAIN METHODS: We used as model study immortalized breast epithelial cells MCF10A and two ERBB2+ breast cancer (BCa) cell lines, SKBR-3 and BT474. Compound 1 was isolated by methanolic extraction from regenerated shoots of Salvia corrugata Vahl, and purified by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Flow cytometry (FCM) was employed for cell cycle, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis. Cell morphology was assessed by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
    KEY FINDINGS: Compound 1 inhibited cell survival of all breast cell lines. In particular, compound 1 promoted cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and apoptosis along with impairment of the mitochondrial function, which was reflected in a gross alteration of the mitochondrial network structure. Furthermore, we also detected a potent activation of the ERK1/2 kinase, which suggested the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Partial rescue of survival obtained with n-acetylcysteine (NAC) when coadminstered with compound 1 further supported a contribution of ROS mediated mechanisms to the growth-arrest and proapoptotic activity of compound 1 in both BCa cell lines. ROS production was indeed confirmed in SKBR-3.
    SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that compound 1 has a cytotoxic activity against both human normal and cancer cell lines derived from breast epithelia, which is mediated by ROS generation and mitochondrial damage.
    Keywords:  Breast; Diterpenes; ERBB2; ERK1/2; Mitochondria; ROS
  45. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 Jul 02. pii: S0147-6513(19)30719-5. [Epub ahead of print]182 109398
    Habib R, Wahdan SA, Gad AM, Azab SS.
      Cadmium(Cd) is a serious environmental and occupational contaminant that represents a serious health hazard to humans and other animals. Reproductive health problems have been reported in men exposed to Cd. Testicular damage is one of the deleterious effects due to Cd exposure. Cd-induced testicular toxicity is mediated through oxidative stress, inflammation, testosterone inhibition and apoptosis. Thus, the present study was performed to assess the possible protective role of infliximab (IFX), anti-TNFα agent, against Cd-induced testicular damage and spermiotoxicity in rats. The rats were randomly allotted into six experimental groups: control, Cd sulphate treated, Cd sulphate treated with infliximab (5 mg/kg), Cd sulphate with infliximab (7 mg/kg), infliximab alone (5 mg/kg), and infliximab alone (7 mg/kg). The control group received saline. To induce testicular damage, Cd sulphate (1.5 mg/100 gm body weight/day) was dissolved in normal saline and orally administrated for 3 consecutive weeks. The rats in infliximab-treated groups were given a weekly dose of 5 mg/kg/week or 7 mg/kg/week of infliximab intraperitoneally. In the current study Cd exposure reduced sperm count, markers of testicular function, sperm motility as well as gene expression of testicular 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD and serum testosterone level. Additionally, it increased testicular oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers. The histopathologic studies supported the biochemical findings. Treatment with infliximab significantly attenuated Cd-induced injury verified by the restoration of testicular architecture, enhancement of steroidogenesis, preservation of spermatogenesis, modulation of the inflammatory reaction along with suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis. It was concluded that infliximab, through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of Cd.
    Keywords:  Cadmium; Infliximab; Spermiotoxicity; Steroidogenesis; Testicular damage
  46. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2019 Jun 20. pii: S0960-894X(19)30418-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Suematsu N, Ninomiya M, Sugiyama H, Udagawa T, Tanaka K, Koketsu M.
      Carbazoloquinone alkaloids are of great interest as privileged structures for anticancer drug molecules. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure-activity relationships of carbazoloquinone derivatives as anticancer agents. A series of carbazoloquinones including murrayaquinone A, koeniginequinones A and B, and related analogues were therefore prepared. Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular cyclization reaction mechanism was well elucidated by DFT calculations. Treatment of the synthesized derivatives showed cytotoxicity on human leukemia HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. In addition, murrayaquinone A and β-brazanquinone elevated cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby triggering apoptosis. Our findings emphasize the excellent potential of carbazoloquinone derivatives as ROS-inducing anticancer agents.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Carbazoloquinone alkaloid; DFT calculation; Murrayaquinone A; Reactive oxygen species
  47. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2019 Jul;74(1): 20-29
    Wang S, Bian W, Zhen J, Zhao L, Chen W.
      Cardiac reperfusion injury has been found to be associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Recently, p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) has been identified as a primary mediator of ER stress in chronic myocardial injury. Melatonin, a biological clock-related hormone, has been demonstrated to attenuate heart reperfusion burden by modulating ER stress and mitochondrial function. The aim of our study was to explore whether reperfusion-induced ER stress is modulated by melatonin through Pak2. Hypoxia reoxygenation (HR) was used in vitro to mimic reperfusion injury in cardiomyocytes. ER stress, oxidative stress, calcium overload, and cell death were measured through Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence with the assistance of siRNA transfection and pathway blocker treatment. The results of our study demonstrated that HR decreased the levels of Pak2 in cardiomyocytes in vitro, and inactivation of Pak2 was associated with ER stress, oxidative stress, calcium overload, caspase-12 activation, and cardiomyocytes apoptosis in vitro. Interestingly, melatonin treatment attenuated HR-mediated ER stress, redox imbalance, calcium overload, and caspase-12-related cardiomyocytes apoptosis, and these protective effects were dependent on Pak2 upregulation. Knockdown of Pak2 abolished the beneficial actions exerted by melatonin on HR-treated cardiomyocytes in vitro. Finally, we found that melatonin reversed Pak2 expression by activating the AMPK pathway and blockade of the AMPK pathway suppressed Pak2 upregulation and cardiomyocytes survival induced by melatonin in the presence of HR stress. Overall, our study reports that the AMPK-Pak2 axis, a novel signaling pathway modulated by melatonin, sends prosurvival signals for cardiomyocytes reperfusion injury through attenuation of ER stress in vitro.
  48. Mutagenesis. 2019 Jul 04. pii: gez017. [Epub ahead of print]
    Vallabani NVS, Sengupta S, Shukla RK, Kumar A.
      Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with their wide range of consumer applications in day-to-day life received great attention to evaluate their effects in humans. This study has been attempted to elucidate the DNA damage response mechanism in a dermal model exposed to ZnO NPs through Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM)-mediated ChK1-dependent G2/M arrest. Further, viability parameters and mechanism involved in the cell death with special reference to the consequences arising due to DNA damage were explored. Our study showed that ZnO NPs at concentrations 5 and 10 µg/ml induced significant cytotoxic effect in skin cell line. Moreover, the results confirmed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induces the cell death by genotoxic insult, leading to mitochondrial membrane depolarisation and cell cycle arrest. Subsequently, ZnO NPs treatment created DNA damage as confirmed via Comet assay (increase in olive tail moment), micronucleus assay (increase in micronucleus formation), double-strand breaks (increase in ATM and Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) expression), DNA fragmentation and cell cycle (G2/M arrest) studies. Finally, marker proteins analysis concluded the mechanistic approach by demonstrating the key marker expressions HMOX1 and HSP60 (for oxidative stress), cytochrome c, APAF1, BAX, Caspase 9, Caspase 3 and decrease in BCL2 (for activating apoptotic pathway), pATM, ATR and γH2AX (for double-strand breaks), DNA-PK (involved in DNA repair) and decrease in cell cycle regulators. In together, our data revealed the mechanism of ROS generation that triggers apoptosis and DNA damage in HaCaT cell lines exposed to ZnO NPs.
  49. Anal Chem. 2019 Jul 02. 91(13): 8549-8557
    Song X, Yue Z, Hong T, Wang Z, Zhang S.
      Upconversion nanoparticles-based photodynamic nanotheranostic agents (UCNPs-PDT) have received great interest due to improved tissue penetration, weak autofluorescence, and low biotoxicity. However, conventional UCNPs-PDT are often limited by low energy transfer efficiency from UCNPs to photosensitizer (PS) molecules and insufficient generation and limited diffusion distance of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). Herein, an "all in one" nanotheranostic agent has been developed which has multicolor sandwich-structured UCNPs (SWUCNPs) as the core, a thin silica layer with a mitochondria-targeted group for loading dual PS as the medium layer, and polyethylene glycol-folic acid (PEG-FA) chains as the outer layer. Multicolor SWUCNPs simultaneously achieve two-photon fluorescence imaging and serve as energy donor for dual PS molecules. The thin luminescence layer and silica layer control most UCNPs activators and PS molecules in the effective energy transfer distance to guarantee a high energy transfer efficiency. Via FA-mediated endocytosis, the nanotheranostic agent is selectively endocytosed by cancer cells, is released from the endosome/lysosome, targets the mitochondria, and in situ produces ROSs under excitation from NIR, leading to significant mitochondria-mediated cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the established nanotheranostic agent shows tumor targetability, increased generation of ROSs, high PDT efficacy, significant cell apoptosis, minimal systemic cytotoxicity, and efficacious in vivo tumor inhibition.
  50. Curr Gene Ther. 2019 Jun 28.
    Xia X, Fan X, Zhao M, Zhu P.
      Ferroptosis is a newly discovered form of iron-dependent oxidative cell death characterized by accumulating lipid-based reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a lethal level. It is distinct from other forms of cell death including apoptosis, necrosis and auto-phage in the aspects of morphology, biochemistry and genetics. Ferroptosis could be triggered by system xc- inhibitors or GHx4 inhibitors, as well as drugs such as sorafenib, SAS, and ART. Recently, studies have demonstrated that ferroptosis was critical in regulating tumor growth, such as hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), renal cell carcinoma(RCC), non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC), ovarian cancer, pancreatic carcinoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma(DLBCL) etc; Ferroptosis was further exhibited to be associated with the resistance of chemotherapeutic drugs. Here in this review, we made an overview by summarize the mechanism of ferroptosis and its relationship with different type of tumors, so as to advance our understanding of cell death and to find a new promising way of clinical cancer management.
    Keywords:  ROS; cancer; chemotherapeutic drugs resistance; ferroptosis; iron metabolism; therapeutic approach
  51. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2019 Jul 01. 1535370219861283
    Ge Q, Zhao L, Ren XM, Ye P, Hu ZY.
    Keywords:  LCZ696; NF-κB; apoptosis; diabetic cardiomyopathy; inflammation; oxidative stress
  52. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2019 Jun 30. 960327119860188
    Savran M, Asci H, Ozmen O, Erzurumlu Y, Savas HB, Sonmez Y, Sahin Y.
      High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been shown to cause cardiovascular toxicity via oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the protective effects of melatonin (MLT) against HFCS-induced endothelial and cardiac dysfunction via oxidative stress and inflammation. Thirty-two Sprague Dawley male rats were distributed into three groups as control, HFCS, and HFCS + MLT. HFCS form F55 was prepared as 20% fructose syrup solution and given to the rats through drinking water for 10 weeks, and MLT administrated 10 mg/kg/day orally for last 6 weeks in addition to F55. After decapitation, blood and half of the heart samples were collected for biochemical analysis and other half of the tissues for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase MB, lactate dehydrogenase, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index, and caspase-3 levels increased and total antioxidant status levels decreased significantly in HFCS group. MLT treatment reversed all these parameters. Histopathologically, hyperemia, endothelial cell damage and increased levels of angiogenin, C-reactive protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase, myeloperoxidase and decreased sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1) expressions were observed in HFCS group. MLT ameliorated all these changes. MLT has an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic effects on HFCS-induced cardiovascular toxicity through enhancing the expression of SIRT-1.
    Keywords:  Oxidative stress; apoptosis; cardiac damage; corn syrup; inflammation
  53. Aquat Toxicol. 2019 Jun 19. pii: S0166-445X(19)30390-X. [Epub ahead of print]213 105229
    Yu X, Yu RQ, Zhang X, Zhan F, Sun X, Wu Y.
      Although the global use of the 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDT) has been prohibited, its persistence in the environment has caused long-lasting exposure on marine mammals. Our previous studies revealed exceedingly high residue levels of DDTs in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Pearl River Estuary region, China. However, the molecular mechanisms of p,p'-DDT toxicity on the dolphin are largely unknown. This study conducted the first cytotoxicity effect exploration of p,p'-DDT on the dolphin skin fibroblasts (ScSFs) to enhance the understanding of the cellular and molecular regulation impacts. ScSF cells were exposed to p,p'-DDT (28∼168 μM) for 24, 48 and 72 h. The exposure remarkably decreased viability of ScSF cells, possibly due to the synergetic effects of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction. The DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction were likely triggered by an increase of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential, reduction in the cellular ATP levels, decreased expression of the genes CDK1, CDK4, cyclin B1, cyclin D1 and apoptosis regulator Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. Moreover, caspase inhibitor displayed protective activity against p,p'-DDT-induced apoptosis, indicating that caspases played a central role in p,p'-DDT-triggered apoptosis in the ScSF cells. We hypothesize apoptosis likely plays a minor role in cytocidal effects induced by p,p'-DDT exposure, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Overall, this research provides new evidence of the cytotoxic mechanisms underlying p,p'-DDT exposure on humpback dolphin skin cells, and suggests that p,p'-DDT contamination is one of key health concern issues for the protection of this marine mammal.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Cell cycle; Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin; Mitochondria; p,p’-DDT
  54. Toxins (Basel). 2019 Jun 29. pii: E377. [Epub ahead of print]11(7):
    Shin HS, Lee HJ, Pyo MC, Ryu D, Lee KW.
      Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread mycotoxin produced by several species of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA exists in a variety of foods, including rice, oats, and coffee and is hepatotoxic, with a similar mode of action as aflatoxin B1. The precise mechanism of cytotoxicity is not yet known, but oxidative damage is suspected to contribute to its cytotoxic effects. In this study, human hepatocyte HepG2 cells were treated with various concentrations of OTA (5-500 nM) for 48 h. OTA triggered oxidative stress as demonstrated by glutathione depletion and increased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde level, and nitric oxide production. Apoptosis was observed with 500 nM OTA treatment. OTA increased both the mRNA and protein expression of phase I and II enzymes. The same results were observed in an in vivo study using ICR mice. Furthermore, the relationship between phase I and II enzymes was demonstrated by the knockdown of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) with siRNA. Taken together, our results show that OTA induces oxidative stress through the phase I reaction regulated by AhR and induces apoptosis, and that the phase II reaction is activated by Nrf2 in the presence of oxidative stress.
    Keywords:  hepatotoxicity; ochratoxin A; oxidative stress; phase I reaction; phase II reaction
  55. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2019 Jul 04. 960327119862006
    Gurel C, Kuscu GC, Buhur A, Dagdeviren M, Oltulu F, Karabay Yavasoglu NU, Yavasoglu A.
      Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline derivative antibiotic that still frequently used in the treatment of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. The clinical use of DOX is largely restricted due to acute and chronic renal, cardiac, hematological, and testicular toxicities. Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis in germ cells are the main factors in DOX-induced testicular toxicity, but the entire molecular mechanisms that responsible for DOX-induced testicular damage are not yet fully understood. Fluvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering agent that acts by inhibiting hydroxylmethyl glutaryl coenzyme A, the key enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition to its cholesterol-lowering effect, fluvastatin showed an antioxidant effect by cleaning hydroxyl and superoxide radicals and this drug could have a protective effect by acting on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal pathway in testicular damage caused by obesity. This study aimed to investigate the possible protective and therapeutic effects of fluvastatin on the DOX-induced testicular toxicity model by histochemical, immunohistochemical, biochemical, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. The present study indicates that fluvastatin may have a protective and therapeutic effect by removing reactive oxygen species and by regulating the mTOR, connexin 43, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 protein and messenger ribonucleic acid expressions, which play an important role in regulating the blood-testis barrier. On the other hand, the use of fluvastatin as a protective/prophylactic agent was found to be more effective than the use of this drug for treatment. In light of this information, fluvastatin may be a candidate agent that can be used to prevent testicular toxicity observed in men receiving DOX treatment.
    Keywords:  Doxorubicin; fluvastatin; gonadotoxicity; mTOR
  56. BMC Cancer. 2019 Jul 01. 19(1): 645
    Liu B, Huang X, Li Y, Liao W, Li M, Liu Y, He R, Feng D, Zhu R, Kurihara H.
      BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second most frequent gynecological cancer and is associated with a poor prognosis because OC progression is often asymptoma-tic and is detected at a late stage. There remains an urgent need for novel targeted therapies to improve clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer. As a nitric oxide prodrug, JS-K is reported highly cytotoxic to human cancer cells such as acute myeloid leukemia, multiple myeloma and breast cancer. This study is aim to investigate the influence of JS-K on proliferation and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells and explored possible autophagy-related mechanisms, which will contribute to future ovarian cancer therapy and supply theory support that JS-K holds great promise as a novel therapeutic agent against ovarian cancer.METHODS: The cytotoxicity, extracellular ROS/RNS activity and apoptotic effect of JS-K and indicated inhibitors on ovarian cancer cells in vitro were evaluated by MTT assay, extracellular ROS/RNS assay, caspases activities assay and western blot. Further autophagy effect of JS-K and indicated inhibitors were examined by MTT assay, cell transfection, immunofluorescence analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and western blot on ovarian cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, the BALB/c-nude female mice with SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells xenograft were used to examine the efficacy of JS-K treatment on tumor growth. PCNA and p62 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
    RESULTS: In vitro, JS-K inhibited the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells, induced apoptosis and cell nucleus shrinkage, enhanced the enzymatic activity of caspase-3/7/8/9, and significantly increased the production of ROS/RNS in ovarian cancer A2780 and SKOV3 cells, these effects were attenuated by inhibition of NAC. In addition, JS-K induced autophagy-related proteins and autophagosomes changes in ovarian cancer A2780 and SKOV3 cells. In vivo, JS-K inhibited tumor growth, decreased p62 protein expression and increased the expression levels of PCNA in xenograft models which were established using SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells.
    CONCLUSION: Taken together, we demonstrated that ROS/RNS stress-mediated apoptosis and autophagy are mechanisms by which SKOV3 cells undergo cell death after treatment with JS-K in vitro. Moreover, JS-K inhibited SKOV3 tumor growth in vivo. An alternative therapeutic approach for triggering cell death in cancer cells could constitute a useful multimodal therapies for treating ovarian cancer, which is known for its resistance to apoptosis-inducing drugs.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Autophagy; JS-K; Ovarian cancer; Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  57. Chem Biol Interact. 2019 Jul 02. pii: S0009-2797(18)31699-5. [Epub ahead of print] 108734
    Antunes-Ricardo M, Hernández-Reyes A, Uscanga-Palomeque AC, Rodríguez-Padilla C, Martínez-Torres AC, Gutiérrez-Uribe JA.
      This work aimed to evaluate the mechanisms involved in the apoptosis induction of isorhamnetin-3-O-glucosyl-pentoside (IGP) in metastatic human colon cancer cells (HT-29). To achieve this, we assessed phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, cell membrane disruption, chromatin condensation, cell cycle alterations, mitochondrial damage, ROS production, and caspase-dependence on cell death. Our results showed that IGP induced cell death on HT-29 cells through PS exposure (48%) and membrane permeabilization (30%) as well as nuclear condensation (54%) compared with control cells. Moreover, IGP treatment induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (63%) was observed in IGP-treated cells. Finally, as apoptosis is a caspase-dependent cell death mechanism, we used a pancaspase-inhibitor (Q-VD-OPh) to demonstrate that the cell death induced by IGP was caspase-dependent. Overall these results indicated that IGP induced apoptosis through caspase-dependent mitochondrial damage in HT-29 colon cancer cells.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Colon cancer; Intrinsic pathway; Isorhamnetin glycosides; Opuntia ficus-Indica
  58. J Clin Med. 2019 Jul 03. pii: E965. [Epub ahead of print]8(7):
    Sahajpal N, Kowluru A, Kowluru RA.
      Diabetic retinopathy, a microvascular complication of diabetes, remains the leading cause of vision loss in working age adults. Hyperglycemia is considered as the main instigator for its development, around which other molecular pathways orchestrate. Of these multiple pathways, oxidative stress induces many metabolic, functional and structural changes in the retinal cells, leading to the development of pathological features characteristic of this blinding disease. An increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced by cytosolic NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2), is an early event in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, which leads to mitochondrial damage and retinal capillary cell apoptosis. Activation of Nox2 is mediated through an obligatory small molecular weight GTPase, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), and subcellular localization of Rac1 and its activation are regulated by several regulators, rendering it a complex biological process. In diabetes, Rac1 is functionally activated in the retina and its vasculature, and, via Nox2-ROS, contributes to mitochondrial damage and the development of retinopathy. In addition, Rac1 is also transcriptionally activated, and epigenetic modifications play a major role in this transcriptional activation. This review focusses on the role of Rac1 and its regulation in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and discusses some possible avenues for therapeutic interventions.
    Keywords:  Rac1; diabetic retinopathy; epigenetics; oxidative stress
  59. Food Chem Toxicol. 2019 Jun 29. pii: S0278-6915(19)30442-9. [Epub ahead of print] 110653
    Liang Z, Yin P, Zhao L.
      Methamphetamine (MA) and ketamine (KET) are widely abused drugs individually. Previous surveys have revealed that the combined consumption of MA and KET were prevalent in illicit drugs abusers. However, few studies on the toxic effects induced by the combination of MA and KET have been reported. In this study, combined treatments were carried out using 3 × 3 full factorial design to determine the combined effects of MA and KET on apoptosis, oxidative stress and genotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Higher apoptosis and oxidative damage were observed in the MA treatments groups. Compared with control groups, the maximum apoptotic rate and level of malondialdehyde were ∼7.7 fold and ∼5.5 fold respectively. The mechanism that excessive oxidative stress resulted in cell apoptosis and DNA damage was inferred. For the joint effects, synergistic or additive interactions were found at different biological endpoints for various combinations, likely due to the mechanism in which MA promotes the metabolism of KET, which together provokes even greater oxidative stress. In conclusion, synergistic or additive interactions between MA and KET enhance cytotoxicity, oxidative damage and genotoxicity in HepG2 cells more than either of the drugs alone, which implies higher risk for abusers when exposed to the polydrug situation.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Combined toxicity; Genotoxicity; Ketamine; Methamphetamine; Oxidative stress
  60. Anticancer Res. 2019 Jul;39(7): 3443-3451
    Mizutani H, Hayashi Y, Hashimoto M, Imai M, Ichimaru Y, Kitamura Y, Ikemura K, Miyazawa D, Ohta K, Ikeda Y, Maeda T, Yoshikawa M, Hiraku Y, Kawanishi S.
      BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to investigate aclarubicin (ACR)-induced oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: ACR-induced apoptosis was analyzed using HL-60 leukemia cells and HP100 cells, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-resistant cells derived from HL-60 cells. ACR-induced DNA damage was analyzed using plasmid DNA.
    RESULTS: HL-60 cells were more sensitive to ACR than HP100 cells. In HP100 cells, DNA ladder formation and caspase-3/7 activity induced by ACR were suppressed or delayed in comparison to those in HL-60 cells. ACR-induced DNA damage occurred in the presence of Cu(II), and scavenger experiments showed that the reactive species causing DNA damage appeared to be generated from H2O2 and Cu(I). Moreover, we detected intracellular Cu(I) induced by ACR in HL-60 cells, using CopperGREEN™, a fluorescent probe for detection of Cu(I) ion specifically.
    CONCLUSION: ACR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis can be accounted for by the involvement of H2O2 and Cu(I).
    Keywords:  Aclarubicin; DNA damage; ROS; apoptosis; copper; hydrogen peroxide
  61. Calcif Tissue Int. 2019 Jun 27.
    Notsu M, Kanazawa I, Takeno A, Tanaka KI, Sugimoto T.
      Homocysteine (Hcy) increases oxidation and inflammation; however, the mechanism of Hcy-induced bone fragility remains unclear. Because selective estrogen modulators (SERMs) have an anti-oxidative effect, SERMs may rescue the Hcy-induced bone fragility. We aimed to examine whether oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 are involved in the Hcy-induced apoptosis of osteocytes and whether bazedoxifene (BZA) inhibits the detrimental effects of Hcy. We used mouse osteocyte-like cell lines MLO-Y4-A2 and Ocy454. Apoptosis was examined by DNA fragmentation ELISA and TUNEL staining, and gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Hcy 5 mM significantly increased expressions of NADPH oxidase (Nox)1, Nox2, IL-1β, and IL-6 as well as apoptosis in MLO-Y4-A2 cells. Nox inhibitors, diphenyleneiodonium chloride and apocynin, significantly suppressed Hcy-induced IL-1β and IL-6 expressions. In contrast, an IL-1β receptor antagonist and an IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody had no effects on Hcy-induced Nox1 and Nox2 expressions, but significantly rescued Hcy-induced apoptosis. BZA (1 nM-1 μM) and 17β estradiol 100 nM significantly rescued Hcy-induced apoptosis, while an estrogen receptor blocker ICI 182,780 reversed the effects of BZA and 17β estradiol. BZA also rescued Hcy-induced apoptosis of Ocy454 cell, and ICI canceled the effect of BZD. Moreover, BZA significantly ameliorated Hcy-induced expressions of Nox1, Nox2, IL-1β, and IL-6, and ICI canceled the effects of BZA on their expressions. Hcy increases apoptosis through stimulating Nox 1 and Nox 2-IL-1β and IL-6 expressions in osteocyte-like cells. BZA inhibits the detrimental effects of Hcy on osteocytes via estrogen receptor.
    Keywords:  Bazedoxifene; Homocysteine; Interleukin-1β; Interleukin-6; NADPH oxidase; Osteocyte
  62. Anticancer Res. 2019 Jul;39(7): 3469-3485
    Crowley E, Rowan NJ, Faller D, Friel AM.
      BACKGROUND/AIM: Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are phytochemicals with potential cancer-preventative properties derived from the breakdown of glucosinolates that exist in cruciferous vegetables. Studies, to date, have demonstrated that various ITCs possess the ability to act as anticancer agents in different cancer types. This study investigated the anticancer properties of dietary ITCs (allyl-ITC, benzyl-ITC, phenylethyl-ITC) and synthetic (phenylbutyl-ITC and phenylhexyl-ITC) on liver and prostate carcinoma cells in vitro.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of ITCs on cellular viability, migration, invasion, clonogenicity, apoptosis induction and reactive oxygen species generation were assessed in HepG2, DU145 and 22Rv1 cells.
    RESULTS: All ITCs reduced metabolic activity in each cell line with the most significant being phenylethyl-ITC. Both dietary and synthetic ITCs suppressed the migratory and invasive potential of all cell lines, inhibited colony-forming capability and induced apoptosis. Phenylethyl-ITC exposure resulted in the significant generation of reactive oxygen species.
    CONCLUSION: These data highlight the potential advantages of utilizing ITCs to delay the carcinogenic process and the potential for dietary and synthetic ITCs to act as anticancer agents.
    Keywords:  Glucosinolates; apoptosis; clonogenicity; invasion; isothiocyanates; liver cancer; prostate cancer
  63. Med Gas Res. 2019 Apr-Jun;9(2):9(2): 74-79
    Camara R, Matei N, Camara J, Enkhjargal B, Tang J, Zhang JH.
      The high morbidity, high mortality, and significant shortage of effective therapies for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have created an urgency to discover novel therapies. Human studies in Asia have established the safety of hydrogen gas in the treatment of hepatic, renal, pulmonary, and cardiac diseases. Mechanistically, hydrogen gas has been shown to affect oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. We hypothesized that hydrogen therapy would improve neurological function and increase survival rate in SAH. High dose hydrogen gas (66% at 3 L/min) was administered for 2 hours at 0.5, 8, and 18 hours after SAH. This treatment increased 72-hour survival rate and provided 24-hour neuroprotection after SAH in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that high dose hydrogen gas therapy reduces mortality and improves outcome after SAH. Our results correlate well with the proposed mechanisms of hydrogen gas therapy within the literature. We outline four pathways and downstream targets of hydrogen gas potentially responsible for our results. A potentially complex network of pathways responsible for the efficacy of hydrogen gas therapy, along with a limited mechanistic understanding of these pathways, justifies further investigation to provide a basis for clinical trials and the advancement of hydrogen gas therapy in humans. This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Loma Linda University, USA (Approval No. 8160016) in May 2016.
    Keywords:  cerebral vasospasm; early brain injury; free radicals; high dose hydrogen; hydrogen gas therapy; hydrogen pathway; mortality; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; subarachnoid hemorrhage; survival
  64. Microgravity Sci Technol. 2018 ;30(3): 195-208
    Hammond TG, Allen PL, Gunter MA, Chiang J, Giaever G, Nislow C, Birdsall HH.
      Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has broad genetic homology to human cells. Although typically grown as 1-2mm diameter colonies under certain conditions yeast can form very large (10 + mm in diameter) or 'giant' colonies on agar. Giant yeast colonies have been used to study diverse biomedical processes such as cell survival, aging, and the response to cancer pharmacogenomics. Such colonies evolve dynamically into complex stratified structures that respond differentially to environmental cues. Ammonia production, gravity driven ammonia convection, and shear defense responses are key differentiation signals for cell death and reactive oxygen system pathways in these colonies. The response to these signals can be modulated by experimental interventions such as agar composition, gene deletion and application of pharmaceuticals. In this study we used physical factors including colony rotation and microgravity to modify ammonia convection and shear stress as environmental cues and observed differences in the responses of both ammonia dependent and stress response dependent pathways We found that the effects of random positioning are distinct from rotation. Furthermore, both true and simulated microgravity exacerbated both cellular redox responses and apoptosis. These changes were largely shear-response dependent but each model had a unique response signature as measured by shear stress genes and the promoter set which regulates them These physical techniques permitted a graded manipulation of both convection and ammonia signaling and are primed to substantially contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of drug action, cell aging, and colony differentiation.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Microgravity; Random positioning machine; Reactive oxygen species; Shear stress; Spaceflight; Yeast
  65. J Nutr Biochem. 2019 May 21. pii: S0955-2863(18)31092-1. [Epub ahead of print]70 215-226
    Kapoor R, Sirohi VK, Gupta K, Dwivedi A.
      Endometriosis is mainly characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue exterior to the uterus, however, the exact pathophysiology of this disease still remains uncertain. Moreover, the incidence significantly contributes to infertility among women and hence, a novel treatment for endometriosis is widely investigated. Naringenin is a plant-derived flavonoid having anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic properties in chronic and metabolic diseases. The current study was planned with an objective to demonstrate the anti-endometriotic therapeutic potential of naringenin in rats and to examine its impact on various cellular aspects with a view to define the mechanism involved. The endometrial lesion volumes, weight, serum TNF-α level and the histopathologic scores were significantly reduced in the naringenin- treated group as compared to the endometriotic control group. Naringenin ameliorated the expression of prognostic markers (TAK1, PAK1, VEGF and PCNA) involved in development and progression of endometriotic cells. Naringenin caused dose-dependent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in these cells. Further, a significant increase in level of Nrf2 and its downstream molecules (NQO1, HO-1) was found in endometriotic lesion, with a subsequent decrease in its repressor molecule Keap-1. Naringenin significantly modulated the expression of Nrf2 and its effector molecules downstream. It also inhibited the invasion of endometrial cells by reducing the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in in-vitro primary culture. We conclude that naringenin may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of endometriosis via induction of ROS-mediated apoptosis and its anti-invasive effects.
    Keywords:  Endometriosis; Keap1; MMP-2/9; Naringenin; Nrf2; Oxidative stress; apoptosis
  66. Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 01. 9(1): 9474
    Safaei M, Maleki H, Soleimanpour H, Norouzy A, Zahiri HS, Vali H, Noghabi KA.
      C-phycocyanin (C-PC) pigment, as a natural blue dye, has particular applications in various fields. It is a water-soluble protein which has anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we introduce an efficient procedure for the purification of C-PC pigment, followed by conducting a comprehensive investigation of its cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells and the underlying mechanisms. A novel four-step purification procedure including the adsorption of impurities with chitosan, activated charcoal, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and ion exchange chromatography was employed, achieving a high purity form of C-PC with purity index (PI) of 5.26. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the purified C-PC with two discrete bands, subunit α (17 kD) and β (20 kD), as confirmed its identity by Native-PAGE. A highly purified C-PC was employed to evaluate its anticancer activity and underlying molecular mechanisms of action. The inhibitory effects of highly purified C-PC on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) have detected by MTT assay. The IC50 values for 24, 48, and 72 hours of exposure to C-PC were determined to be 5.92, 5.66, and 4.52 μg/μl, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis of cells treated with C-PC, by Annexin V/PI double staining, demonstrated to induce MCF-7 cells apoptosis. Also, the results obtained from propidium iodide (PI) staining showed that MCF-7 cells treated with 5.92 μg/μl C-PC for 24 h would arrest at the G2 phase and 5.66 and 4.52 μg/μl C-PC for 48 and 72 h could induce cell cycle arrest at both G2 and S phases. The oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction were evaluated to determine the possible pathways involved in C-PC-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Our findings clearly indicated that the treatment of MCF-7 cells with C-PC (IC50 for 24 h) increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consequently, an increase in the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and a reduction in the ATP level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), glutathione (GSH) and its oxidized form (GSSG), occurred over time. The reduced expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl2 and Stat3, plus cell cycle regulator protein, Cyclin D1, using Real-Time PCR confirm that the C-PC-induced death of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells occurred through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Collectively, the analyses presented here suggest that C-PC has the potential so that to develop it as a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug.
  67. Clin Sci (Lond). 2019 Jul 03. pii: CS20190331. [Epub ahead of print]
    Sun X, Feng X, Zheng D, Li A, Li C, Li S, Zhao Z.
      Cigarette smoke (CS) is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CS heightens inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Ergosterol is the main bioactive ingredient in Cordyceps sinensis ( C. sinensis ), a traditional medicinal herb for various diseases. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of ergosterol on anti- inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress as well as anti-apoptosis in a cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced COPD model both in vitro and in vivo Our results demonstrate that CSE induced inflammatory and oxidative stress and apoptosis with the involvement of the Bcl-2 family proteins via the NF-κB/p65 pathway in both 16HBE cells and Balb/c mice. CSE induced epithelial cell death and increased the expression of NO, IL-6, TNF-α, MDA, and the apoptosis-related proteins cleaved caspase 3/7/9 and cleaved-PARP both in vitro and in vivo , whereas decreased the levels of SOD and CAT. Treatment of 16HBE cells and Balb/c mice with ergosterol inhibited CSE-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress and apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB/p65. Ergosterol suppressed apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of the apoptosis-related proteins both in vitro and in vivo Moreover, the usage of QNZ (an inhibitor of NF-κB) also partly demonstrated that NF-κB/p65 pathway was involved in the ergosterol protective progress. These results show that ergosterol suppressed COPD inflammatory and oxidative stress and apoptosis through the NF-κB/p65 pathway, suggesting that ergosterol may be partially responsible for the therapeutic effects of cultured C. sinensis on COPD patients.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; COPD; Ergosterol; NF-κB/p65
  68. J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Jul 04.
    Gille A, Trautmann A, Rodriguez Gomez M, Bischoff SC, Posten CC, Briviba K.
      This study investigated the effect of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) on genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. C. vulgaris significantly induced DNA damage in both cell lines at a concentration of 200 µg dry matter/mL (comet tail intensity CTI: 24.6 ± 4.7 % for Caco-2, 16.6 ± 0.9 % for HT-29). The application of processing (sonication, ball-milling) did not affect the genotoxicity negatively and lowered the lipid peroxidation in C. vulgaris preparations. C. vulgaris induced intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species in human cell lines and might be responsible for the genotoxic effect. A solid fraction mainly triggered the observed DNA damage (CTI: 41.5 ± 1.9 %), whereas a hydrophilic (CTI: 7.9 ± 1.7 %) and lipophilic (CTI: 10.2 ± 2.1 %) fraction revealed a significantly lower tail intensity. Even though C. vulgaris significantly induced DNA damage in both cell lines possibly through intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species, however, it is repaired after a 2 h-recovery time or avoided at lower concentrations. In addition, none of the preparations indicated an adverse effect on cell proliferation or revealed apoptotic activity.
  69. Molecules. 2019 Jul 04. pii: E2448. [Epub ahead of print]24(13):
    Jin H, Ko YS, Park SW, Chang KC, Kim HJ.
      Berberine is reported to have multiple biological effects, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities, and 13-alkyl-substituted berberines show higher activity than berberine against certain bacterial species and human cancer cell lines. In particular, 13-ethylberberine (13-EBR) was reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in endotoxin-activated macrophage and septic mouse models. Thus, in this study, we aimed to examine the anticancer effects of 13-EBR and its mechanisms in radiotherapy-resistant (RT-R) MDA-MB-231 cells derived from the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. When we compared the gene expression between MDA-MB-231 and RT-R MDA-MB-231 cells with an RNA microarray, RT-R MDA-MB-231 showed higher levels of anti-apoptotic genes and lower levels of pro-apoptotic genes compared to MDA-MB-231 cells. Accordingly, we examined the effect of 13-EBR on the induction of apoptosis in RT-R MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results showed that 13-EBR reduced the proliferation and colony-forming ability of both MDA-MB-231 and RT-R MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, 13-EBR induced apoptosis by promoting both intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by regulating the apoptosis-related proteins involved in the intrinsic pathway, not in the extrinsic pathway. These results suggest that 13-EBR has pro-apoptotic effects in RT-R MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231 cells by inducing mitochondrial ROS production and activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, providing useful insights into new potential therapeutic strategies for RT-R breast cancer treatment.
    Keywords:  13-ethylberberine; RT-R breast cancer cells; apoptosis; mitochondrial ROS
  70. Cancers (Basel). 2019 Jun 19. pii: E854. [Epub ahead of print]11(6):
    Song IS, Jeong YJ, Kim JE, Shin J, Jang SW.
      Malignant melanoma is the most life-threatening neoplasm of the skin. Despite the increase in incidence, melanoma is becoming more resistant to current therapeutic agents. The bioactive compound frugoside has been recently reported to inhibit growth when used in various cancer cells. However, this effect has not been demonstrated in melanoma. Here, we found that frugoside inhibited the rate of reduction of hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (Prxs) by downregulating sulfiredoxin (Srx) expression. Furthermore, frugoside increased the accumulation of sulfinic Prxs and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and stimulated p-p38 activation, resulting in the mitochondria-mediated death of M14 and A375 human melanoma cells. The mitochondria-mediated cell death induced by frugoside was inhibited by the overexpression of Srx and antioxidants, such as N-acetyl cysteine and diphenyleneiodonium. In addition, we observed that frugoside inhibited tumor growth without toxicity through a M14 xenograft animal model. Taken together, our findings reveal that frugoside exhibits a novel antitumor effect based on a ROS-mediated cell death in melanoma cells, which may have therapeutic implications.
    Keywords:  frugoside; melanoma; peroxiredoxin; reactive oxygen species; sulfiredoxin
  71. Nat Prod Res. 2019 Jul 02. 1-4
    Zhang M, Wang D, Li B.
      Neuroprotection under conditions of oxygen stress of two C21 steroidal glycosides, cynsaccatol Q (1) and saccatol K (2), isolated from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight, and their potential mechanisms were studied using the model of H2O2-induced damage on PC12 cells in this paper. Experiments showed that compounds 1 and 2 can both regulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including GSH-Px, LDH, CAT, SOD, decrease the levels of intracellular ROS and Ca2+, reduce cell apoptosis, and regulate the expression of HO-1 and NQO1 through the Nrf2-ARE pathway, thus play the role of neuroprotection against oxidative damage.
    Keywords:  ; Cynsaccatol Q; Nrf2-ARE pathway; neuroprotection; saccatol K
  72. Chem Biol Interact. 2019 Jul 02. pii: S0009-2797(19)30706-9. [Epub ahead of print] 108733
    Binoy A, Nedungadi D, Katiyar N, Bose C, Shankarappa SA, Nair BG, Mishra N.
      Plumbagin (PLB) is an active secondary metabolite extracted from the roots of Plumbago rosea. In this study, we report that plumbagin effectively induces paraptosis by triggering extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation followed by cell death in triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and non-small lung cancer cells (A549) but not in normal lung fibroblast cells (WI-38). The vacuoles originated from the dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and were found to be empty. The cell death induced by plumbagin was neither apoptotic nor autophagic. Plumbagin induced ER stress mainly by inhibiting the chymotrypsin-like activity of 26S proteasome as also evident from the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins. The vacuolation and cell death were found to be independent of reactive oxygen species generation but was effectively inhibited by thiol antioxidant suggesting that plumbagin could modify the sulfur homeostasis in the cellular milieu. Plumbagin also resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential eventually decreasing the ATP production. This is the first study to show that Plumbagin induces paraptosis through proteasome inhibition and disruption of sulfhydryl homeostasis and thus further opens up the lead molecule to potential therapeutic strategies for apoptosis-resistant cancers.
    Keywords:  ER stress; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Paraptosis; Proteasome; Sulfhydryl homeostasis
  73. J Cell Biochem. 2019 Jul 02.
    Li Y, Zhu X, Liu X, Du A, Yu B.
      Thymosin β-4 (Tβ4) is a ubiquitous protein, which has been suggested to regulate multiple cell signal pathways and a variety of cellular functions. However, the role Tβ4 plays in the cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) under myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury is currently unknown. Here we investigated the effects of Tβ4 on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) induced CMECs injury and its potential molecular mechanism. Cultured CMECs were positively identified by flow cytometry using antibody against CD31 and VWF/Factor VIII, which are constitutively expressed on the surface of CMECs. Then the reduced level of Tβ4 was detected in H/R-CMECs by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To determine the effects of Tβ4 on H/R-CMECs, we transfected the overexpression or silence vector of Tβ4 into CMECs under H/R condition. Our results indicated that H/R treatment could reduce proliferation, increased apoptosis, adhesion, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in CMECs, which were attenuated by Tβ4 overexpression or aggravated by Tβ4 silencing, implying Tβ4 is able to promote CMECs against H/R-induced cell injury. Furthermore, the microRNA-200a (miR-200a) level was also increased by Tβ4 in H/R-CMECs or reduced by Tβ4 small interfering RNA. To investigated the mechanism of protective effects of Tβ4 on CMECs injury, the miR-200a inhibitor was transfected into H/R-CMECs. The results indicated that inhibition of miR-200a inversed the protection of Tβ4 on H/R-CMECs, specifically including cell proliferation, cell adhesion, cell apoptosis, and ROS production, as well as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation. In conclusion, our results determined that Tβ4 attenuated H/R-induced CMECs injury by miR-200a-Nrf2 signaling.
    Keywords:  cardiac microvascular endothelial cells; myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2; thymosin β-4
  74. Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 04. 9(1): 9679
    Akasov RA, Sholina NV, Khochenkov DA, Alova AV, Gorelkin PV, Erofeev AS, Generalova AN, Khaydukov EV.
      Melanoma is one of the most aggressive and lethal form of cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved technique for cancer treatment, including non-melanoma skin cancer. However, the most of conventional photosensitizers are of low efficacy against melanoma due to the possible dark toxicity at high drug concentrations, melanin pigmentation, and induction of anti-oxidant defense mechanisms. In the current research we propose non-toxic flavin mononucleotide (FMN), which is a water-soluble form of riboflavin (vitamin B2) as a promising agent for photodynamic therapy of melanoma. We demonstrated selective accumulation of FMN in melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro in comparison with keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Blue light irradiation with dose 5 J/cm2 of melanoma cells pre-incubated with FMN led to cell death through apoptosis. Thus, the IC50 values of human melanoma A375, Mel IL, and Mel Z cells were in a range of FMN concentration 10-30 µM that can be achieved in tumor tissue under systemic administration. The efficiency of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation under FMN blue light irradiation was measured in single melanoma cells by a label-free technique using an electrochemical nanoprobe in a real-time control manner. Melanoma xenograft regression in mice was observed as a result of intravenous injection of FMN followed by blue-light irradiation of tumor site. The inhibition of tumor growth was 85-90% within 50 days after PDT treatment.
  75. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Jul 03.
    Rafiee Z, Khorsandi L, Nejad-Dehbashi F.
      The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Zingerone (Zing) on zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZNP)-induced spermatogenesis defects in mice. To this end, 50 mg/kg of ZNP was prescribed to the mice as an intoxicated group for 35 days. In protection groups, Zing (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) was given prior to ZNP treatment for seven days and then co-administration of ZNP for 35 days. Epididymal sperm parameters, testicular histology, Johnsen's scoring, morphometric parameters, TUNEL staining, oxidative stress, and serum testosterone level were evaluated for determining ZNP and Zing effects on the mouse testicles. Effects of Zing and ZNP on the viability of mouse Leydig (TM3) and mouse Sertoli (TM4) cell lines were also done. Testicular weights, testosterone levels, sperm quality, morphometric parameters, Johnsen's score, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly decreased in ZNP-intoxicated mice, while apoptotic index, Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and histological features, including epithelial vacuolization, sloughing, and germ cell detachment, were improved significantly in ZNP-intoxicated mice. Pretreatment with 20 or 40 mg/kg Zing significantly reduced the histological criteria, increased morphometric parameters, enhanced testosterone levels, attenuated apoptotic index, improved sperm quality, and reversed oxidative stress by reducing the level of MDA and incrementing the activity level of SOD and CAT enzymes. Zing dose-dependently enhanced the viability of ZNP-treated TM3 and TM4 cells in comparison with only ZNP-exposed cells. According to the results of our study, Zing effectively prevented the defects in spermatogenesis among mice treated by ZNP.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Leydig cells; Oxidative stress; Sertoli cells; Zinc oxide nanoparticles; Zingerone
  76. Inflammation. 2019 Jul 02.
    Savran M, Ozmen O, Erzurumlu Y, Savas HB, Asci S, Kaynak M.
      Sepsis-induced central nervous system damage is called sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE). In addition to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis act in the development of SAE. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effects of lacosamide (LCM) on neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups as controls, LPS group (5 mg/kg i.p.), and LPS plus LCM group (5 mg/kg i.p and 40 mg/kg i.p, respectively). In the rat brain, LPS-induced tissue damage was revealed histopathologically as hyperemia and microhemorrhages. LCM pretreatment ameliorated these histopathological changes. LPS decreased brain TAS levels and significantly increased MDA, CRP, HSP, IL-1β, and TNF-α expressions in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Western analysis revealed increased brain tissue levels of TNF-α, NF-Kβ, and caspase-3 following LPS. Prophylactic LCM treatment reversed these parameters including oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum.
    Keywords:  LPS; brain; lacosamide; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress; sepsis
  77. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jun 28. pii: E3165. [Epub ahead of print]20(13):
    Huang MZ, Lu XR, Yang YJ, Liu XW, Qin Z, Li JY.
      Aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) possesses anti-thrombotic, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-oxidative effects. The study aims to clarify the mechanism underlying the anti-atherosclerotic effects of AEE on vascular endothelial dysfunction. Both the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerotic rat model and the H2O2-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) model were used to investigate the effects of AEE on vascular endothelial dysfunction. UPLC/QTOF-MS coupled with a multivariate data analysis method were used to profile the variations in the metabolites of HUVECs in response to different treatments. Pretreatment of HUVECs with AEE significantly ameliorated H2O2-induced apoptosis, the overexpression of E-selectin and VCAM-1, and the adhesion of THP-1 cells. Putative endogenous biomarkers associated with the inhibition of endothelial dysfunction were identified in HUVECs pretreated with AEE in the absence or presence of H2O2, and these biomarkers were involved in important metabolic pathways, including amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. Moreover, in vivo, AEE also significantly reduced vascular endothelial dysfunction and decreased the overexpression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. Based on our findings, the mechanism underlying the anti-atherosclerotic effects of AEE might be related to a reduction in vascular endothelial dysfunction mediated by ameliorating alterations in metabolism, inhibiting oxidative stress, and decreasing the expression of adhesion molecules.
    Keywords:  aspirin eugenol ester; cell metabolomics; vascular endothelium
  78. Exp Mol Pathol. 2019 Jun 25. pii: S0014-4800(18)30536-7. [Epub ahead of print] 104271
    Yazdani I, Majdan R, Ghasemnejad-Berenji M, Dehpour AR.
      Testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D) is an inflammatory problem in men genital system with infertility effects. Cyclosporine A (CsA) as an immunosuppressant medication, exerts anti-inflammatory properties in tissue injuries. We sought to compare the efficacy of 3 doses of CsA on oxidative stress, apoptosis and epididymal sperm quality after ipsilateral testicular T/D.METHODS: 96 mature male rats were divided into six groups 16 each in: Control group (Group1), Sham operated (Group2), In rest groups, the right testis was twisted 720° in a clockwise direction for 1 h; T/D + 0.1% dimethylsulfoxide )DMSO((Group3), and in groups 4-6; CsA were administered 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, intravenously (iv) 30 and 90 min after torsion, respectively.
    RESULTS: Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) level and caspase-3 activity increased and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities decreased in compared with control group 4 h after detorsion (p < .001). In six rats of each group 24 h after detorsion, histopathological changes and germ cell apoptosis were significantly deteriorated by determining mean of seminiferous tubules diameters (MSTD) and TUNEL assay. Moreover, 30 days after T/D, sperm concentration and motility were examined in rest of animals.
    CONCLUSIONS: Pre- and post-reperfusion CsA diminished MDA and caspase-3levels and normalized antioxidant enzymes activities. Germ cell apoptosis was significantly reduced, as well as, MSTD and long-term sperm insults were improved. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening is suggested mechanism for cell protection against testicular T/D insults.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Cyclosporine A; Germ cell; Mitochondrial permeability transition pore; Testicular T/D
  79. Front Oncol. 2019 ;9 499
    Khan S, Ullah MW, Siddique R, Liu Y, Ullah I, Xue M, Yang G, Hou H.
      Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer with limited therapeutic options. It can be treated by selenium-doped hydroxyapatite owing to its known antitumor potential. However, a high concentration of Se is toxic toward normal and stem cells whereas its low concentration cannot effectively remove cancer cells. Therefore, the current study was aimed to improve the anticancer activity of Se-HAp nanoparticles through catechins (CC) modification owing to their high cancer therapeutic value. The sequentially developed catechins modified Se-HAp nanocomposites (CC/Se-HAp) were characterized for various physico-chemical properties and antitumor activity. Structural analysis showed the synthesis of small rod-like single phase HAp nanoparticles (60 ± 15 nm), which effectively interacted with Se and catechins and formed agglomerated structures. TEM analysis showed the internalization and degradation of CC/Se-HAp nanomaterials within MNNG/HOS cells through a non-specific endocytosis process. Cell toxicity analysis showed that catechins modification improved the antitumor activity of Se-HAp nanocomposites by inducing apoptosis of human osteosarcoma MNNG/HOS cell lines, through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which in turn activated the caspase-3 pathway, without significantly affecting the growth of human normal bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs). qPCR and western blot analyses revealed that casp3, p53, and bax genes were significantly upregulated while cox-2 and PTK-2 were slightly downregulated as compared to control in CC/Se-HAp-treated MNNG/HOS cell lines. The current study of combining natural biomaterial (i.e., catechins) with Se and HAp, can prove to be an effective therapeutic approach for bone cancer therapy.
    Keywords:  ROS; cancer therapy; catechins; hydroxyapatite; osteosarcoma; selenium
  80. Biomaterials. 2019 Jun 16. pii: S0142-9612(19)30381-3. [Epub ahead of print]217 119282
    Wang Y, Zhao J, Chen Z, Zhang F, Wang Q, Guo W, Wang K, Lin H, Qu F.
      The development of nanotheranostic agent with imaging-guided highly therapeutic efficiency has attracted most attentions on tumor treatment. Herein, the novel MoSe2/Bi2Se3 nanosheets were designed to integrate CT/photothermal (PT) imaging and photodynamic/photothermal/chemo-therapy (PTT/PDT/chemotherapy) into one nanoplatform. Firstly, the MoSe2 nanosheets (5-30 nm) were prepared via ultrasound-assisted exfoliated method, and then by a cation-exchange strategy the novel sandwich nanostructure Bi2Se3/MoSe2/Bi2Se3 (Bi-M-3) were obtained, revealing the narrower band gap (1.17 eV) and the stronger near-infrared (NIR) absorption. Both experimental and density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the Z-scheme mechanism of charge transfer in the heterostructure, which induces the enhanced ROS (⋅OH) generation due to the efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Meanwhile, the nanoheterostructure also makes sure the improved photothermal conversion efficiency (59.3%). Besides, we also found the photothermal effect can promote the transfer photo-generated electron that is in favor of ROS generation. Furthermore, because of the higher absorption coefficient of X-ray for Bi atom, the heterostructure also exhibits the higher CT imaging contrast than pure MoSe2 sample. After the loading of anticancer drug Doxorubicin (Dox), Bi-M-3@PEG-Dox displays the acid/photothermal sensitive drug release behavior. The synergistic effect of chemotherapy, photodynamic and photothermal therapy further induces the superior cancer cell apoptosis and enhanced antitumor effect.
    Keywords:  CT/photothermal imaging; Cation-exchange; MoSe(2)/Bi(2)Se(3); Synergistic PTT/PDT/Chemotherapy; Z-scheme
  81. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2019 Jul;74(1): 53-61
    Yang X, Yin G, Sun H, Zhao G.
      AIM: Vascular endothelial cell dysfunction plays a crucial role in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. Physcion 8-O-β-glucopyranoside (PG), an anthraquinone extracted from Polygonum cuspidatum, has a number of pharmacological functions. The aim of this study was to elucidate the protective effects of PG against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in VECs.METHODS AND MATERIALS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used as the in vitro model. Cell viability and apoptosis were, respectively, assessed by CCK-8 assay and Annexin-V/PI staining. Formation of autophagosomes was visualized by acridine orange staining, and the autophagy flux was tracked after infecting the cells with the mRFP-GFP-LC3 adenovirus. The expression levels of various apoptosis and autophagy-associated marker proteins were detected by Western blotting.
    RESULTS: Pretreatment with PG protected the HUVECs from ox-LDL-induced apoptosis. In addition, PG promoted autophagy in HUVECs, which was responsible for its antiapoptotic effects. Finally, activation of AMPK/SIRT1 signaling was upstream of PG-induced autophagy.
    CONCLUSIONS: PG has potential pharmacological effects against oxidative damage-induced HUVEC injury through inducing AMPK/SIRT1-mediated autophagy.
  82. Biol Pharm Bull. 2019 ;42(7): 1083-1088
    Tokumoto M, Lee JY, Satoh M.
      Cadmium (Cd) is a harmful heavy metal widely present in the environment which can cause severe kidney damage. The proximal tubular cells are the main target of renal Cd toxicity. The consequences of Cd cytotoxicity involve apoptosis and necrosis. Recently, we and others have focused on how Cd affects transcription factors and the regulation of their target genes. Those studies showed that transcription factors initiate numerous pathways upon Cd exposure, leading to apoptosis, autophagic cell death, disruption of cell-cell adhesion, and generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Of particular note, Cd induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, resulting in not only apoptosis but also autophagic dysregulation, which can trigger cell damage. In some cases, however, Cd-regulated transcription factors can induce cell survival signaling. This review centers on our own research to elucidate the transcription factor-downstream gene cascades that are central to Cd-induced renal toxicity.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; cadmium; renal toxicity; target gene; transcription factor
  83. J Cell Physiol. 2019 Jul 04.
    Moradkhani F, Moloudizargari M, Fallah M, Asghari N, Heidari Khoei H, Asghari MH.
      Melatonin is a ubiquitous indole amine that plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the biological rhythm. Disrupted circadian rhythm alters the expression of clock genes and deregulates oncogenes, which finally promote tumor development and progression. An evidence supporting this notion is the higher risk of developing malignancies among night shift workers. Circadian secretion of the pineal hormone also synchronizes the immune system via a reciprocal association that exists between the immune system and melatonin. Immune cells are capable of melatonin biosynthesis in addition to the expression of its receptors. Melatonin induces big changes in different immune cell proportions, enhances their viability and improves immune cell metabolism in the tumor microenvironment. These effects might be directly mediated by melatonin receptors or indirectly through alterations in hormonal and cytokine release. Moreover, melatonin induces apoptosis in tumor cells via the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis, while it protectsthe immune cells. In general, melatonin has a profound impact on immune cell trafficking, cytokine production and apoptosis induction in malignant cells. On such a basis, using melatonin and resynchronization of sleep cycle may have potential implications in immune function enhancement against malignancies, which will be the focus of the present paper.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Circadian rhythm; Immunomodulation; Oxidative stress; Tumor
  84. Cancers (Basel). 2019 Jun 26. pii: E895. [Epub ahead of print]11(7):
    Mahalingam D, Carew JS, Espitia CM, Cool RH, Giles FJ, de Jong S, Nawrocki ST.
      Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potent inducer of apoptosis that may be a promising agent in cancer therapy due to its selectivity toward tumor cells. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL due to defects in apoptosis signaling or activation of survival pathways. We hypothesized that a disruption of pro-survival signaling cascades with the multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib and would be an effective strategy to enhance TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that sunitinib significantly augments the anticancer activity of TRAIL in models of colon cancer. The therapeutic benefit of the TRAIL/sunitinib combination was associated with increased apoptosis marked by enhanced caspase-3 cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic factor B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) in HCT116 cells reduced TRAIL/sunitinib-mediated apoptosis, further supporting that sunitinib enhances the anticancer activity of TRAIL via augmented apoptosis. Analysis of pro-survival factors identified that the combination of TRAIL and sunitinib significantly downregulated the anti-apoptotic protein X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) through a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated mechanism. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of JNK confirmed its key role in the regulation of sensitivity to this combination as cells with suppressed JNK expression exhibited significantly reduced TRAIL/sunitinib-mediated apoptosis. Importantly, the therapeutic benefit of the TRAIL/sunitinib combination was validated in the HCT116-Luc and HCT15 colon cancer xenograft models, which both demonstrated significant anti-tumor activity in response to combination treatment. Collectively, our data demonstrate that sunitinib enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by heightened JNK activation, diminished XIAP levels, and augmented apoptosis.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; TRAIL; XIAP; colon cancer; sunitinib
  85. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 ;2019 9165214
    Martinvalet D.
      The mitochondria represent an integration and amplification hub for various death pathways including that mediated by granzyme B (GB), a granule enzyme expressed by cytotoxic lymphocytes. GB activates the proapoptotic B cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family member BH3-interacting domain death agonist (BID) to switch on the intrinsic mitochondrial death pathway, leading to Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax)/Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer- (Bak-) dependent mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), the dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). GB can also induce mitochondrial damage in the absence of BID, Bax, and Bak, critical for MOMP, indicating that GB targets the mitochondria in other ways. Interestingly, granzyme A (GA), GB, and caspase 3 can all directly target the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I for ROS-dependent cell death. Studies of ROS biogenesis have revealed that GB must enter the mitochondria for ROS production, making the mitochondrial entry of cytotoxic proteases (MECP) an unexpected critical step in the granzyme death pathway. MECP requires an intact ΔΨm and is mediated though Sam50 and Tim22 channels in a mtHSP70-dependent manner. Preventing MECP severely compromises GB cytotoxicity. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the canonical mitochondrial death pathway in order to put into perspective this new insight into the GB action on the mitochondria to trigger ROS-dependent cell death.
  86. Life Sci. 2019 Jun 26. pii: S0024-3205(19)30533-8. [Epub ahead of print] 116607
    Aminjan HH, Abtahi SR, Hazrati E, Chamanara M, Jalili M, Paknejad B.
      AIMS: Poisoning with aluminium phosphide (AlP) commonly has a high rate of mortality and morbidities. Phosphine gas is the main cause of AlP poisoning that has deleterious effect on multi-organs especially heart, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, several studies reported that resveratrol has cytoprotective effects through its pleiotropic property. The purpose of this study was to estimate the dose-dependent role of resveratrol on phosphine induced acute hepatic toxicity in rat model.MAIN METHODS: The rats have been exposed to LD50 of AlP (12 mg/kg) by gavage, and resveratrol doses (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) were injected 30 min after intoxication. After 24 h, the serum and liver tissue were collected for present study.
    KEY FINDINGS: The results indicated that phosphine causes an alteration in oxidative stress markers including elevation of ROS, and GSH level, MPO activity, reduction in SOD, catalase and G6PD activity as well as reduction in SOD1 and catalase expression. Furthermore, phosphine significantly induced phosphorylation of IkappaB, NF-kappaB and up-regulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and ICAM-1 expression. Also, phosphine induces markedly reduced hepatocytes lives cell and elevated apoptosis and necrosis. Co-treatment of resveratrol in a dose-dependent manner reversed aforementioned alterations. All in all, histological analysis indicated a deleterious effect of phosphine on the liver, which is mitigated by resveratrol administration.
    SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study suggest targeting ROS/NF-kappaB signalling pathway by resveratrol may have a significant effect on the improvement of hepatic injury induced by phosphine. It also may be a possible candidate for the treatment of phosphine-poisoning.
    Keywords:  Aluminium phosphide; Histopathology; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Phosphine
  87. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jul 02. pii: E3254. [Epub ahead of print]20(13):
    Abrahamse H, Houreld NN.
      Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality that utilizes three components: light (λ 650-750 nm), a photosensitizer (PS) and molecular oxygen, which upon activation renders the modality effective. Colorectal cancer has one of the highest incident rates as well as a high mortality rate worldwide. In this study, a zinc (Zn) metal-based phthalocyanine (ZnPcSmix) PS was used to determine its efficacy for the treatment of colon adenocarcinoma cells (DLD-1 and Caco-2). Photoactivation of the PS was achieved by laser irradiation at a wavelength of 680 nm. Dose responses were performed to establish optimal PS concentration and irradiation fluence. A working combination of 20 µM ZnPcSmix and 5 J/cm2 was used. Biochemical responses were determined after 1 or 24 h incubation post-treatment. Since ZnPcSmix is localized in lysosomes and mitochondria, mitochondrial destabilization analysis was performed monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Cytosolic acidification was determined measuring hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in the cytoplasm. Having established apoptotic cell death induction, an apoptosis PCR array was performed to establish the apoptotic mechanism. In DLD-1 cells, expression of genes included 3 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated genes while in Caco-2 cells, there were 16 up-regulated and 22 down-regulated genes. In both cell lines, in up-regulated genes, there was a combination of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes that were significantly expressed. Gene expression results showed that more tumorigenic cells (DLD-1) went through apoptosis; however, they exhibit increased risk of resistance and recurrence, while less tumorigenic Caco-2 cells responded better to PDT, thus being suggestive of a better prognosis post-PDT treatment. In addition, the possible apoptotic mechanisms of cell death were deduced based on the genetic expression profiling of regulatory apoptotic inducing factors.
    Keywords:  apoptotic pathway; colorectal cancer; photodynamic therapy; zinc phthalocyanine
  88. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2019 Jun 30. 960327119860174
    Bala S, Chugh NA, Bansal SC, Koul A.
      The present study was premeditated to examine the radioprotective effects of aqueous Aloe vera gel extract against whole-body X-ray irradiation-induced hematological alterations and splenic tissue injury in mice. Healthy male balb/c mice were divided into four groups: group 1, control; group 2, A. vera (50 mg/kg body weight) administered per oral on alternate days for 30 days (15 times); group 3, X-ray exposure of 2 Gy (0.25 Gy twice a day for four consecutive days in the last week of the experimental protocol); and group 4, A. vera + X-ray. X-ray exposure caused alterations in histoarchitecture of spleen along with enhanced clastogenic damage as assessed by micronucleus formation and apoptotic index. Irradiation caused an elevation in proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6, total leucocyte counts, neutrophil counts and decreased platelet counts along with unaltered red blood cell counts and hemoglobin. Irradiation also caused an elevation in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, lactate dehydrogenase activity and alterations in enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense mechanism in plasma and spleen. However, administration of A. vera gel extract ameliorated X-ray irradiation-induced elevation in ROS/LPO levels, histopathological and clastogenic damage. It also modulated biochemical indices, inflammatory markers, and hematological parameters. These results collectively indicated that the A. vera gel extract offers protection against whole-body X-ray exposure by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic potential.
    Keywords:  ; X-ray; antioxidant defense mechanism; apoptosis; micronucleus; reactive oxygen species
  89. Brain Res. 2019 Jul 02. pii: S0006-8993(19)30365-8. [Epub ahead of print] 146319
    Kong C, Miao F, Wu Y, Wang T.
      Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) can lead to perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) during clinical recanalization procedures in cerebral vessels, principally due to neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus. Oxycodone appears to be a multiple opioid receptor agonist and exerts intrinsic antinociception activity via κ-opioid receptor (KOR). Recent evidence has revealed that activation of both δ-opioid receptor (DOR) and KOR can provide neuroprotection against CIRI in vivo and in vitro. In our study, we established an oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery (OGD/R) model with fetal hippocampal neurons and found that oxycodone could induce CIRI tolerance in these neurons, primarily through KOR and DOR. Possible mechanisms might involve the regulatory effect of oxycodone on the MAPK-Bcl2/Bax-caspase-9-caspase-3 pathway, as well as its inhibitory effect on cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential activation. Taken together, our findings may indicate a potential method for the prevention and treatment of PND associated with CIRI.
    Keywords:  CIRI; Oxycodone; PND; apoptosis; hippocampal neurons
  90. Curr Opin Toxicol. 2019 Feb;13 74-80
    Mendoza RP, Brown JM.
      Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are being incorporated at an unprecedented rate into consumer and biomedical products. This increased usage will ultimately lead to increased human exposure; therefore, understanding ENM safety is an important concern to the public. Although ENMs may exert toxicity through multiple mechanisms, one common mechanism of toxicity recognized across a range of ENMs with varying physicochemical properties is oxidative stress. Further, it is recognized that several key physicochemical properties of ENMs including size, material composition, surface chemistry, band gap, and level of ionic dissolution for example contribute to ENM driven oxidative stress. While it has been shown that exposure of cells to ENMs at high acute doses produce reactive oxygen species at a toxic level often leading to cytotoxicity, there is little research looking at oxidative stress caused by ENM exposure at more relevant low or non-toxic doses. Although the former can lead to apoptosis, genotoxicity, and inflammation, the latter can potentially be damaging as chronic changes to the intracellular redox state leads to cellular reprogramming, resulting in disease initiation and progression among other systemic damage. This current opinions article will review the physicochemical properties and mechanisms associated with ENM-driven oxidative stress and will discuss the need for research investigating effects on the redox proteome that may lead to cellular dysfunction at low or chronic doses of ENMs.
    Keywords:  Nanoparticle; nanotoxicity; nanotoxicology; oxidative stress; redox proteome
  91. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2017 Nov 01. 13(11): 1413-1424
    Ru D, Ding C, Liu L, Liu H, Shen M, Duan Y, Li H.
      Triptolide (TP), a diterpenoid triepoxide purified from the Chinese traditional medicine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TWHF), possesses potent anti-tumor activities against several malignancies, including ovarian cancer. However, its short half-life in circulation and severe reproductive toxicity prohibit the clinical use of TP. In this study, we engineered novel nanoparticles consisting of calcium phosphate conjugated TP-loaded liposomes (TP@Lips-Ca/P), constituted of mPEGDPPE2000, to improve the circulation time, stability and biodistribution of TP. The average particles size was 134.1 nm, and the drug loading efficiency and encapsulation efficiency were 1.31 ± 0.13% and 72.31 ± 3.11% respectively. TP@Lips-Ca/P exhibits greatly enhanced anti-tumor effects on SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells compared to TP alone. We further demonstrated that apoptosis of SKOV-3 cells induced by TP@Lips-Ca/P resulted from excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS activates the MAPK signal pathway, leading to induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor growth. In addition, we found that TP@Lips-Ca/P displays significantly reduced toxicity toward the female reproductive system compared to free TP. In conclusion, TP@Lips-Ca/P nanoparticles are a promising novel chemotherapy approach for ovarian cancer.
  92. Inflamm Res. 2019 Jun 26.
    Zhang L, Lu P, Guo X, Liu T, Luo X, Zhu YT.
      OBJECTIVE: To explore AG490 (the inhibitor of Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 pathway) in cisplatin (DDP)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice with lung cancer.METHODS: Mice were randomly divided into normal, model, AG490, DDP and DDP + AG490 groups. The lung cancer models were established except for Normal group. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine and the status of oxidative stress were detected. Then, histological changes were assessed by HE and PAS staining and apoptosis by TUNEL experiment. The molecule expressions were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot, and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
    RESULTS: DDP inhibited the tumor growth in mice with lung cancer, which was further promoted by the combination with AG490. Mice in the DDP group had elevated levels of BUN and creatinine than those in the Normal group with the increased inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1 and CXCL-1) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the decreased glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). In addition, DDP could activate the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to promote the apoptosis by upregulating Bax, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 while downregulating the Bcl-2 in the kidney tissues. DDP + AG490 group showed the alleviated AKI and the improvements in oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and apoptosis in the kidney tissues, as compared to DDP group.
    CONCLUSION: AG490 alleviated DDP-induced AKI in lung cancer mice with improved oxidative stress and inflammation, and the suppression of JAK2/STAT3 pathway.
    Keywords:  Acute kidney injury; Cisplatin; JAK2/STAT3; Lung cancer
  93. Life Sci. 2019 Jun 29. pii: S0024-3205(19)30544-2. [Epub ahead of print] 116618
    Zheng JH, Xie L, Li N, Fu ZY, Tan XF, Tao R, Qin T, Chen MH.
      AIMS: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been regarded as one of the hallmarks of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. In previous studies, we have provided evidence that the extracellular signaling pathway (ERK) 1/2 inhibitor PD98059 improved the neurological deficits by modulating antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities in rats subjected to cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR). Since oxidative stress can activate mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and autophagy, we further explored the effects of PD98059 on mitochondria involved with apoptosis and autophagy in rat CA model.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We disposed PD98059 in CA/CPR rats, tested the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway in brain tissues at 24 h post-resuscitation by mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTP), cytochrome c (CytC), BCL-2, BAX, caspase-3, as well as autophagy by LC3, Beclin-1, and p62. Furthermore, we explored the relationship of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) with apoptosis and autophagy.
    KEY FINDINGS: Our study showed that PD98059 decreased the openings of MPTP, CytC release, caspase3 activation, apoptotic indices, LC3-II, Beclin-1and increased P62. PD98059 also inhibited mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and the activity of autophagy in a dose-dependent manner in rat cerebral cortices at 24 h post-resuscitation. The generation of phosphorylated Drp1-616 was down-regulated accompanied by a decrease of TUNEL-positive cells and LC3 in dual immunostaining after PD98059 inhibited activation of ERK signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner in rat cerebral cortices at 24 h post-resuscitation.
    SIGNIFICANCE: PD98059 protects the brain against mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and autophagy at 24 h post-resuscitation in rats subjected to CA/CPR, which is linked with the downregulation of Drp1 expression.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Autophagy; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Dynamin-related protein 1; Extracellular signaling pathway
  94. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Aug;20(2): 1541-1550
    Zhu P, Yang M, He H, Kuang Z, Liang M, Lin A, Liang S, Wen Q, Cheng Z, Sun C.
      Recovery of the blood supply is the most effective treatment against ischemic heart disease; however, it is also a major cause of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in clinical therapy. Curcumin has been reported to possess beneficial effects against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)‑induced cardiomyocyte injury by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and antioxidant enzyme activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of curcumin on H/R‑injured cardiomyocytes. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were pretreated with curcumin, and then cultured under H/R conditions. The viability of H9C2 cells was measured using a Cell Counting kit‑8 assay, and the levels of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured to assess cell injury. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. The expression levels of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and numerous downstream genes were analyzed via reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results revealed that curcumin protected H9C2 cells against H/R‑induced injury, reversing the H/R‑induced increases in LDH and MDA levels, and decreases in SOD levels. ROS levels in H/R‑induced cells were also significantly downregulated by curcumin treatment (P<0.01), and the apoptotic rate was significantly decreased from 15.13% in the H/R group to 7.7% in the H/R + curcumin group (P<0.01). The expression levels of NICD, hairy and enhancer of split (Hes)‑1, Hes‑5 and hairy/enhancer‑of‑split related with YRPW motif protein 1 (Hey‑1) were significantly decreased in H/R‑treated cells following curcumin treatment. Treatment with Jagged1 attenuated the effects of curcumin on cell viability, ROS levels and apoptosis; the Notch pathway was also reactivated. The present study indicated that there was a role for the Notch pathway in the protective effects of curcumin against H/R‑induced cardiomyocyte injury, suggesting that downregulation of the Notch pathway may alleviate H/R‑induced injury in H9C2 cells.
  95. Mediators Inflamm. 2019 ;2019 7329131
    Wu Y, Yao YM, Ke HL, Ying L, Wu Y, Zhao GJ, Lu ZQ.
      Apoptosis of CD4+ T cells plays a central role in the progression of sepsis because it is associated with subsequent immunosuppression and the lack of specific treatment. Thus, developing therapeutic strategies to attenuate the apoptosis of CD4+ T cells in sepsis is critical. Several studies have demonstrated that Mdivi-1, which is a selective inhibitor of the dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), attenuates apoptosis of myocardial cells and neurons during various pathologic states. The present study revealed the impact of Mdivi-1 on the apoptosis of CD4+ T cells in sepsis and the potential underlying mechanisms. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery as sepsis models in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Our results showed that Mdivi-1 attenuated the apoptosis of CD4+ T cells both in vitro and in vivo. The potential mechanism underlying the protective effect of Mdivi-1 involved Mdivi-1 reestablishing mitochondrial fusion-fission balance in sepsis, as reflected by the expression of the mitofusin 2 (MFN2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) , Drp1 translocation, and mitochondrial morphology, as observed by electron microscopy. Moreover, Mdivi-1 treatment reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and prevented the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and associated apoptosis. After using tunicamycin to activate ER stress, the protective effect of Mdivi-1 on CD4+ T cells was reversed. Our results suggested that Mdivi-1 ameliorated apoptosis in CD4+ T cells by reestablishing mitochondrial fusion-fission balance and preventing the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress in experimental sepsis.
  96. Biol Res Nurs. 2019 Jul 04. 1099800419861694
    Rodríguez-González R, Pollesello P, Baluja A, Álvarez J.
      Levosimendan is a myocardial Ca2+ sensitizer and opener of ATP-dependent potassium channels with inotropic, vasodilating, and cardioprotective properties. It was originally developed for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure, but its complex mechanism of action means that it could also play a role in organ protection in response to infection. Using an in vitro approach, we explored whether levosimendan administration influenced cell responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells were stimulated with 1 µg/ml LPS from Escherichia coli (E. coli). Cells were treated with levosimendan at 0, 0.1, 1, or 10 µM 3 hr later. Samples were taken 24 hr after treatment to measure cell necrosis, apoptosis, pro-inflammatory mediators (interleukin 6 [IL-6] and toll-like receptor 4 [TLR4]), and oxidative stress (total reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species [ROS/RNS]). Levosimendan at 1 and 10 µM protected against LPS-induced endothelial cell death and reduced TLR4 expression (p < .05). All doses reduced levels of IL-6 and ROS/RNS (p < .05). Findings suggest that levosimendan may exert protective effects against endothelial cell death in this model via attenuation of inflammation and oxidative stress pathways. Future studies might explore the potential beneficial role of levosimendan in modulating molecular mechanisms triggered by infections.
    Keywords:  TLR4; cytoprotection; inflammation; levosimendan; oxidative stress
  97. Int Psychogeriatr. 2019 Jul 03. 1-13
    Xia L, Zhu X, Zhao Y, Yang G, Zuo X, Xie P, Chen C, Han Q.
      ABSTRACTObjectives:Alzheimer's Disease (AD), characterized by deficits in memory and cognition and by behavioral impairment, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that influences more than 47 million people worldwide. Currently, no available drug is able to stop AD progression. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies need to be investigated.MEASUREMENTS: We analyzed the RNA sequencing data (RNA-seq) derived from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to identify the differentially expressed mRNAs in AD. The AD mouse model Tg2576 was used to verify the effects of IGF-2. The Morris Water Maze was administered to test the role of IGF-2 in memory consolidation. In addition, we quantified cell apoptosis by the TUNEL assay. The levels of amyloid plaques and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in the hippocampus were also determined by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively.
    RESULTS: RNA-seq analysis revealed that IGF-2 was remarkably reduced in AD. The expression of the upstream genes PI3K and AKT and the downstream gene CREB in the PI3K signaling pathway was significantly increased in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice cells treated with IGF-2. The Morris water maze test showed that IGF-2 improved memory consolidation in Tg2576 mice. The activity of caspase-3 was decreased in Tg2576 mice treated with IGF-2. Amyloid plaques in the hippocampus were reduced, and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were decreased. The above effects of IGF-2 on AD were blocked when the PI3K signaling pathway inhibitor wortmannin was added.
    CONCLUSIONS: IGF-2 attenuates memory decline, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and amyloid plaques in the AD mouse model Tg2576 by activating the PI3K/AKT/CREB signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease (AD); IGF-2; PI3K/AKT/CREB; genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis
  98. Exp Mol Med. 2019 Jul 04. 51(7): 73
    Zhang L, Li F, Su X, Li Y, Wang Y, Fang R, Guo Y, Jin T, Shan H, Zhao X, Yang R, Shan H, Liang H.
      Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease characterized by epithelial cell damage, fibroblast proliferation, excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and lung tissue scarring. Melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, plays an important role in multiple physiological and pathological responses in organisms. However, the function of melatonin in the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury is poorly understood. In the present study, we found that melatonin significantly decreased mortality and restored the function of the alveolar epithelium in bleomycin-treated mice. However, pulmonary function mainly depends on type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs) and is linked to mitochondrial integrity. We also found that melatonin reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevented apoptosis and senescence in AECIIs. Luzindole, a nonselective melatonin receptor antagonist, blocked the protective action of melatonin. Interestingly, we found that the expression of apelin 13 was significantly downregulated in vitro and in vivo and that this downregulation was reversed by melatonin. Furthermore, ML221, an apelin inhibitor, disrupted the beneficial effects of melatonin on alveolar epithelial cells. Taken together, these results suggest that melatonin alleviates lung injury through regulating apelin 13 to improve mitochondrial dysfunction in the process of bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury.
  99. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2019 Jul 02. 1-20
    Zhang Q, Conley SM, Li G, Yuan X, Li PL.
      Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been shown to activate nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome leading to podocyte dysfunction and glomerular injury. However, it remains unclear how this inflammasome activation in podocytes is a therapeutic target for reversal of glomerular injury and ultimate sclerosis. The present study tested whether inhibition of Rac1 GTPase activity suppresses NLRP3 inflammation activation and thereby blocks podocyte injury induced by elevated Hcy. In cultured podocytes, we found that L-Hcy (the active Hcy form) stimulated the NLRP3 inflammasome formation, as shown by increased colocalization of NLRP3 with apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) or caspase-1, which was accompanied by increased interleukin-1β production and caspase-1 activity, indicating NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Rac1 activator, uridine triphosphate (UTP), mimicked L-Hcy-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, while Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 blocked it. This Rac1 inhibition also prevented L-Hcy-induced podocyte dysfunction. All these effects were shown to be mediated via lipid raft redox signaling platforms with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits and consequent O2- production. In animal studies, hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy) induced by folate-free diet was shown to induce NLRP3 inflammasome formation and activation in glomeruli, which was also mimicked by UTP and inhibited by NSC23766 to a comparable level seen in Nlrp3 gene knockout mice. These results together suggest that Rac1 inhibition protects the kidney from hHcy-induced podocyte injury and glomerular sclerosis due to its action to suppress NLRP3 inflammasome activation in podocytes.
    Keywords:  Glomerulosclerosis; Inflammatory machinery; Membrane rafts; Rac1 GTPase; Reactive oxygen species
  100. Sci Rep. 2019 Jun 28. 9(1): 9412
    Badisa RB, Wiley C, Randell K, Darling-Reed SF, Latinwo LM, Agharahimi M, Soliman KFA, Goodman CB.
      Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerfully addictive psychostimulant that has a pronounced effect on the central nervous system (CNS). The present study aimed to assess METH toxicity in differentiated C6 astroglia-like cells through biochemical and toxicity markers with acute (1 h) and chronic (48 h) treatments. In the absence of external stimulants, cellular differentiation of neuronal morphology was achieved through reduced serum (2.5%) in the medium. The cells displayed branched neurite-like processes with extensive intercellular connections. Results indicated that acute METH treatment neither altered the cell morphology nor killed the cells, which echoed with lack of consequence on reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) or inhibition of any cell cycle phases except induction of cytoplasmic vacuoles. On the other hand, chronic treatment at 1 mM or above destroyed the neurite-like processors and decreased the cell viability that paralleled with increased levels of ROS, lipid peroxidation and lactate, depletion in glutathione (GSH) level and inhibition at G0/G1 phase of cell cycle, leading to apoptosis. Pre-treatment of cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, 2.5 mM for 1 h) followed by METH co-treatment for 48 h rescued the cells completely from toxicity by decreasing ROS through increased GSH. Our results provide evidence that increased ROS and GSH depletion underlie the cytotoxic effects of METH in the cells. Since loss in neurite connections and intracellular changes can lead to psychiatric illnesses in drug users, the evidence that we show in our study suggests that these are also contributing factors for psychiatric-illnesses in METH addicts.
  101. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2019 Jul 05.
    Güçlü O, Doğanlar O, Yüksel V, Doğanlar ZB.
      Systemic chemotherapy-mediated cell toxicity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Life-threatening acute events of the FOLFIRI (irinotecan, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil) regimen are mainly due to DNA damage induced by antimetabolite and topoisomerase inhibition effects. However, the role of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HaVSMCs) in this process and the mechanisms of oxidative stress, DNA and protein damage and apoptosis have not been investigated. Therefore, the effects of curcumin and quercetin on HaVSMC survival in the generation of molecular and cellular toxicity by FOLFIRI treatment and the involvement of vital cellular signalling pathways were investigated. We analysed both FOLFIRI toxicity and the therapeutic potential of quercetin and curcumin in terms of HaVSMC damage using molecular probe and florescence staining, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), qRT-PCR and Western blot assays. Our study presents two preliminary findings: (a) in HaVSMCs, FOLFIRI treatment significantly induces oxidative damage to both DNA and protein, leading to a dramatic increase in caspase-dependent apoptotic death through P53-mediated Caspase3-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis, and results in TNF-α/Caspase8-mediated necrotic death, and (b) flavonoids not only regulate the expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and increase DNA damage but also limit programmed and necrotic cell death processes in HaVSMCs. Our results clearly indicate the potential for curcumin and, particularly, quercetin as preventative chemotherapeutic interventions for cardiovascular toxicity induced by the FOLFIRI regime in HaVSMCs.
    Keywords:  Cardiotoxicity; FOLFIRI; Genotoxicity; Human aortic smooth muscle cells; Oxidative stress
  102. J Appl Toxicol. 2019 Jul 05.
    Mota TC, Garcia TB, Bonfim LT, Portilho AJS, Pinto CA, Burbano RMR, de Oliveira Bahia M.
      Artesunate (ARS) is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, used as an outstanding antimalarial drug, which also displays antitumor, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. In spite of the numerous reports showing the antitumor activity of ARS, the particular mechanisms associated with its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in non-neoplastic human cells remain unclear. Here we aimed to verify the specific chromosome damages and the changes in markers of oxidative-nitrosative stress and apoptosis triggered by ARS exposure in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cultures were incubated in the presence of ARS and the number of binucleated cells was determined. To discriminate between micronuclei (MN) containing a whole chromosome or an acentric chromosome, the MN test was employed in combination with the fluorescence in situ hybridization assay. Alterations in the levels of superoxide anion (O2 - ) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium and Griess assay, respectively. Changes in the expression of the apoptotic markers were assessed by immunocytochemistry. We found that ARS induced a significant formation of both centromere-positive MN (C+ MN) and centromere-negative MN (C- MN). These alterations were accompanied by an increase in both cellular levels of O2 - and total NO production, and a remarkable enhancement in the expression of the apoptotic markers cytochrome c and caspases 8 and 9. Together these findings reveal that ARS induces changes in the oxidative-nitrosative status of human lymphocytes, which are followed by apoptosis and clastogenic and aneugenic effects.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; artesunate; genotoxicity; lymphocytes; oxidative-nitrosative stress
  103. J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Jul 03.
    Zhang X, Huang Q, Zhao ZZ, Xu X, Li S, Yin H, Li L, Zhang J, Wang R.
      The increasing use of pesticides in agriculture and gardening has caused severe deterioration to both the ecosystem and the health of users (human beings), so there is an urgent need for eco- and user-friendly pesticides. Among a variety of herbicides, paraquat (PQ), frequently used as an effective herbicidal agent worldwide, is well-known for its serious toxicity that has killed, and harmed, thousands of people and countless wildlife such as fish. Herein, we present a facile supramolecular formulation of PQ@cucurbit[7]uril (PQ@CB[7]), prepared by simply mixing PQ with equivalent (molar) CB[7] in water. With addition of CB[7], PQ's cellular uptake was dramatically inhibited. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the associated apoptosis otherwise induced by PQ in cellular models were both reduced, resulting in increased cellular viability. In a wildtype zebrafish model that is a typical fragile wildlife species in the ecosystem, the supramolecular formulation exhibited significantly reduced hepatotoxicity and increased survival rate, in comparison with those of the fish exposed to free PQ. In a mouse model that is clinically relevant to human being, the administration of PQ@CB[7] significantly alleviated major organ injuries and unusual hematological parameters that were otherwise induced by free PQ, resulting in a significantly increased survival rate. Meanwhile, this formulation maintained effective herbicidal activity that was equivalent to that of free PQ. Taken together, this facile supramolecular PQ formulation is providing not only an extremely rare example of an eco- and user-friendly herbicide that has been desired for decades but also a practical solution for green agriculture.
    Keywords:  cucurbit[7]uril; friendly herbicide; paraquat; supramolecular chemistry
  104. J Surg Res. 2019 Jun 27. pii: S0022-4804(19)30365-8. [Epub ahead of print]243 316-324
    Jiang Q, Wang S, Shi Y.
      BACKGROUND: 3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenyl-valyl-isoleucine (LYRM03) has been shown to be beneficial in a rat model of acute lung injury (ALI). Nonetheless, the pharmacologic action of LYRM03 interference has not been demonstrated to occur through oxidative stress and apoptosis in a rat lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI model, and the potential pathogenic mechanism needs to be clarified. Our research intended to explore the mechanism of action using an in vivo rat LPS-induced ALI model and highlight the associated pathogenesis.METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following five groups: Sham; LPS (5 mg/kg); LPS + LYRM03 (5 mg/kg); LPS + LYRM03 (10 mg/kg); and LPS + LYRM03 (20 mg/kg). Pulmonary injury indicators were documented at 24 h after LPS-induced ALI. Morphologic alterations, such as the extent of the injury, were determined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Furthermore, expression levels of oxidative stress indicators (malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase) and inflammatory molecules (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-8, and interleukin-6) in circulation were observed. The production of apoptosis-associated proteins (poly ADP-ribose polymerase, c-caspase 3, B-cell lymphoma-2, and Bcl2 associated X), inflammatory mediators (high mobility group box-1, toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor-kappa B p65, and myeloid differentiation primary response 88), and inhibitor of kappa B-α were determined through Western blotting. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to assess the messenger RNA expression of the inflammatory mediators.
    RESULTS: The LPS-treated group exhibited a remarkable increase in the extent of the pulmonary injury, oxidative stress indicator secretion, inflammatory molecule release, and inflammatory mediator production and an increase in the inhibitor of kappa B-α levels relative to the Sham group. The LYRM03 (5 and 10 mg/kg)-treated groups exhibited a remarkable decrease relative to the LPS group. In addition, treatment with LYRM03 (20 mg/kg) powerfully limited the extent of the injury and demonstrated anti-inflammatory actions.
    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this investigation indicated that treatment with LYRM03 plays a role in lung defense by inhibiting the NF-κB/MyD88/TLR4 pathway.
    Keywords:  Acute lung injury; Apoptosis; Inflammation; LYRM03; Lipopolysaccharide; Oxidative stress
  105. Immunol Invest. 2019 Jul 02. 1-18
    Yadav S, Pandey SK, Goel Y, Temre MK, Singh SM.
      Tumor growth and its chemotherapeutic regimens manifest myelosuppression, which is one of the possible causes underlying the limited success of immunotherapeutic anticancer strategies. Hence, approaches are being designed to develop safer therapeutic regimens that may have minimal damaging action on the process of myelopoiesis. 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a highly potent antimetabolic agent displaying a broad spectrum antineoplastic activity. However, 3-BP has not been investigated for its effect on the process of myelopoiesis in a tumor-bearing host. Hence, in this investigation, we studied the myelopoietic effect of in vivo administration of 3-BP to a murine host bearing a progressively growing ascitic thymoma designated as Dalton's lymphoma (DL). 3-BP administration to the DL-bearing mice resulted in a myelopotentiating action, reflected by an elevated count of bone marrow cells (BMC) accompanied by augmented proliferative ability and a declined induction of apoptosis. The BMC of 3-BP-administered mice displayed enhanced responsiveness to macrophage colony-stimulating factor for colony-forming ability of myeloid lineage along with an enhanced differentiation of F4/80+ bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). BMDM differentiated from the BMC of 3-BP-administered DL-bearing mice showed an augmented response to lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ for activation, displaying an augmented tumor cytotoxicity, expression of cytokines, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, CD11c, TLR-4, and HSP70. These features are indicative of the differentiation of M1 subtype of macrophages. Thus, this study demonstrates the myelopotentiating action of 3-BP, indicating its hematopoietic safety and potential for reinforcing the differentiation of macrophages in a tumor-bearing host.
    Keywords:  3-Bromopyruvate; macrophage differentiation; myelopoiesis; thymoma
  106. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2019 Feb;35(2): 130-134
    Yu T, Xin Q, Xu F, Li L.
      OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of high glucose affecting the apoptosis of schwann cells through Nox4 NADPH oxidase.METHODS: The schwann cells of newborn Wistar rats were cultured in vitro. The cultured cells were divided into four groups: control group, high-glucose group, NOX4 siRNA group and control siRNA group (n=10). The WST-1 method was used to detect the cell vitality, and the DCFH-DA method was used to detect the contents of intracellular reactive oxygen free radicals (ROS). Nox4 and Caspase3 mRNA expressions were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. Nox4 and Caspase3 protein expressions were determined by Western blot.
    RESULTS: High glucose culture up-regulated Nox4 mRNA and protein expressions of schwann cells, decreased activity of schwann cells, increased intracellular ROS content, and promoted apoptosis by increasing Caspase3 mRNA and protein expressions. NOX4 siRNA blocked the accumulation of ROS in the high glucose cultured schwann cells, and reduced the damage of glucose on cell viability, by inhibiting NOX4 gene expression. NOX4 siRNA also reduced cell apoptosis by down-regulating Caspase3 mRNA and protein expressions.
    CONCLUSION: Nox4 was involved in the hyperglycemic-induced apoptosis of schwann cells through ROS. The regulation of Nox4 expression or function might be a new way to treat diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
  107. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Jun 29.
    Abdeen A, Abou-Zaid OA, Abdel-Maksoud HA, Aboubakr M, Abdelkader A, Abdelnaby A, Abo-Ahmed AI, El-Mleeh A, Mostafa O, Abdel-Daim M, Aleya L.
      Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental pollutant that threatens humans' and animals' health. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used drugs due to their wide therapeutic action; however, they have significant side effects. Since, under many circumstances, humans and animals may be co-exposed to Cd and NSAIDs, the current investigation was assigned to explore the intertwining relationship between Cd and NSAIDs. Four groups of male Wister rats were used: control group: rats received saline; Cd group: rats received cadmium (Cd, 2 mg/kg) orally; Px group: rats received a NSAID (piroxicam, Px, 7 mg/kg, i.p.); and Cd+Px group: rats received both Cd+Px. All treatments were given once a day for 28 consecutive days. Then, blood samples, stomach, liver, and kidney tissues were collected. The results indicated that Px provoked gastric ulcer indicated by high ulcer index, while Cd had no effect on the gastric mucosa. In addition, treatment with Cd or Px alone significantly induced liver and kidney injuries indicated by serum elevations of AST, ALT, ALP, ALB, total protein, creatinine, and urea along with histopathological alterations. Significant increases in malondialdehyde and reduction in GSH and CAT contents were reported along with up-regulated expression of Bax and Bcl-2 after Cd or Px exposure. However, when Cd and Px were given in a combination, Cd obviously potentiated the Px-inflicted cellular injury and death in the liver and kidney but not in the stomach when compared to their individual exposure. This study concluded that oxidative stress mechanisms were supposed to be the main modulator in promoting Cd and Px toxicities when given in combination.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Cadmium; Combined toxicity; Environmental pollution; Gastric ulcer; NSAIDs; Oxidative stress
  108. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2019 Jul 03. 19(1): 154
    Parvez MK, Al-Dosari MS, Arbab AH, Alam P, Alsaid MS, Khan AA.
      BACKGROUND: Of over 35 Saudi plants traditionally used to treat liver disorders, majority still lack scientific validations. We therefore, evaluated the anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and hepatoprotective potential of Solanum surattense leaves total ethanol-extract (SSEE).METHODS: The cytoprotective (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide/ MTT assay) and anti-apoptotic (caspase-3/7) potential of SSEE (25-200 μg/mL) were assessed in cultured HepG2 cells against dichlorofluorescein (DCFH)-induced toxicity. The hepatoprotective salutation of SSEE (100 and 200 mg/ in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated rats was evaluated by serum biochemistry and histopathology. The anti-oxidative activity of SSEE (31.25-500 μg/mL) was tested by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and linoleic acid bleaching assays. Also, SSEE was subjected to qualitative phytochemical analysis, and standardized by validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPTLC).
    RESULTS: SSEE at doses 50, 100 and 200 μg/mL showed HepG2 cell proliferative and protective potential by about 61.0, 67.2 and 95%, respectively through inhibition of caspase-3/7 against DCFH-toxicity. In CCl4-injured rats, SSEE (200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) normalized serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and total protein, including tissue malondialdehyde and nonprotein sulfhydryls levels, supported by the liver histopathology. SSEE further showed strong in vitro anti-oxidative and anti-lipid peroxidative activities, evidenced by the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols and saponins. Identification of β-sitosterol (3.46 μg/mg) strongly supported the anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective salutation of SSEE.
    CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest the therapeutic potential of S. surattense against chemical-induced oxidative stress and liver damage. However, isolation of the active principles and elucidation of mechanism of action remain to be addressed.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; CCl4; DCFH; Hepatoprotection; Oxidative stress; Solanum surattense; β-sitosterol
  109. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2019 Jul 01.
    AlBasher G, Alfarraj S, Alarifi S, Alkhtani S, Almeer R, Alsultan N, Alharthi M, Alotibi N, Al-Dbass A, Abdel Moneim AE.
      Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome associated with the incidence of rhabdomyolysis (RM). The current study was carried out to evaluate whether selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) can protect against the glycerol-induced AKI model. Rats were distributed into four equal groups (n = 7): the control group (G1), SeNPs group (G2), AKI group (G3), and SeNPs+AKI group (G4). Rats in G1 were intramuscularly injected with physiological saline (0.9% NaCl). Rats in G2 were gavaged with SeNPs (0.1 mg/kg) for 14 days. Rats in G3 were intramuscularly injected with 50% glycerol (10 ml/kg). Rats in G4 were administered with SeNPs for 14 days and then injected with glycerol, as in G3. Glycerol-injected rats showed a significant increase in the kidney relative weight, as well as in the serum urea, creatinine, Kim-1, and renal malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β, cytochrome c, Bax, and caspase-3 levels. In addition, a significant decrease in glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase was recorded in the renal tissue. Selenium nanoparticles reduced the biochemical, molecular, and histological changes produced by glycerol. Overall, our results suggest that selenium nanoparticles could be used to protect against AKI development via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities.
    Keywords:  Acute kidney injury; Apoptosis; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Selenium nanoparticles
  110. Invest New Drugs. 2019 Jun 29.
    Hegazy MF, Fukaya M, Dawood M, Yan G, Klinger A, Fleischer E, Zaglool AW, Efferth T.
      Vitamin K3, also known as menadione, is a synthetic lipid-soluble 2-methyl-1,4- naphthoquinone analogs of vitamin K. The vitamin K derivatives exhibit potent cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines through ROS induction and mitochondrial dysfunction. We investigated vitamin K3-inspired derivatives as potential apoptotic inducers and analyzed their mechanisms beyond apoptosis. The cytotoxicity of a panel of vitamin K3 analogs was screened against 10 doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant cancer cell lines overexpressing ATP-binding cassette transporters (P-glycoprotein, ABCB5, BCRP) or oncogenes (ΔEGFR) or with knockout of tumor suppressors (p53), Cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, cell migration, and microtubule formation were further investigated. The online tool SwissTargetPrediction was utilized for target prediction. Among the screened compounds, one vitamin K3 thio-derivative (No. 45, VKT-1) exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity specifically against both drug-sensitive and -resistant cancer cell lines. In addition, VKT-1 arrested the cells at the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis as detected by flow cytometry. As predicted by SwissTargetPrediction, VKT-1 targeted microtubule-associated tau protein. Indeed, VKT-1 dramatically inhibited cell migration and microtubule formation in vitro. In conclusion, the synthetic vitamin K3 thio-derivative (VKT-1) inhibited doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant tumor cells by cell arrest, apoptosis induction, as well as, migration inhibition, and microtubule deterioration of U2OS-GFP-α-tubulin cells.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Cell cycle; Cell migration; Cytotoxicity; Leukemia; Microtubules; Vitamin K3 derivatives
  111. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2019 Jul 05. 10(1): 198
    Jiang Y, Zhu D, Liu W, Qin Q, Fang Z, Pan Z.
      BACKGROUND: Follicle depletion is one of the causes of premature ovarian failure (POF) and primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Hence, maintenance of a certain number of female germline stem cells (FGSCs) is optimal to produce oocytes and replenish the primordial follicle pool. The mechanism that regulates proliferation or stemness of FGSCs could contribute to restoring ovarian function, but it remains uncharacterized in postnatal mammalian ovaries. This study aims to investigate the mechanism by which inhibiting the activity of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway regulates follicle development and FGSC proliferation.METHODS AND RESULTS: To understand the role of the Hh pathway in ovarian aging, we measured Hh signaling activity at different reproductive ages and the correlation between them in physiological and pathological mice. Furthermore, we evaluated the follicle number and development and the changes in FGSC proliferation or stemness after blocking the Hh pathway in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we aimed to explain one of the mechanisms for the FGSC phenotype changes induced by treatment with the Hh pathway-specific inhibitor GANT61 via oxidative stress and apoptosis. The results show that the activity of Hh signaling is decreased in the ovaries in physiological aging and POF models, which is consistent with the trend of expression levels of the germline stem cell markers Mvh and Oct4. In vitro, blocking the Hh pathway causes follicular developmental disorders and depletes ovarian germ cells and FGSCs after treating ovaries with GANT61. The proliferation or stemness of cultured primary FGSCs is reduced when Hh activity is blocked. Our results show that the antioxidative enzyme level and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax decrease, the expression level of caspase 3 increases, the mitochondrial membrane potential is abnormal, and ROS accumulate in this system.
    CONCLUSIONS: We observed that the inhibition of the Hh signaling pathway with GANT61 could reduce primordial follicle number and decrease FGSC reproductive capacity or stemness through oxidative damage and apoptosis.
    Keywords:  Female germline stem cell; Follicular number; Hedgehog signaling pathway; Proliferation; Stemness
  112. Mar Drugs. 2019 Jul 03. pii: E392. [Epub ahead of print]17(7):
    Rethineswaran VK, Kim YJ, Jang WB, Ji ST, Kang S, Kim DY, Park JH, Van LTH, Giang LTT, Ha JS, Yun J, Lee DH, Yu SN, Park SG, Ahn SC, Kwon SM.
      The purpose of the present study is to improve the endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) activation, proliferation, and angiogenesis using enzyme-aided extraction of fucoidan by amyloglucosidase (EAEF-AMG). Enzyme-aided extraction of fucoidan by AMG (EAEF-AMG) significantly increased EPC proliferation by reducing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing apoptosis. Notably, EAEF-AMG treated EPCs repressed the colocalization of TSC2/LAMP1 and promoted perinuclear localization of mTOR/LAMP1 and mTOR/Rheb. Moreover, EAEF-AMG enhanced EPC functionalities, including tube formation, cell migration, and wound healing via regulation of AKT/Rheb signaling. Our data provided cell priming protocols to enhance therapeutic applications of EPCs using bioactive compounds for the treatment of CVD.
    Keywords:  amyloglucosidase; cell proliferation; endothelial progenitor cells; fucoidan; vascular regeneration