bims-aporos Biomed News
on Apoptosis and reactive oxygen species
Issue of 2019‒06‒02
fifty-seven papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019 May 23. pii: S0141-8130(19)32299-8. [Epub ahead of print]
    Bedoya-Medina J, Mendivil-Perez M, Rey-Suarez P, Jimenez-Del-Rio M, Núñez V, Velez-Pardo C.
      The effect of Micrurus mipartitus snake venom as a therapeutic alternative for T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is still unknown. This study was aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of M. mipartitus snake venom and a new L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), named MipLAAO, on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and on T-ALL cells (Jurkat), and its mechanism of action. PBL and Jurkat cells were treated with venom and MipLAAO, and morphological changes in the cell nucleus/DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential, levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and cellular apoptosis markers were determined by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and pharmacological inhibition. Venom and MipLAAO induced apoptotic cell death in Jurkat cells, but not in PBL, in a dose-response manner. Additionally, venom and MipLAAO increased dichlorofluorescein fluorescence intensity, indicative of H2O2 production, increased DJ-1 Cys106-sulfonate, as a marker of intracellular stress and induced the up-regulation of PUMA, p53 and phosphorylation of c-JUN. Additionally, it increased the expression of apoptotic CASPASE-3. In conclusion, M. mipartitus venom and MipLAAO selectively induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells through a H2O2-mediated signaling pathway dependent mostly on CASPASE-3 pathway. Our findings support the potential use of M. mipartitus snake venom compounds as a potential treatment for T-ALL.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Jurkat cells; L-amino acid oxidase; Micrurus mipartitus; Snake venom
  2. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2019 May 25. 1-8
    You S, Kim GH.
      This study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of Mori Cortex radicis (MCR) against high glucose (HG)-induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells. Cell cytotoxicity was examined using MTT and lactate dehydrogenase assays. To examine the antioxidative effects, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured. The expressions of apoptosis-associated proteins were assessed. MCR was found to increase the viabilities of HG-induced PC12 cells and to inhibit ROS and MDA production and to promote antioxidative enzyme activities. Furthermore, MCR reduced apoptosis by upregulating p-Akt and Bcl-2/Bax ratio and reducing cytochrome c level. The main flavonoids in MCR were identified by HPLC to be kuwanon G and morusin. These results suggest the antioxidative effects of MCR protect against HG-induced oxidative stress and that MCR has potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of diabetic neuro-degeneration.
    Keywords:  Mori Cortex radicis; PC12 cells; anti-oxidant; high glucose; neurodegeneration
  3. Front Pharmacol. 2019 ;10 497
    Zhou J, Ci X, Ma X, Yu Q, Cui Y, Zhen Y, Li S.
      The NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor that regulates the cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress, is a target for limiting tissue damage from exposure to environmental toxins, including arsenic. In the current study, we determine whether Pterostilbene (Pts), as a potent activator of Nrf2, has a protective effect on arsenic-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human keratinocytes. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT) or mouse epidermal cells (JB6) were pretreated with Pts for 24 h prior to arsenic treatment. Harvested cells were analyzed by MTT, DCFH-DA, commercial kits, Flow cytometry assay and western blot analysis. Our results demonstrated that Pts effectively regulated the viability in HaCaT and JB6 cells, decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation (MDA), and improved the NaAsO2-induced depletion of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Moreover, Pts treatment further dramatically inhibited NaAsO2-induced apoptosis, specifically the mitochondrial mediation of apoptosis, which coincided with the effective recovery of NaAsO2-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) depolarization and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. Furthermore, arsenic-induced decrease of anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, and increase of pro-apoptotic factor Bax and Bad, as well as survival signal related factor caspase 3 activation were reversed by Pts treatment. Further mechanistic studies confirmed that Pts increased antioxidant enzyme expression in a dose-dependent manner, which was related to Nrf2 nuclear translocation. In addition, the effects of Pts on NaAsO2-induced cell viability were largely weakened when Nrf2 was knocked down. Together, our results provide evidence for the use of Pts to activate the Nrf2 pathway to alleviate arsenic-induced dermal damage.
    Keywords:  Nrf2; apoptosis; arsenic; keratinocytes; pterostilbene
  4. Sci Rep. 2019 May 29. 9(1): 7995
    Luo K, Yu JH, Quan Y, Shin YJ, Lee KE, Kim HL, Ko EJ, Chung BH, Lim SW, Yang CW.
      We previously reported that oxidative stress induced by long-term tacrolimus treatment impairs mitochondrial function in pancreatic beta cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of coenzyme Q10, which is known to be a powerful antioxidant, in mitochondrial dysfunction in tacrolimus-induced diabetic rats. In a rat model of tacrolimus-induced diabetes mellitus, coenzyme Q10 treatment improved pancreatic beta cell function. The administration of coenzyme Q10 improved insulin immunoreactivity within islets, which was accompanied by reductions in oxidative stress and apoptosis. Assessment of the mitochondrial ultrastructure by electron microscopy revealed that coenzyme Q10 treatment increased the size, number, and volume of mitochondria, as well as the number of insulin granules compared with that induced by tacrolimus treatment alone. An in vitro study using a pancreatic beta cell line showed that tacrolimus treatment increased apoptosis and the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, while cotreatment with coenzyme Q10 effectively attenuated these alterations. At the subcellular level, tacrolimus-induced impairment of mitochondrial respiration was significantly improved by coenzyme Q10, as evidenced by the increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP production. Our data indicate that coenzyme Q10 plays an important role in reducing tacrolimus-induced oxidative stress and protects the mitochondria in pancreatic beta cells. These findings suggest that supplementation with coenzyme Q10 has beneficial effects in tacrolimus-induced diabetes mellitus.
  5. Food Sci Nutr. 2019 May;7(5): 1891-1898
    Yeh YH, Liang CY, Chen ML, Tsai FM, Lin YY, Lee MC, Wu JS, Kuo CY.
      The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is an important step in the progress of liver fibrosis. Fibrosis can be impeded by HSC reversion to a quiescent state or HSC clearance through apoptosis. To investigate the apoptotic effects of hsian-tsao (Mesona procumbens Hemsl) on human HSCs, the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were assessed using Western blotting, and the caspase-3 activity was measured using caspase-3/CPP32 colorimetric assay kit. Hsian-tsao extract (HTE) increased the activity of caspase-3 and the level of activated caspase-3, indicating the activation of apoptosis. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level increased in a dose-dependent manner. This increase was prevented by an antioxidant, suggesting that HTE induces ROS accumulation. In addition, we found that HTE induced the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases JNK and p38. These collective data indicate that HTE induces apoptosis via ROS production through the p38, JNK, and caspase-3-dependent pathways. HTE may decrease HSC activation in liver fibrosis and may have a therapeutic potential.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; hepatic stellate cell; hsian‐tsao; reactive oxygen species
  6. J Cell Biochem. 2019 May 29.
    Yu M, Shan X, Liu Y, Zhu J, Cao Q, Yang F, Liu Y, Wang G, Zhao X.
      Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients would cause cardiomyocytes oxidative stress and apoptosis due to the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, leading to progressive deterioration of cardiac structure and function. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play essential roles on controlling oxidative stress and apoptotic activity. In the present study, RNA sequencing was used to detect the differentially expressed lncRNAs during high glucose-induced cardiomyocytes oxidative stress and apoptosis. A total of 306/400 lncRNAs were identified as differentially expressed, including 156/198 lncRNAs with increased expression and 150/202 lncRNAs with decreased expression at 24 hours/48 hours after high-glucose stimulation respectively. Among these dysregulated lncRNAs, 45 lncRNAs were consistently differentially expressed in cardiomyocytes at both two time points after high-glucose stimulation. Twenty lncRNAs were upregulated and 25 lncRNAs were downregulated at both 24 hours and 48 hours, respectively. The top three upregulated lncRNAs, NONRATT029805.2, NONRATT007560.2, and NONRATT002486.2 were selected for functional studies to determine the role in oxidative stress-related apoptosis. The results showed that inhibition of non-ratt007560.2 could abate the formation of ROS and reduce apoptosis, suggesting NONRATT007560.2 might play critical roles in the development of cardiomyopathy. The dysregulated lncRNAs might participate in regulating cardiomyocytes oxidative stress and apoptosis. These findings would be important theoretical and experimental basis for investigation on diabetic cardiomyopathy pathogenesis.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; cardiomyocytes; high glucose; long noncoding RNAs; oxidative stress
  7. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2019 May 10. pii: S1386-1425(19)30485-8. [Epub ahead of print]220 117104
    Hao M, Liu R.
      Quantum dots (QDs) are a unique class of nano-materials that have attractive potentials in biological and biomedical applications, and the concern on their biosafety is concomitantly increasing. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered to be one of the reasons that induce the in vitro QDs induced toxic response. However, the exact molecular pathways underlying these effects remain poorly clarified and few studies combine the molecular results with the cellular results to explore the cytotoxic effect of QDs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) capped CdTe QDs on the structures and functions of two antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) superoxide dismutase (SOD), and then associated with the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress induced by MPA-CdTe QDs on mouse hepatocytes to define the toxic underlying mechanism. The molecular experiment results showed that the exposure of QDs significantly changed the conformation of CAT and SOD, and leading to the promotion of molecular CAT activity and the inhibition of molecular SOD activity. Meanwhile, the cellular experiment results demonstrated that exposure to QDs changed the activities of CAT and SOD in mouse primary hepatocytes, led to the break of redox balance and resulted in the oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. This study explores the effects of MPA- CdTe QDs to the CAT and SOD molecules and then demonstrates the subsequent QDs toxic effects at a cellular level, revealing their potential risk in biomedical applications.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; CAT; Oxidative stress; Quantum dot; SOD
  8. Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 May 22. pii: S0753-3322(19)30837-6. [Epub ahead of print]116 109004
    Tavsan Z, Kayali HA.
      Flavonoids have been recently identified as a potential anticancer agent against various human epithelial cancers. In this study, the elucidation of mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of the apigenin, luteolin and myricetin will be new knowledge about preventive strategies against epithelial ovarian cancer in which the effect of flavonoids is still unclear. The cytotoxic effect of flavonoids was assessed by MTT analysis of the ovarian cancer cells (A2780, OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3) in comparison to the ovarian epithelial cells (OSE). The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl levels, caspase-3 and -9 activities were evaluated using fluorescence spectrometry. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and cell invasion were measured by flow cytometry and Boyden chamber assay, respectively. MTT analysis showed that flavonoids selectively decreased the cell viability of cancer cells. Furthermore, the intracellular ROS generation was induced or scavenged by flavonoids depending on the structural differences. The flavonoids increased MDA levels due to the disruption of the membrane. Caspase activities indicated that flavonoids activated the extrinsic apoptotic pathway when ROS was scavenged. In contrast, the induced intracellular ROS generation resulted in the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In addition, the cell cycle was arrested in different cell cycle phases and cell invasion on the collagen was disrupted by flavonoids. The anticancer activities of apigenin, luteolin and myricetin were attributed to the alterations of ROS signaling, and as well as the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and abrogation of the invasion. The present study may uncover new strategies for ovarian cancer therapy.
    Keywords:  Cell cycle arrest; Cell death; Epithelial ovarian cancer; Flavonoids; Invasion; Reactive oxygen species
  9. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 May 31. pii: E2680. [Epub ahead of print]20(11):
    Zhao X, Fang J, Li S, Gaur U, Xing X, Wang H, Zheng W.
      Oxidative stress is believed to be one of the main causes of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The pathogenesis of AD is still not elucidated clearly but oxidative stress is one of the key hypotheses. Here, we found that artemisinin, an anti-malarial Chinese medicine, possesses neuroprotective effects. However, the antioxidative effects of artemisinin remain to be explored. In this study, we found that artemisinin rescued SH-SY5Y and hippocampal neuronal cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death at clinically relevant doses in a concentration-dependent manner. Further studies showed that artemisinin significantly restored the nuclear morphology, improved the abnormal changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase-3 activation, thereby attenuating apoptosis. Artemisinin also stimulated the phosphorylation of the adenosine monophosphate -activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in SH-SY5Y cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of the AMPK pathway attenuated the protective effect of artemisinin. These data put together suggested that artemisinin has the potential to protect neuronal cells. Similar results were obtained in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Cumulatively, these results indicated that artemisinin protected neuronal cells from oxidative damage, at least in part through the activation of AMPK. Our findings support the role of artemisinin as a potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases.
    Keywords:  AMPK pathway; H2O2; SH-SY5Y cells; artemisinin; hippocampal neurons
  10. Andrologia. 2019 May 27. e13320
    Baş E, Nazıroğlu M.
      Docetaxel (DTX) has been used in cancer treatments for several decades, but it results in many adverse apoptotic effects through excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in some tissue including the kidney and testes. We aimed to investigate potential modulatory roles of melatonin (MEL) and selenium (Se) against DTX-induced apoptosis and oxidative injury in the testes and kidney of mice. Thirty-two mice were divided into four equal groups as control, DTX, DTX + MEL and DTX + Se. DTX group was treated with a single intraperitoneal dose of DTX. After DTX treatment, MEL and Se were administered to the mice in the DTX + MEL and DTX + Se groups for 7 days respectively. Increased lipid peroxidation, ROS, apoptosis, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in the kidney and testes of the DTX group were diminished by treatment with MEL and Se. DTX-induced decreases in vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol), glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels in the kidney and testis were increased following MEL and Se treatments. In conclusion, our data show that MEL and Se can act as modulators against DTX-induced apoptosis and oxidative damage in the kidney and testis through up-regulation of glutathione and vitamin E and down-regulation of caspase pathways.
    Keywords:  cancer; caspase; docetaxel; oxidative injury; testis
  11. J Cell Biochem. 2019 May 29.
    Ren Y, Li Y, Lv J, Guo X, Zhang J, Zhou D, Zhang Z, Xue Z, Yang G, Xi Q, Liu H, Liu Z, Zhang L, Zhang Q, Yao Z, Zhang R, Da Y.
      Muscle redox disturbances and oxidative stress have emerged as a common pathogenetic mechanism and potential therapeutic intervention in some muscle diseases. Parthenolide (PTL), a sesquiterpene lactone found in large amounts in the leaves of feverfew, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-migraine, and anticancer properties. Although PTL was reported to alleviate cancer cachexia and improve skeletal muscle characteristics in a cancer cachexia model, its actions on oxidative stress-induced damage in C2C12 myoblasts have not been reported and the regulatory mechanisms have not yet been defined. In our study, PTL attenuated H2 O2 -induced growth inhibition and morphological changes. Furthermore, PTL exhibited scavenging activity against reactive oxygen species and protected C2C12 cells from apoptosis in response to H2 O2 . Meanwhile, PTL suppressed collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, thereby contributing to normalizing H2 O2 -induced autophagy flux and mitophagy, correlating with inhibiting degradation of mitochondrial marker protein TIM23, the increase in LC3-II expression and the reduction of mitochondria DNA. Besides its protective effect on mitochondria, PTL also prevented H2 O2 -induced lysosomes damage in C2C12 cells. In addition, the phosphorylation of p53, cathepsin B, and Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels, and the translocation of Bax from the cytosol to mitochondria induced by H2 O2 in C2C12 cells was significantly reduced by PTL. In conclusion, PTL modulates oxidative stress-induced mitophagy and protects C2C12 myoblasts against apoptosis, suggesting a potential protective effect against oxidative stress-associated skeletal muscle diseases.
    Keywords:  mitophagy; myoblasts damage; oxidative stress; p53; parthenolide
  12. Burns Trauma. 2019 ;7 16
    Xiang F, Ma SY, Lv YL, Zhang DX, Song HP, Huang YS.
      Background: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) plays a protective effect in hypoxic cardiomyocytes, but the precise mechanisms are not well clarified. The study is aimed to identify the mechanism of TRAP1 on hypoxic damage in cardiomyocytes.Methods: In this study, the effects of TRAP1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COXII) on apoptosis in hypoxia-induced cardiomyocytes were explored using overexpression and knockdown methods separately.
    Results: Hypoxia induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and TRAP1 overexpression notably inhibited apoptosis induced by hypoxia. Conversely, TRAP1 silencing promoted apoptosis in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Further investigation revealed that the proapoptotic effects caused by the silencing of TRAP1 were prevented by COXII overexpression, whereas COXII knockdown reduced the antiapoptotic function induced by TRAP1 overexpression. Additionally, changes in the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol and the caspase-3 activity in the cytoplasm, as well as reactive oxygen species production, were found to be correlated with the changes in apoptosis.
    Conclusions: The current study uncovered that TRAP1 regulates hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway mediated by COXII, in which reactive oxygen species presents as an important component.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Cardiomyocytes; Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II; Hypoxia; Reactive oxygen species; Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1
  13. Sci Rep. 2019 May 30. 9(1): 8107
    de Freitas Carvalho MM, Lage NN, de Souza Paulino AH, Pereira RR, de Almeida LT, da Silva TF, de Brito Magalhães CL, de Lima WG, Silva ME, Pedrosa ML, da Costa Guerra JF.
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most predominant liver disease worldwide, is a progressive condition that encompasses a spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis, and, ultimately, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the underlying mechanism is complex and multifactorial, several intracellular events leading to its progression have been identified, including oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and altered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Phenolic compounds, such as those present in açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), are considered promising therapeutic agents due to their possible beneficial effects on the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. We tested in vitro effects of aqueous açai extract (AAE) in HepG2 cells and its influence on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inflammation in a murine model of high fat diet-induced NAFLD. In vitro AAE exhibited high antioxidant capacity, high potential to inhibit reactive oxygen species production, and no cytotoxicity. In vivo, AAE administration (3 g/kg) for six weeks attenuated liver damage (alanine aminotransferase levels), inflammatory process (number of inflammatory cells and serum TNFα), and oxidative stress, through the reduction of lipid peroxidation and carbonylation of proteins determined by OxyBlot and modulation of the antioxidant enzymes: glutathione reductase, SOD and catalase. No change was observed in collagen content indicating an absence of fibrosis, stress-related genes in RE, and protein expression of caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis. With these results, we provide evidence that açai exhibits hepatoprotective effects and may prevent the progression of liver damage related to NAFLD by targeting pathways involved in its progression.
  14. Med Sci Monit. 2019 May 29. 25 3983-3988
    Zhu M, Jiang Y, Wu H, Shi W, Lu G, Cong D, Liu K, Song S, Ren J.
      BACKGROUND Gambogic acid (AG) is believed to be a potent anti-cancer agent. ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress-induced cell apoptosis was identified as one of the anti-proliferative mechanisms of several anti-cancer agents. In this study, we investigated the involvement of ER stress-induced apoptosis in the anti-proliferative effect of GA on NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS GA at 0, 0.5, and 1.0 μmol/l was used to treat A549 cells. We also used the ER stress-specific inhibitor 4-PBA (4-phenylbutyric acid) (1 μmol/l) to co-treat the cells incubated with GA. Cell viability was assessed by MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium) assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium) assay. Intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) production was detected by DCFH-DA (2,7- dichloro-dihydrofluorescein diacetate) florescent staining. Western blotting was used to assess the expression and phosphorylation levels of protein. RESULTS GA treatment significantly reduced cell viabilities of NSCLC cells in a concentration-dependent manner. GA treatment increased intracellular ROS level, expression levels of GRP (glucose-regulated protein) 78, CHOP (C/EBP-homologous protein), ATF (activating transcription factor) 6 and caspase 12, as well as the phosphorylation levels of PERK (protein kinase R-like ER kinase) and IRE (inositol-requiring enzyme) 1alpha. Co-treatment of 4-PBA dramatically impaired the inhibitory effect of GA on cell viability. 4PBA co-treatment also decreased expression levels of GRP78, CHOP, ATF6, and caspase12, as well as the phosphorylation levels of PERK and IRE1alpha, in GA-treated NSCLC cells, without affecting ROS levels. CONCLUSIONS GA inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation by inducing ROS-induced ER stress-medicated apoptosis of NSCLC cells.
  15. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019 May 24. pii: S0141-8130(19)31911-7. [Epub ahead of print]
    Guo W, Gu X, Tong Y, Wang X, Wu J, Chang C.
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biomacromolecules mannan/β-glucans from yeast cell wall (BYCW) to alleviate Deoxynivalenol(DON)-induced injury. Considering that DON has strong oxidizing effect and stimulates autophagy and apoptosis, we examined the effects of BYCW on consequent oxidative stress damage indicators, cells autophagy and apoptosis induced by DON using the porcine jejunum epithelial cell lines (IPEC-J2) as a cell culture model. The results showed that application of BYCW could reverse the decrease of cell viability by DON significantly, and suppress the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 and -6 (IL-8 and IL-6), except IL-1β. Further experiments revealed that BYCW treatment counteracted the DON-induced down-regulation of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and up-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Through western blot analysis, we observed that BYCW treatment was able to down-regulate the expression of autophagy protein LC3-II and up-regulate the expression of P62 protein against DON, which suggested that autophagy induced by DON may be suppressed. Altogether, these results indicated a potential ability of supplementation of BYCW to improve cell growth and metabolism as well as the preventive properties of BYCW against the DON-induced cell damage by activating antioxidant system.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Deoxynivalenol; Inflammatory; Mannan; Oxidative stress; β-glucans
  16. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2019 ;16 36
    Wu KM, Hsu YM, Ying MC, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH, Chung JG, Yang JS, Tang CH, Cheng LY, Su PH, Viswanadha VP, Kuo WW, Huang CY.
      Background: High levels circulating saturated fatty acids are associated with diabetes, obesity and hyperlipidemia. In heart, the accumulation of saturated fatty acids has been determined to play a role in the development of heart failure and diabetic cardiomyopathy. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) has been reported to possess key atheroprotective biological properties, including cellular cholesterol efflux capacity, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to test whether HDL could protect palmitic acid (PA)-induced cardiomyocyte injury and explore the possible mechanisms.Results: H9c2 cells were pretreated with HDL (50-100 μg/ml) for 2 h followed by PA (0.5 mM) for indicated time period. Our results showed that HDL inhibited PA-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, HDL rescued PA-induced ROS generation and the phosphorylation of JNK which in turn activated NF-κB-mediated inflammatory proteins expressions. We also found that PA impaired the balance of BCL2 family proteins, destabilized mitochondrial membrane potential, and triggered subsequent cytochrome c release into the cytosol and activation of caspase 3. These detrimental effects were ameliorated by HDL treatment.
    Conclusion: PA-induced ROS accumulation and results in cardiomyocyte apoptosis and inflammation. However, HDL attenuated PA-induced lipotoxicity and oxidative dysfunction via ROS suppression. These results may provide insight into a possible molecular mechanism underlying HDL suppression of the free fatty acid-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
    Keywords:  Cardiomyoblast; High-density lipoprotein; Lipotoxicity; Palmitic acid; ROS
  17. Biol Pharm Bull. 2019 May 28.
    Zhao Q, Li H, Chang L, Wei C, Yin Y, Bei H, Wang Z, Liang J, Wu Y.
      Qiliqiangxin capsule (QLQX) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that exhibits cardioprotective effects in heart failure patients. However, it remains unclear whether and by which mechanism QLQX attenuates oxidative stress-induced mitochondria-dependent myocardial apoptosis. In vivo, SD rats received left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 4 weeks to establish a model of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction, and then were treated with QLQX for another 4 weeks. We evaluated cardiac function, oxidative stress injury, as well as the expressions of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and its signaling factors. The results indicated that QLQX protected cardiac function and attenuated oxidative stress-induced myocardial apoptosis. Meanwhile, QLQX elevated the Bcl-2 expression, declined the expressions of Bax, cytochrome c, apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), cleaved-caspase9 and cleaved-caspase3, and up-regulated the ratios of phospho-AKT/AKT and phospho-GSK3β/GSK3β. In vitro, H9c2 cardiomyocytes were pretreated with QLQX, then exposed to H2O2 for 24 h. QLQX promoted the proliferation of H9c2 cardiomyocytes induced by H2O2 and reversed oxidative stress damage. Moreover, QLQX inhibited the apoptosis rate and the pro-apoptosis protein expressions, but improved the Bcl-2 expression as well as the ratios of phospho-AKT/AKT and phospho-GSK3β/GSK3β. Meanwhile, it further ameliorated mitochondrion-related apoptosis by inhibiting the mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decline in H9c2 cardiomyocytes induced by H2O2. In addition, all the effects of QLQX on H2O2-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis could be blocked by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. We conclude that QLQX may ameliorate oxidative stress-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in cardiomyocytes through PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  heart failure; myocardial apoptosis; oxidative stress; qiliqiangxin capsule
  18. Free Radic Res. 2019 May 27. 1-171
    Wu L, Li Q, Liu S, An X, Huang Z, Zhang B, Yuan Y, Xing C.
      Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, effective therapies for IR-induced AKI are lacking. Hyperoside is an active constituent in the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic, which is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various ischemic brain and heart diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that hyperoside inhibited adriamycin induced podocyte injury both in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of hyperoside in IR-induced AKI. In mice, pretreatment of hyperoside could markedly attenuate IR-induced AKI, tubular cell apoptosis and oxidative stress in the kidneys. Meanwhile, we found hyperoside inhibited IR-induced mitochondrial fission by suppressing OMA1 mediated proteolysis of OPA1. Consistently, in human proximal tubular epithelial cells, hyperoside might inhibit CoCl2-induced mitochondrial fission, oxidative stress and apoptosis by regulating OMA1-OPA1 axis. Taken together, our results support the idea that OMA1-OPA1 mediated mitochondrial fission can be used for the prevention of AKI. Hyperoside might have novel therapeutic potential in the treatment of AKI.
    Keywords:  Acute kidney injury; hyperoside; ischemia-reperfusion; mitochondrial fission
  19. Mol Biol Rep. 2019 May 30.
    Bonilla-Porras AR, Jimenez-Del-Rio M, Velez-Pardo C.
      Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons linked to environmental toxicants that cause oxidative stress (OS). The aim of this investigation was to establish the molecular response of human mesenchymal stroma cells (MSCs) depleted of glutathione (GSH) by the specific inhibitor L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and/or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) co-treatment. We found that treatment with BSO (10 mM) plus 6-OHDA (200 μM) induced apoptosis in MSCs through an oxidative stress (OS) mechanism involving H2O2, reflected by the detection of dichlorofluorescein-positive (DCF+) cells and oxidation of DJ-1 Cys106-SH into DJ-1 Cys106-SO3; an almost complete reduction in glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) expression; activation of the transcription factor c-JUN, the pro-apoptotic protein BAX and BH-3-only protein PUMA; loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm); activation of the protease caspase-3 (CASP3) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF); chromatin condensation; and DNA fragmentation. Strikingly, co-treatment of MSCs with NAC (5 mM) and BSO + 6-OHDA significantly reduced the expression of OS and cell death markers but were unable to restore the expression of GPX1 compared to the expression in untreated or treated cells with NAC only. These findings highlighted the importance of the maintenance of the GSH-dependent (e.g., GPX1, GSH synthesis) and -independent (e.g., ROS scavenger molecules and thiol reducing activity) antioxidant systems (e.g., NAC) in the protection of MSCs from detrimental stress stimuli, thereby increasing the survival of stromal cells.
    Keywords:  6-OHDA; Apoptosis; Mesenchymal stromal cells; N-acetyl-cysteine; Oxidative stress; PUMA
  20. Food Funct. 2019 May 30.
    Liu C, Guo Y, Zhao F, Qin H, Lu H, Fang L, Wang J, Min W.
      Amelioration of oxidative stress has been the main approach to improve neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, a walnut peptide with a strong capacity of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) was purified and identified as EVSGPGLSPN by SEC, RP-HPLC, and HPLC-MS/MS. Treatment with EVSGPGLSPN could significantly (P < 0.05) reduce ROS generation, and increase cell viability, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activities in a dose-dependent manner in hydrogen peroxide induced PC12 cells. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis showed that EVSGPGLSPN suppressed the expression of IKKβ and p65 to inhibit NF-κB pathway activation, attenuating the neurotoxic cascade by overexpression of IL-1β and TNF-α. Moreover, EVSGPGLSPN inhibited apoptosis by suppressing the expression of cytochrome C, caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP. Additionally, it also up-regulated the expression of p-CREB and synaptophysin in oxidatively damaged PC12 cells. Thus, EVSGPGLSPN may protect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and blocking the NF-κB/caspase pathways.
  21. Nutr Neurosci. 2019 May 25. 1-15
    Ben Youssef S, Brisson G, Doucet-Beaupré H, Castonguay AM, Gora C, Amri M, Lévesque M.
      Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and it involves oxidative stress. Our goal was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Vitis vinifera red grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) in a model of Parkinson's disease. GSSE is very rich in phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, anthocyanins, catechins and stilbenes, which are present in the pulp, seeds, and leaves of the fruit. GSSE is known for its antioxidant properties and has shown beneficial effects against oxidative injury in different organs, such as the kidneys, liver, heart and brain. In this study, we revealed the neuroprotective effect of GSSE on midbrain dopaminergic neurons both in vitro and in vivo. We used the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which induces oxidative damage and mimics the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons observed in Parkinson's disease. We found that GSSE was effective in protecting dopamine neurons from 6-OHDA toxicity by reducing apoptosis, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation. Furthermore, we found that GSSE treatment efficiently protected against neuronal loss and improved motor function in an in vivo 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Altogether, our results show that GSSE acts at multiple levels to protect dopamine neurons from degeneration in a model of PD.
    Keywords:  GSSE; Parkinson’s disease; dopamine neurons; neuroprotection; polyphenols
  22. J Cell Mol Med. 2019 May 31.
    Zhang S, Yi X, Su X, Jian Z, Cui T, Guo S, Gao T, Li C, Li S, Xiao Q.
      Vitiligo is a common skin depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of functional melanocytes. Its pathogenesis is complicated and oxidative stress plays a critical role in the development of vitiligo. Thus, antioxidant therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent or even reverse the progression of depigmentation. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 has been confirmed to have protective effects on neurons against oxidative stress. Notably, several clinical trials have shown that patients with stable vitiligo achieved repigmentation after taking EGb761. However, the exact mechanism underlying the protective effects of EGb761 on melanocytes against oxidative stress has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that EGb761 effectively protected melanocytes against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and alleviated the excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation by enhancing the activity of antioxidative enzymes. Furthermore, the antioxidative effect of EGb761 was achieved by activating Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidative genes. In addition, interfering Nrf2 with siRNA abolished the protective effects of EGb761 on melanocytes against oxidative damage. In conclusion, our study proves that EGb761 could protect melanocytes from H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress by activating Nrf2. Therefore, EGb761 is supposed to be a potential therapeutic agent for vitiligo.
    Keywords:  EGb761; Melanocyte; Nrf2; Oxidative stress; Vitiligo
  23. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019 May 22. pii: S1877-959X(19)30051-2. [Epub ahead of print]
    Zhao Y, Huang J, Cao J, Zhou Y, Gong H, Zhang H, Zhou J.
      Babesia microti is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that is transmitted by ticks and parasites and propagates in mammalian erythrocytes. Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) plays a crucial role in B. microti survival by maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. In the present study, 4-nitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (4-NBT) was selected as a specific B. microti TrxR inhibitor by comparing rat and parasite TrxR inhibition levels. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were evaluated using flow cytometry, and in B. microti treated with 4-NBT, ROS levels increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. Furthermore, the inhibitor treatment increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl levels, thus indicating a state of oxidative stress. While B. microti treated with 4-NBT appeared to lose the ability to multiply in mice, the fastigium of parasitemia between the treated and control groups was comparable. Furthermore, a TUNEL assay showed that 4-NBT induces apoptosis in B. microti. Proteomic analysis of B. microti treated with 4-NBT detected 960 proteins. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis identified 118 proteins that were significantly up-regulated and 37 that were significantly down-regulated in the treatment group relative to the control. Of the differential proteins, proteasome and ribosomal subunit expression was up-regulated, thus suggesting that redundant proteins may be damaged by oxidation and waiting for degradation, while proteins for subsistence are waiting for de novo synthesis. Moreover, the findings obtained herein suggest that the DNA and lipids were also damaged and awaiting synthesis or repair. In conclusion, TrxR dysfunction in B. microti results in the breakdown of redox homeostasis and promotes apoptosis.
    Keywords:  4-NBT; Babesia microti; Thioredoxin reductase
  24. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2019 May;48(3): 458-467
    Wang W, Cao R, Lin X, Liu X, Xu H, Huang L, Hu J.
      OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of activation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2(ALDH2) on high glucose-induced inflammasome production in alveolar epithelial A549 cells.METHODS: The alveolar epithelial A549 cells were cultured with 25 mmol/L high glucose complete medium and divided into 4 groups: Control group, ALDH2 agonist 20 μmol/L Alda-1 group, ALDH2 antagonist 60 μmol/L Daidzin group, 20 μmol/L Alda-1 + 60 μmol/L Daidzin group. After the cells treated for 24 h, the cell proliferation activity was measured by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide(MTT) colorimetric assaymethod, and the cellular reactive oxygen species(ROS) level were detected by dihydroethidium(DHE) fluorescent staining method, the cell migration ability was performed by cell scratching experiments, the protein expressions of ALDH2 and the core components of inflammasome, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD(ASC) and cysteinyl aspartate specific protease-1(caspase-1) were detected by western blot.
    RESULTS: Compared with the control group, after Alda-1 activated ALDH2 specifically, the cell proliferation activity did not change significantly, but the oxidative stress level and cell migration rate were significantly decreased(P<0.05). ALDH2 protein expression was significantly increased(P<0.05), the protein expressions of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 were significantly decreased(P<0.05). After Daidzin blocked ALDH2 specifically, there were no significant changes in cell proliferation, oxidative stress, cell migration rate, ALDH2 and ASC protein expressions, while NLRP3 protein expression was significantly increased(P<0.05), and caspase-1 protein expression was significantly decreased(P<0.05). Compared with Alda-1 group, there was no significant changes in cell proliferation and oxidative stress in Alda-1+Daidzin group, cell migration rate was significantly increased(P<0.05), ALDH2 protein expression was decreased(P<0.05), and the protein expressions of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 were significantly increased(P<0.05).
    CONCLUSION: Increasing ALDH2 expression in alveolar epithelial A549 cells may attenuate high glucose-induced cellular inflammatory reaction, possibly through reducing cellular ROS level and reducing inflammasome expression.
    Keywords:  A549 cells; high glucose; inflammasome; mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2
  25. Molecules. 2019 May 25. pii: E2005. [Epub ahead of print]24(10):
    Marconi GD, Gallorini M, Carradori S, Guglielmi P, Cataldi A, Zara S.
      Gliomas are malignant brain tumors characterized by rapid spread and growth into neighboring tissues and graded I-IV by the World Health Organization. Glioblastoma is the fastest growing and most devastating IV glioma. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the biological effects of two potent and selective Monoamine Oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors, Cmp3 and Cmp5, in C6 glioma cells and in CTX/TNA2 astrocytes in terms of cell proliferation, apoptosis occurrence, inflammatory events and cell migration. These compounds decrease C6 glioma cells viability sparing normal astrocytes. Cell cycle analysis, the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production were detected, revealing that Cmp3 and Cmp5 induce a G1 or G2/M cell cycle arrest, as well as a MMP depolarization and an overproduction of ROS; moreover, they inhibit the expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase 2, thus contributing to fatal drug-induced oxidative stress. Cmp5 notably reduces glioma cell migration via down-regulating Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9. This study demonstrated that our novel MAO-B inhibitors increase the oxidative stress level resulting in a cell cycle arrest and markedly reduces glioma cells migration thus reinforcing the hypothesis of a critical role-played by MAO-B in mediating oncogenesis in high-grade gliomas.
    Keywords:  Glioblastoma; MAO-B inhibitors; migration; oxidative stress
  26. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2019 May 29. 960327119851257
    Ajiboye TO, Ajala-Lawal RA, Adeyiga AB.
      1,3-dichloro-2-propanol is a food-borne contaminant reported to cause liver injury. In this study, we evaluated the protective influence of caffeic acid on 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were randomized into five groups (A-E). Rats received distilled water or caffeic acid (10 or 20 mg/kg body weight) for 7 days. In addition, rats were challenged with 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol on day 7. Caffeic acid prevented 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol-mediated alterations in alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, albumin and total bilirubin in the serum of rats. Furthermore, caffeic acid lowered superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide and cytochrome P2E1 while increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase in the liver of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol-treated rats. Caffeic acid raised the levels of nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), protein kinase A and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Caffeic acid pretreatment annulled 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol-mediated alterations in the oxidative stress biomarkers; caspase-3, glutathione, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and fragmented DNA, in the liver of rats. Contrastingly, caffeic acid lowered 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol-mediated increase in the levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6. In addition, caffeic acid preserved the morphological features of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol-treated rats. Results from this study revealed that caffeic acid protects against 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol-induced hepatotoxicity by enhancing the cytoprotective enzymes through Nrf-2 while lowering inflammation through NF-κB.
    Keywords:  Phenolic acids; apoptosis; inflammation; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species
  27. Int Ophthalmol. 2019 May 29.
    Zhou X, Ai S, Chen Z, Li C.
      PURPOSE: To explore the protective effect of probucol on human retinal Müller cells cultured in high glucose.METHODS: Primary Müller cells from human retinas were cultured in complete DMEM. Third-generation Müller cells were identified using glutamine synthetase (GS) antibody and randomly divided into three groups: normoglycemia (NG, 5.5 mmol/L); hyperglycemia (HG, 30 mmol/L); and hyperglycemia (30 mmol/L) with probucol (10 μmol/L; HGPB). After a 24-h intervention, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured with a CCK-8 kit, flow cytometry, and DCFH-DA probe, respectively. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) protein expression were detected by immunofluorescence staining.
    RESULTS: For NG, HG, and HGPB, optical density (OD) values for cell proliferation were 0.98 ± 0.23, 0.58 ± 0.11, and 0.73 ± 0.11; apoptotic rates were 2.79 ± 0.52%, 7.70 ± 0.44%, and 4.00 ± 0.95%; and intracellular ROS were 20.89 ± 5.14, 55.17 ± 14.07, and 26.28 ± 4.73, respectively. Compared to NG, OD was markedly decreased (P < 0.01), apoptosis was increased (P < 0.001), and intracellular ROS level was significantly higher than in HG (P < 0.01). Compared to HG, OD was markedly increased (P < 0.01), apoptosis was meaningfully decreased (P < 0.01), and intracellular ROS level was significantly lower than in HGPB (P < 0.01). GS, Keap1, Nrf2, and GCLC had positive expression.
    CONCLUSIONS: Probucol could inhibit intracellular ROS generation, promote proliferation, and decrease apoptosis of human retinal Müller cells cultured in high glucose. This might also be associated with Keap1/Nrf2/ARE oxidative stress signaling pathway activation.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Cell proliferation; Diabetic retinopathy; Probucol; Reactive oxygen species
  28. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2019 May 15. pii: S1386-1425(19)30513-X. [Epub ahead of print]220 117132
    Jiang GB, Zhang WY, He M, Gu YY, Bai L, Wang YJ, Yi QY, Du F.
      We herein report the synthesis, characterization and anticancer activity of BTPIP (2-(4-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) and its four ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(NN)2(BTPIP)](ClO4)2 (N-N = bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, Ru(II)-1; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, Ru(II)-2; dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, Ru(II)-3; dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, Ru(II)-4). The DNA binding behaviors reveal that the complexes bind to calf thymus DNA by intercalation. Cytotoxicity of the complexes against A549, HepG-2, SGC-7901 and Hela cells were evaluated in vitro. Complexes Ru(II)-1, Ru(II)-2, Ru(II)-3, Ru(II)-4 show moderate activity on the cell proliferation in A549 cells with IC50 values of 9.3 ± 1.2, 12.1 ± 1.6, 10.3 ± 1.6, 8.9 ± 1.2 μM, respectively. Apoptosis assessment, intracellular mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), location in mitochondria, reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell invasion assay and cell cycle arrest were also performed to explore the mechanism of this action. When the concentration of the ruthenium(II) complexes is increased, the amount of reactive oxygen species increases obviously and the mitochondrial membrane potential decreases dramatically in A549 cells. Most importantly, the ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes could arrive the cytoplasm through the cell membrane and accumulate in the mitochondria. These results showed that the ruthenium(II) complexes could induce apoptosis in A549 cells through an ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.
    Keywords:  Antitumor; Intercalation; Mitochondrial membrane potential; Reactive oxygen species; Ruthenium(II) complex
  29. Life Sci. 2019 May 25. pii: S0024-3205(19)30423-0. [Epub ahead of print]
    Hassan E, El-Neweshy M, Hassan M, Noreldin A.
      AIMS: The testis is one of the main target organs for lead (Pb) toxicity. The current study was investigated the mechanism (s) of the therapeutic potential of thymoquinone (TQ), the active principle of Nigella sativa seed, against testicular toxicity following subchronic Pb exposure in the light of cytopathic effects, apoptotic signaling pathways, oxidative stress, serum sex hormones level and testicular aromatase gene expression.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two male albino rats were randomly allocated into control, PbAc (20 mg PbAc/kg bwt, orally), TQ (5 mg TQ/kg bwt dissolved in corn oil, orally), and PbAc + TQ groups for 56 successive days.
    KEY FINDINGS: PbAc-treated rats showed significant decrease of testes and epididymes weights, sperm count, motility and viability, spermatogenesis score and serum FSH, LH, testosterone and estradiol levels, as well as a significant decreased testicular antioxidant molecules (Superoxide dismutase enzyme and reduced glutathione), and a significant elevation of sperm abnormalities, oxidative biomarkers (Malondialdehyde and Nitric oxide) compared to a control group. In addition, Pb induced significant downregulation of aromatase gene expression, activation of Bax and Caspase-3 apoptotic pathways. Moreover, Pb caused complete seminiferous tubules hyalinization (38%), germinal epithelium sloughing (15%) and hypocellularity (8%). However, administration of TQ with PbAc improved sperm quality, testicular histology and oxidative/antioxidative status, and serum levels of LH, testosterone and E2 with respect to PbAc group. Additionally, TQ with PbAc significantly lessen the staining intensity and the area of Bax and Caspase-3 immunoexpression.
    SIGNIFICANCE: TQ might exert its acceptable therapeutic potential against Pb-induced testicular and spermotoxicity via anti-oxidative, endocrine and anti-apoptotic pathways.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Aromatase P450; Lead; Oxidative stress; Reproductive toxicity; Thymoquinone
  30. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 May 30.
    Xiao X, Cheng Y, Song D, Li X, Hu Y, Lu Z, Wang F, Wang Y.
      Oxidative stress plays a detrimental role in gastrointestinal disorders. Although selenium-enriched probiotics have been shown to strengthen oxidation resistance and innate immunity, the potential mechanism remains unclear. Here, we focused on the biological function of our material, selenium-enriched Bacillus paralicheniformis SR14 (Se-BP), and investigated the antioxidative effects of Se-BP and its underlying molecular mechanism in porcine jejunum epithelial cells. First, we prepared Se-BP and quantified for its selenium and bacterial contents. Then, in vitro free radical scavenging activity was measured to evaluate the potential antioxidant effect of Se-BP. Third, to induce an appropriate oxidative stress model, we adopted different concentrations of H2O2 and determined the most suitable concentration by a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Regarding treatment with Se-BP and H2O2, we found that Se-BP increased cell viability and prevented lactate dehydrogenase release when administered prior to H2O2 exposure. Additionally, Se-BP markedly suppressed reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production in cells and effectively attenuated apoptosis. Compared with incubation with H2O2 alone, treatment with Se-BP significantly promoted phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPK signaling molecules. When administered with ERK and p38 MAPK inhibitors, Se-BP did not alleviate the decrease in cell viability. Our results suggest that Se-BP prevents H2O2-induced cell damage by activating the ERK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways.
    Keywords:  H2O2; MAPK; Oxidative stress; Porcine jejunum epithelial cells; Selenium-enriched Bacillus paralicheniformis SR14
  31. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 May;98(22): e15799
    Zhang H, Zhang X, Hou Z, Deng F.
      BACKGROUND: Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a common hemorrhagic disease, which manifests the inflammation in the body's most microvasculars. Angiotensin II (Ang II) can induce the damage and apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells while angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) can antagonist the action of Ang II. However, the effect of ACE2 on Ang II-induced endothelial damage remains unknown.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of recombinant human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (rhACE2) on the Ang II-induced damage of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the release of inflammatory mediator in vitro.
    METHODS: Cultured HUVECs were randomly divided into 6 groups: the control group, rhACE2 group, Ang II group, and Ang II+ rhACE2 groups (3 subgroups). The cell vitality, cell cycle, apoptosis rate of the HUVECs and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured, respectively.
    RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the cell viability and the rate of S phase cells in Ang II group significantly decreased (P < .05) while the apoptosis percentage and the levels of ROS, IL-8, TNF-α, TGF-β1, and LDH in Ang II group significantly increased (P < .05). There were no significant differences between the control group and rhACE2 group. Compared with the Ang II group, the cell viability and the rate of S phase cells in Ang II+rhACE2 groups were higher (P < .05) and the apoptosis percentage, the level of ROS, IL-8, TNF-α, TGF-β1, LDH in Ang II+rhACE2 groups were lower (P < .05).
    CONCLUSIONS: Ang II can induce the apoptosis of HUVECs and the release of inflammatory mediator, while rhACE2 can inhibit the detrimental effects of Ang II. The results of this study suggest that rhACE2 has a protective effect on HSP, which is probably a new way for the prevention and treatment of HSP.
  32. Brain Res. 2019 May 28. pii: S0006-8993(19)30292-6. [Epub ahead of print]
    Xu YJ, Mei Y, Shi XQ, Zhang YF, Wang XY, Guan L, Wang Q, Pan HF.
      Albiflorin, the main component of Radix Paeoniae Alba, has been shown to ameliorate injury in cell models of Alzheimer's disease induced by amyloid-β (Aβ), but the mechanism is unclear. We used 7-month-old APP/PS1 mice to determine whether albiflorin is capable of protecting against Alzheimer's disease. We found that four weeks of intragastric administration of albiflorin (20 mg/kg/d and 40 mg/kg/d) ameliorated memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice. Albiflorin conferred synaptic protection by decreasing Aβ levels and increasing PSD-95, synaptophysin and synapsin 1 levels in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. Albiflorin played an antioxidative role by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and elevating Mn-SOD activity in the brain. Albiflorin also reduced the level of Drp1, increased the levels of Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1 and improved mitochondrial morphology in APP/PS1 mice. Albiflorin inhibited the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by increasing the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl and decreasing the levels of Bax, caspase-3 and cytochrome c in both the hippocampus and the cortex and by reducing the number of apoptotic cells in the anterior parietal cortex of the APP/PS1 mice. In conclusion, treatment with albiflorin improved mitochondrial function, reduced Aβ deposition in the brain and ameliorated memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice. These findings indicate that albiflorin may serve as a potential antidementia drug.
    Keywords:  APP/PS1 mice; Albiflorin; Amyloid-β; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Reactive oxygen species
  33. Chemosphere. 2019 May 16. pii: S0045-6535(19)31005-7. [Epub ahead of print]231 1-9
    Fei D, Zhao H, Wang Y, Liu J, Mu M, Guo M, Yang X, Xing M.
      As toxic elements when excessive, arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) are two naturally occurring elements that may be ingested by the organism at the same time. However, the precise damaged mechanism and the pathways that are activated by As and/or Cu is rarely researched in gizzard, a unique organ of birds. In this study, ultrastructural observations, TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling, real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting were performed to evaluate the toxic effects of chronic exposure to Cu2+ and/or arsenite on chicken gizzard. The results revealed that increased apoptosis and autophagy levels induced by Cu2+ and arsenite appeared to be independent of oxidative stress, which didn't have significant changes in different treatment groups at the same time point. Nevertheless, the redox balance gradually deviated with the extension of time. And increased mitochondrial division and decreased fusion were also caused by Cu2+ and arsenite. In conclusion, apoptosis and autophagy in gizzard induced by Cu2+ and/or arsenite, at least, strongly linked with the disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis. Our study showed that the combination of Cu2+ and arsenite produces stronger toxicity. The results of this study can serve as a reference for agicultural feeding and environmental protection, that is, to avoid the combined exposure of Cu2+ and arsenite to prevent greater economic losses and health risks.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Arsenic; Autophagy; Copper; Mitochondria kinetics; Oxidative stress
  34. Food Chem Toxicol. 2019 May 28. pii: S0278-6915(19)30308-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Ji X, Wei X, Qian J, Mo X, Kai G, An F, Lu Y.
      Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common and the third most lethal cancer worldwide. In recent years, natural flavonoids have drawn great attention as repository for the exploitation of novel antineoplastic agents. 2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (DMC), a functional chalcone isolated from the buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus, has been reported to exert potent cytotoxicity against multi-drug resistant BEL-7402/5-FU cells. In this study, the precise mechanisms of DMC-mediated growth inhibition in BEL-7402/5-FU cells were further investigated. DMC was found to trigger apoptosis predominantly via the mitochondria-dependent pathway and the enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Meanwhile, DMC induced G1 cell cycle arrest through downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4. Furthermore, DMC increased p53 level and inhibited NF-κB nuclear-localization via suppression of PI3K/AKT signaling axis, which might be the underlying mechanism of DMC-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in BEL-7402/5-FU cells. Collectively, the study elucidated the mechanisms by which DMC may inhibit the growth of BEL-7402/5-FU cells and suggested the possibility that DMC might be a promising candidate therapeutic agent for hepatoma treatment in the future.
    Keywords:  2′,4′-Dihydroxy-6′-methoxy-3′,5′-dimethylchalcone (DMC); AKT; Apoptosis; Cell cycle arrest; Hepatocellular carcinoma
  35. Int J Radiat Biol. 2019 May 29. 1-33
    Tang JY, Shu CW, Wang CL, Wang SC, Chang MY, Lin LC, Chang HW.
      Purpose: This study evaluates the growth inhibiting potential of our previously described sulfonyl chromen-4-ones (CHW09) compound in X-ray irradiated oral cancer cells. Materials and methods: The growth inhibiting effect and mechanism of combined CHW09/X-ray treatment was examined by analyzing cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and DNA damage. Results: Individual treatments of CHW09 (10 μg/mL) and X-ray irradiation (12 Gy) slightly decreased cell viability of oral cancer Ca9-22 (87.25% and 86.54%) and CAL 27 (80.00% and 74.01%) cells and normal oral HGF-1 cells (92.76% and 87.56%) at 24 h-MTS assay, respectively. In a combined treatment (CHW09/X-ray), the cell viability in Ca9-22 and CAL 27 cells was significantly decreased to 73.48% and 59.07%, whereas HGF-1 cells maintained 84.97% viability in 24 h-MTS assay. For CAL 27 cells, both 72 h-MTS assay and clonogenic assay showed that CHW09/X-ray resulted in more growth inhibition than other treatments. Intracellular ROS levels of CHW09/X-ray were higher than for CHW09, X-ray and control. CHW09/X-ray and X-ray alone had higher G2/M arrest than the control and CHW09 alone. Moreover, flow cytometry and western blotting showed that CHW09/X-ray treatment caused higher apoptosis levels. Levels of H2A histone family member X (γH2AX)-based DNA damage and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG)-oxidative DNA damage of CHW09/X-ray were higher than for CHW09, X-ray and control. Conclusion: CHW09/X-ray treatment had additive growth inhibiting effects against X-ray irradiated oral cancer cells, partly attributing to apoptosis and ROS generation.
    Keywords:  X-ray; chromones; oral cancer; radiotherapy
  36. Nutrients. 2019 May 28. pii: E1195. [Epub ahead of print]11(6):
    Ullah R, Khan M, Shah SA, Saeed K, Kim MO.
      All over the world, metabolic syndrome constitutes severe health problems. Multiple factors have been reported in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic disorders result in reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative stress, playing a vital role in the development and pathogenesis of major health issues, including neurological disorders Alzheimer's disease (AD) Parkinson's disease (PD). Considerable increasing evidence indicates the substantial contribution of ROS-induced oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. An imbalanced metabolism results in a defective antioxidant defense system, free radicals causing inflammation, cellular apoptosis, and tissue damage. Due to the annual increase in financial and social burdens, in addition to the adverse effects associated with available synthetic agents, treatment diversion from synthetic to natural approaches has occurred. Antioxidants are now being considered as convincing therapeutic agents against various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, medicinal herbs and fruits currently receive substantially more attention as commercial sources of antioxidants. In this review, we argue that ROS-targeted therapeutic interventions with naturally occurring antioxidant flavonoid, anthocyanin, and anthocyanin-loaded nanoparticles might be the ultimate treatment against devastating illnesses. Furthermore, we elucidate the hidden potential of the neuroprotective role of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-loaded nanoparticles in AD and PD neuropathies, which lack sufficient attention compared with other polyphenols, despite their strong antioxidant potential. Moreover, we address the need for future research studies of native anthocyanins and nano-based-anthocyanins, which will be helpful in developing anthocyanin treatments as therapeutic mitochondrial antioxidant drug-like regimens to delay or prevent the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD and PD.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; anthocyanins; metabolic syndrome; neuroprotection; oxidative Stress
  37. Biomolecules. 2019 May 30. pii: E209. [Epub ahead of print]9(6):
    Posadino AM, Giordo R, Cossu A, Nasrallah GK, Shaito A, Abou-Saleh H, Eid AH, Pintus G.
      BACKGROUND: Dietary intake of natural antioxidants is thought to impart protection against oxidative-associated cardiovascular diseases. Despite many in vivo studies and clinical trials, this issue has not been conclusively resolved. Resveratrol (RES) is one of the most extensively studied dietary polyphenolic antioxidants. Paradoxically, we have previously demonstrated that high RES concentrations exert a pro-oxidant effect eventually elevating ROS levels leading to cell death. Here, we further elucidate the molecular determinants underpinning RES-induced oxidative cell death.METHODS: Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the effect of increasing concentrations of RES on DNA synthesis and apoptosis was studied. In addition, mRNA and protein levels of cell survival or apoptosis genes, as well as protein kinase C (PKC) activity were determined.
    RESULTS: While high concentrations of RES reduce PKC activity, inhibit DNA synthesis and induce apoptosis, low RES concentrations elicit an opposite effect. This biphasic concentration-dependent effect (BCDE) of RES on PKC activity is mirrored at the molecular level. Indeed, high RES concentrations upregulate the proapoptotic Bax, while downregulating the antiapoptotic Bcl-2, at both mRNA and protein levels. Similarly, high RES concentrations downregulate the cell cycle progression genes, c-myc, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and cyclin D1 protein levels, while low RES concentrations display an increasing trend. The BCDE of RES on PKC activity is abrogated by the ROS scavenger Tempol, indicating that this enzyme acts downstream of the RES-elicited ROS signaling. The RES-induced BCDE on HUVEC cell cycle machinery was also blunted by the flavin inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), implicating flavin oxidase-generated ROS as the mechanistic link in the cellular response to different RES concentrations. Finally, PKC inhibition abrogates the BCDE elicited by RES on both cell cycle progression and pro-apoptotic gene expression in HUVECs, mechanistically implicating PKC in the cellular response to different RES concentrations.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide new molecular insight into the impact of RES on endothelial function/dysfunction, further confirming that obtaining an optimal benefit of RES is concentration-dependent. Importantly, the BCDE of RES could explain why other studies failed to establish the cardio-protective effects mediated by natural antioxidants, thus providing a guide for future investigation looking at cardio-protection by natural antioxidants.
    Keywords:  PKC; ROS; anti- and pro-oxidant effect; cell damage; dose-dependence; endothelial cells; flavin oxidase; resveratrol
  38. Biosci Rep. 2019 May 29. pii: BSR20190167. [Epub ahead of print]
    Qi F, Zhang C, Jiang S, Wang Q, Kuerban K, Luo M, Dong M, Zhou X, Wu L, Jiang B, Ye L.
      Allicin can be used as fumigant to protect food and cultural relics from fungal contamination because of its strong antifungal activity and the characteristics of high volatility and no residues. However, the obvious disadvantages such as high MIC and instability prevent it from wide application. In this study, a stable derivative of allicin, S -ethyl ethanethiosulfinate (ALE), was synthesized. We further explored its antifungal activity and apoptosis-inducing effect, as well as the underlying mechanism. ALE had an excellent capability of inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth of Penicillium chrysogenum observed by inverted microscope and scanning electron microscopy. XTT colorimetric assay indicated ALE could reduce the cell viability obviously and IC50 was 0.92 μg/ml, only 1/42 of allicin (38.68 μg/ml). DHR 123 ROS Assay Kit, flow cytometry assay and confocal immunofluorescence revealed intercellular ROS generation and metacaspase-dependent apoptosis triggered by ALE, while antioxidant tocopherol could reverse ALE-induced cytotoxicity effect and metacaspase activation. These results indicate that ALE induces metacaspase-dependent apoptosis through ROS generation, thus possesses an effective antifungal activity . This new derivative of allicin might be developed as a high efficient alternative to the conventional fungicides for food storage and cultural relic protection.
    Keywords:  S-ethyl ethanethiosulfinate; antifungal; apoptosis; metacaspase; reactive oxygen species
  39. J Cell Biochem. 2019 May 30.
    Chen Y, Li J, Jin L, Lei K, Liu H, Yang Y.
      Fibulin-5, a multifunctional extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, is secreted into the ECM, regulating metastasis and invasion in many malignant tumors. However, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been reported. In this study, we detected the expression of fibulin-5 in 56 CRC patients and eight CRC cell lines, revealing that fibulin-5 was expressed lower in CRC tumor tissues than in peritumor tissues. Furthermore, our study verified that fibulin-5 promoted cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by inhibiting transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in CRC cells. Moreover, NAC (the scavenger of ROS), SB203580 (the inhibitor of p38), PD98059 (the inhibitor of ERK), and SC79 (the activator of Akt) were used to uncover that fibulin-5 induced apoptosis through the ROS/mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt signal pathways by downregulating TRPV1. Together, these results suggest that fibulin-5 might serve as a novel drug target for the treatment of CRC patients.
    Keywords:  MAPKs; TRPV1; apoptosis; colorectal cancer; fibulin-5
  40. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2019 May 17. pii: S1011-1344(19)30145-9. [Epub ahead of print]196 111512
    de Lima RDN, Vieira SS, Antonio EL, Camillo de Carvalho PT, de Paula Vieira R, Mansano BSDM, Ferreira de Arruda Junior D, Girardi ACC, Tucci PJF, Serra AJ.
      Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and doxorubicin (DOX) has become one of the most commonly prescribed drugs. Stem cell (SC) therapy is proving to be a promising strategy to alleviate DOX adverse effects on non-cancerous cells. However, the drug also has a toxic action on SCs, reducing the efficiency of cell therapy from a preventive view. The present study shows that the DOX toxicity in mesenchymal SCs (MSCs) can be partially overcome by low-level laser irradiation (LLLI). To achieve this, we applied the low-level red laser (wavelength: 660 nm; output power: 30 mW; laser beam: 0.028 cm2; irradiation: 1.07 mW/cm2; Ga-Al-As Photon Laser III, DMC, São Paulo, Brazil) in rat adipose tissue-derived MSCs before their exposure to different DOX concentrations. Results revealed that the DOX reduced the viability and adenosine triphosphate level of MSCs. These findings were followed by significantly increased apoptosis as well as oxidative stress in the MSCs. Interestingly, LLLI at the dose of 0.2 J alleviated the effects of DOX on cell viability and apoptosis, and inhibited oxidative stress in the MSCs. In summary, this study provides a crucial step toward the future application of LLLI as a protective approach against DOX-induced toxicity in MSCs, particularly cell death. This study also lays the groundwork for further investigation into the role of oxidative stress and inflammation as an instructive milieu for cell protection.
    Keywords:  Doxorubicin; Laser therapy; Mesenchymal stem cells; Photobiomodulation
  41. Phytomedicine. 2019 May 13. pii: S0944-7113(19)30126-6. [Epub ahead of print] 152957
    Zhang SD, Yu L, Wang P, Kou P, Li J, Wang LT, Wang W, Yao LP, Zhao XH, Fu YJ.
      BACKGROUND: Inonotus obliquus, namely as Chaga mushroom, is a medicinal and edible fungus, which is widely used in food and medical fields. Inotodiol, a natural lanostane-type triterpenoid with remarkable pharmacological activities, was isolated from Inonotus obliquus, which its potential anti-tumor molecular mechanism was elaborated poorly.PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Inotodiol on HeLa cell migration, invasion and apoptosis through p53-dependent pathway.
    STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The potential mechanisms of Inotodiol on HeLa cell anti-metastatic and pro-apoptosis via wound healing assay, trans-well invasion assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and western blot analysis were studied, as well as the involvement of p53 signaling pathway in anti-metastatic and pro-apoptosis of Inotodiol. Besides, the function of tumor suppressor p53 was further verified by small interfering RNA.
    RESULTS: Firstly, the cell viability assay showed that low-concentration of Inotodiol had no cytotoxicity to HeLa cells and whereas the concentration above 25 μM significantly inhibited HeLa cell growth and even induced apoptosis. This result was further demonstrated by cell proliferation and morphology assay. Secondly, in vitro wound healing and trans-well invasion assays reported that low-concentration treatment of Inotodiol significantly inhibited cells migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner, the western blot analysis of matrix mettalloprotinase-2 (MMP2) and matrix mettalloprotinase-9 (MMP9) levels were also decreased. Moreover, Inotodiol notably induced tumor cell apoptosis by Annexin-V-FITC apoptosis assay, which is associated with activation pro-apoptotic proteins of PARP, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax expression, inhibition anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression. Finally, the anti-tumor activity of Inotodiol was attenuated by silencing p53 tumor suppressor, the result revealed that pre-treatment with p53-specific small interfering RNA (si-p53) markedly inhibited Intodiol-indeuced HeLa cell apoptosis and decreased the caspase-3 activity. What is more, the inhibitory effect of Inotodiol on tumor migration and invasion was blocked under p53 knockdown.
    CONCLUSION: To sum up, the present study indicated that Inotodiol possessed the potential to prevent malignant tumor migration and invasion, and it might be a natural active compound candidate for clinical treatment of human cervical cancer.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Inotodiol; Invasion; Migration; p53-dependent pathway
  42. Otol Neurotol. 2019 May 18.
    Sun C, Yao Y, Zhang C, Tong D, Xie B.
      HYPOTHESIS: Erythropoietin (EPO) may protect against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in HEI-OC1 auditory cell line.BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human solid tumors limited by its high incidence of ototoxicity. Currently, there are no clinical solutions. EPO has been reported to have varieties of neuroprotective effects. However, nothing has yet been reported on its potential to prevent cisplatin ototoxicity in auditory cell lines and possible mechanism.
    METHODS: HEI-OC1 cells were incubated with 20 μM of cisplatin for 48 hours, after application of various concentrations of EPO for 24 hours. Cell viability was determined using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Oxidative stress and apoptosis were assessed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, Hoechst 33258 staining, and flow cytometry (FC). Western blot (WB) and real-time quantitative PCR were used to detect nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), NAD (P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl protein and mRNA expression levels.
    RESULTS: Pretreatment with 40, 8, and 1.6 ng/mL of EPO for 24 hours before application of 20 μM cisplatin increased cell viability in HEI-OC1 cells. Besides, EPO enhanced the expression of Nrf-2, HO-1, and NQO1. Moreover, upregulation of the expression of Bcl-2 and bcl-xl were also observed.
    CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that EPO alleviates cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by activating Nrf2-ARE signaling.
  43. Neuromolecular Med. 2019 May 27.
    Wu L, Su Z, Zha L, Zhu Z, Liu W, Sun Y, Yu P, Wang Y, Zhang G, Zhang Z.
      Cerebral vasospasm is one of the deleterious complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), leading to delayed cerebral ischemia and permanent neurological deficits or even death. Free radicals and oxidative stress are considered as crucial causes contributing to cerebral vasospasm and brain damage after SAH. Tetramethylpyrazine nitrone (TBN), a derivative of the clinically used anti-stroke drug tetramethylpyrazine armed with a powerful free radical scavenging nitrone moiety, has been reported to prevent brain damage from ischemic stroke. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of TBN on vasospasm and brain damage after SAH. Two experimental SAH models were used, a rat model by endovascular perforation and a rabbit model by intracisternal injection of autologous blood. The effects of TBN on SAH were evaluated assessing basilar artery spasm, neuronal apoptosis, and neurological deficits. TBN treatment significantly attenuated vasospasm, improved neurological behavior functions and reduced the number of apoptotic neurons in both the SAH rats and rabbits. Mechanistically, TBN suppressed the increase in 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine immuno-positive cells in the cortex of SAH rat brain. Western blot analyses indicated that TBN effectively reversed the altered expression of Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome C, and up-regulated nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expressions. In the in vitro studies, TBN inhibited H2O2-induced bEnd.3 cell apoptosis and reduced ROS generation. Additionally, TBN alleviated the contraction of rat basilar artery rings induced by H2O2 ex vivo. In conclusion, TBN ameliorated SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm and neuronal damage. These effects of TBN may be attributed to its anti-oxidative stress effect and up-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1.
    Keywords:  Anti-oxidative stress; Cerebral vasospasm; HO-1; Nrf2; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Tetramethylpyrazine nitrone
  44. Cells. 2019 May 29. pii: E519. [Epub ahead of print]8(6):
    Morais TC, de Abreu LC, de Quental OB, Pessoa RS, Fujimori M, Daboin BEG, França EL, Honorio-França AC.
      Adiponectin and leptin play roles in the hunger response, and they can induce the inflammatory process as the initial mechanism of the innate immune response. It is possible for alterations in the levels of these adipokines to compromise the functional activity of human colostrum phagocytes. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the effects of adiponectin and leptin on colostrum mononuclear (MN) cells. Colostrum was collected from 80 healthy donors, who were divided into two groups: the control group and the high body mass index (BMI) group. MN cells were used to analyze phagocytosis by flow cytometry, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular calcium, and apoptosis were assessed by fluorimetry using a microplate reader. Adipokines restored the levels of phagocytosis to the high BMI group (p < 0.05), with a mechanism that is action-dependent on the release of ROS and intracellular calcium. However, adiponectin and leptin simultaneously contributed to better microbicidal activity, thus reflecting an increase in the apoptosis level (p < 0.05) in the high BMI group. Probably, the maintenance of the balance between adiponectin and leptin levels enhances the protection and decreases the indices of neonatal infection in the breastfeeding infants of women with high BMI values. Therefore, policies that support pre-gestational weight control should be encouraged.
    Keywords:  adiponectin; body mass index; colostrum; leptin; obesity; overweight; oxidative stress; phagocytes
  45. Eur J Med Chem. 2019 May 13. pii: S0223-5234(19)30398-8. [Epub ahead of print]176 492-512
    Matos CP, Adiguzel Z, Yildizhan Y, Cevatemre B, Onder TB, Cevik O, Nunes P, Ferreira LP, Carvalho MD, Campos DL, Pavan FR, Pessoa JC, Garcia MH, Tomaz AI, Correia I, Acilan C.
      We report the design, synthesis and biological studies on a group of mixed ligand Fe(III) complexes as anti-cancer drug candidates, namely their interaction with DNA, cytotoxicity and mechanism(s) of action. The aim is to obtain stable, efficient and selective Fe-complexes to be used as anti-cancer agents with less damaging side effects than previously reported compounds. Five ternary Fe(III) complexes bearing a tripodal aminophenolate ligand L2-, H2L = N,N-bis(2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzyl)-N-(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, and different aromatic bases NN = 2,2'-bipyridine [Fe(L)(bipy)]PF6 (1), 1,10-phenanthroline [Fe(L)(phen)]PF6 (2), or a phenanthroline derivative co-ligand: [Fe(L)(amphen)]NO3 (3), [Fe(L)(amphen)]PF6 (3a), [Fe(L)(Clphen)]PF6 (4), [Fe(L)(epoxyphen)]PF6 (5) (where amphen = 1,10-phenanthroline-5-amine, epoxyphen = 5,6-epoxy-5,6-dihydro-1,10-phenanthroline, Clphen = 5-chloro-1,10-phenanthroline) and the [Fe(L)(EtOH)]NO3 (6) complex are synthesized. The compounds are characterized in the solid state and in solution by elemental analysis, ESI-MS, magnetic susceptibility measurements and FTIR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR and fluorescence spectroscopies. [Fe(phen)Cl3] and [Fe(amphen)Cl3] were also prepared for comparison purposes. Spectroscopic binding studies indicate groove binding as the main interaction for most complexes with DNA, and for those containing amphen a B- to Z-DNA conformational change is proposed to occur. As determined via MTT analysis all compounds 1-6 are cytotoxic against a panel of three different cell lines (HeLa, H1299, MDA-MB-231). For selected compounds with promising cytotoxic activity, apoptosis was evaluated using cell and DNA morphology, TUNEL, Annexin V/7AAD staining and caspase3/7 activity. The compounds induce oxidative DNA damage on plasmid DNA and in cell culture as assessed by 8-oxo-Guanine and γH2AX staining. Comet assay confirmed the presence of genomic damage. There is also increased reactive oxygen species formation following drug treatment, which may be the relevant mechanism of action, thus differing from that normally assumed for cisplatin. The Fe(III)-complexes were also tested against strains of M. Tuberculosis (MTb), complex 2 depicting higher anti-MTb activity than several known second line drugs. Hence, these initial studies show prospective anti-cancer and anti-MTb activity granting promise for further studies.
    Keywords:  Anti tuberculosis; Anticancer; Cytotoxicity; Fe(III)-complexes; Genotoxicity; N-heterocycles
  46. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 May 27. pii: E2593. [Epub ahead of print]20(10):
    Raffaele M, Pittalà V, Zingales V, Barbagallo I, Salerno L, Li Volti G, Romeo G, Carota G, Sorrenti V, Vanella L.
      High levels of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 have been frequently reported in different human cancers, playing a major role in drug resistance and regulation of cancer cell redox homeostasis. Metformin (MET), a drug widely used for type 2 diabetes, has recently gained interest for treating several cancers. Recent studies indicated that the anti-proliferative effects of metformin in cancer cells are highly dependent on glucose concentration. The present work was directed to determine whether use of a specific inhibitor of HO-1 activity, alone or in combination with metformin, affected metastatic prostate cancer cell viability under different concentrations of glucose. MTT assay and the xCELLigence system were used to evaluate cell viability and cell proliferation in DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species were analyzed by flow cytometry. The activity of HO-1 was inhibited using a selective imidazole-based inhibitor; genes associated with antioxidant systems and cell death were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Our study demonstrates that metformin suppressed prostate cancer growth in vitro and increased oxidative stress. Disrupting the antioxidant HO-1 activity, especially under low glucose concentration, could be an attractive approach to potentiate metformin antineoplastic effects and could provide a biochemical basis for developing HO-1-targeting drugs against solid tumors.
    Keywords:  ER stress; HO-1 activity inhibitor; apoptosis; heme oxygenase; metformin; prostate cancer
  47. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019 May 28. 38(1): 225
    Hu J, Zhang Y, Jiang X, Zhang H, Gao Z, Li Y, Fu R, Li L, Li J, Cui H, Gao N.
      BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is often aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis. Due to the lack of available targeted therapies and to problems of resistance with conventional chemotherapeutic agents, finding new treatments for TNBC remains a challenge and a better therapeutic strategy is urgently required.METHODS: TNBC cells and xenograft mice were treated with a combination of chloroquine (CQ) and isorhamnetin (IH). Mitochondrial fission, apoptosis, and related signaling pathways were determined by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and related molecular biological techniques.
    RESULTS: The inhibition of autophagy/mitophagy by CQ selectively enhances IH-induced mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in TNBC cells but not in estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells. These events were accompanied by mitochondrial translocation of Bax and the release of cytochrome c. Mechanistically, these effects were associated with oxidative stress-mediated phosphorylation of CaMKII (Thr286) and Drp1 (S616), and subsequent mitochondrial translocation of CaMKII and Drp1. The interruption of the CaMKII pathway by genetic approaches (e.g. CaMKII mutant or siRNA) attenuated combination-mediated mitochondrial fission and apoptosis. The combination of CQ/IH was a marked inhibitor tumor growth, inducing apoptosis in the TNBC xenograft mouse model in association with the activation of CaMKII and Drp1 (S616).
    CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the critical role of ROS-mediating CaMKII/Drp1 signaling in the regulation of mitochondrial fission and apoptosis induced by combination of CQ/IH. These findings also suggest that IH could potentially be further developed as a novel chemotherapeutic agent. Furthermore, a combination of IH with classic autophagy/mitophagy inhibitor could represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of TNBC.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Autophagy; CaMKII; Chloroquine; Drp1; Isorhamnetin; Triple-negative breast cancer
  48. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 May 24. pii: S0014-2999(19)30355-3. [Epub ahead of print]856 172412
    Yang SJ, Han AR, Kim EA, Yang JW, Ahn JY, Na JM, Cho SW.
      New compounds were screened to develop effective drugs against glutamate-induced toxicity. The present study assessed the effects of the novel thiazole derivative KHG21834 against glutamate-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell cultures. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with KHG21834 significantly protected cells against glutamate-induced toxicity in a dose-dependent manner, with an optimum concentration of 50 μM. KHG21834 protected SH-SY5Y cells against glutamate toxicity by suppressing glutamate-induced oxidative stress by 50%. KHG21834 also attenuated glutamate-induced mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP level reductions, and intracellular Ca2+ influx. Furthermore, KHG21834 efficiently reduced glutamate-induced ER stress and NLRP3 inflammasome activation (59% and 65% of glutamate group, respectively). In addition, KHG21834 effectively attenuated glutamate-induced levels of Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, p-p38, p-JNK proteins, and TUNEL positive cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that KHG21834 can effectively protect SH-SY5Y cells against glutamate toxicity, suggesting that this compound may be a valuable therapeutic agent for the treatment of glutamate toxicity.
    Keywords:  ER stress; Glutamate; KHG21834; NLRP3 inflammasome; Oxidative stress
  49. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 ;10 294
    Vial G, Detaille D, Guigas B.
      Metformin is a drug from the biguanide family that is used for decades as the first-line therapeutic choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Despite its worldwide democratization, owing to its clinical efficacy, high safety profile and cheap cost, the exact mechanism(s) of action of this anti-hyperglycemic molecule with pleiotropic properties still remains to be fully elucidated. The concept that metformin would exert some of its actions though modulation of the mitochondrial bioenergetics was initially forged in the 50s but undeniably revived at the beginning of the twenty-first century when it was shown to induce a weak but specific inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory-chain complex 1. Furthermore, metformin has been reported to reduce generation of reactive oxygen species at the complex 1 and to prevent mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that it can protect against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Nevertheless, despite some recent progress and the demonstration of its key role in the inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis, the exact nature of the mitochondrial interaction between the drug and the complex 1 is still poorly characterized. Recent studies reported that metformin may also have anti-neoplastic properties by inhibiting cancer cell growth and proliferation, at least partly through its mitochondrial action. As such, many trials are currently conducted for exploring the repositioning of metformin as a potential drug for cancer therapy. In this mini-review, we discuss both historical and more recent findings on the central role played by the interaction between metformin and the mitochondria in its cellular mechanism of action.
    Keywords:  AMPK; biguanides; bioenergetics; cancer; respiratory-chain complex 1
  50. J Cell Biochem. 2019 May 27.
    Deng Y, Ma G, Dong Q, Sun X, Liu L, Miao Z, Gao F.
      AIMS: In previous studies, numerous differential microRNAs (miRNAs) in cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury were identified using the miRNA microarray analysis. However, the relationship between miRNA and cerebral I/R injury remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the function and explored the possible mechanism of miR-224-3p in cerebral I/R injury.METHODS: Oxygen glucose deprivation model in N2a cells were used to perform the cerebral I/R injury in vitro. Trypan blue staining, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and caspase-3 were measured to evaluate the function of miR-224-3p.
    RESULTS: Overexpression of miR-224-3p alleviated the apoptosis induced by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and cleaved caspase-3 was significantly reduced. We further provided the possible mechanism that miR-224-3p may protect cells from cerebral I/R injury by targeting FAK family-interacting protein (FIP200). Further rescue experiment proved that overexpression of FIP200 partially blocked the effect of miR-224-3p.
    CONCLUSIONS: We evaluated the function and mechanism of miR-224-3p in ischemic brain injury. miR-224-3p may serve as a potential target for new therapeutic intervention.
    Keywords:  FIP200; apoptosis; ischemic stroke; miR-224-3p
  51. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2019 May 28. pii: S1050-4648(19)30624-2. [Epub ahead of print]
    Wei L, Jiang Q, Cai Z, Yu W, He C, Guo W, Wang X.
      The black-and-white traits on shells and mantle edges of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, are inheritable and correlated, and black shells (melanin pigmentation) are usually found in the Pacific oysters. Based on differentially expressed genes from RNA-Seq and physiological characteristics, in this study, Black-shelled Pacific oysters (BSO) and White-shelled Pacific oysters (WSO) were selected to determine the molecular differences between oysters with obviously different melanin content. The differences in the process of immune recognition and modulation indicated that BSO may be more sensitive to the immune substances. There might have different modulation mode of apoptosis and phagocytosis between BSO and WSO, and caspase-3 might have played a key role in the apoptotic process of BSO. Different oxidation-related pathways were enriched in both BSO and WSO, suggesting the different response strategies of BSO and WSO to oxidative stress. The physiological evidences showed that, compared with WSO, in BSO, the tyrosinase content, the caspase-3 activity and the suppression of hydroxyl radical increased, and the reactive oxygen species concentration decreased. Therefore, immune-related molecular and physiological differences were found between BSO and WSO.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis and phagocytosis; Different melanin content; Immune recognition and modulation; Oxidative stress; Pacific oysters
  52. Life Sci. 2019 May 28. pii: S0024-3205(19)30427-8. [Epub ahead of print]
    Farbood Y, Ghaderi S, Rashno M, Khoshnam SE, Khorsandi L, Sarkaki A, Rashno M.
      AIMS: Hippocampal oxidative stress and apoptosis of CA1 neurons play significant roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD). The present study was aimed to elucidate the putative effects of sesamin, a major lignan of sesame seed, against DACD, and possible involvement of anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic mechanisms.MAIN METHODS: Fifty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, control-sesamin (30 mg/kg/day), diabetic, diabetic-sesamin (30 mg/kg/day), and diabetic-insulin (6 IU/rat/day) groups. Diabetic rats were treated with sesamin (P.O.) or insulin (S.C.) for eight consecutive weeks. Cognitive performance was evaluated in a Morris Water Maze (MWM) test; in addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were assayed in the hippocampus using ELISA kits. Moreover, hematoxylin-eosin (HE), TUNEL, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) stainings were conducted to evaluate histological changes, the apoptosis status and expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the hippocampal CA1 neurons, respectively.
    KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that diabetes reduced the spatial cognitive ability in MWM, which was accompanied by decrease in SOD, CAT, and GPx activities and increase in MDA level in the hippocampus. Additionally, diabetes resulted in neuronal loss, enhanced apoptotic index, elevated the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax protein, and decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein in the hippocampal CA1 neurons. Interestingly, sesamin treatment improved all the above-mentioned deficits of diabetes at a comparable level with insulin therapy.
    SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that sesamin could be a protective agent against DACD, possibly through its intertwined anti-hyperglycemic, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic properties.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Cognitive decline; Diabetes; Hippocampus; Oxidative stress; Sesamin
  53. J Cell Biochem. 2019 May 26.
    Ryu S, Park S, Lim W, Song G.
      Osteosarcoma is a mesenchymal malignant bone tumor accompanied by a high rate of lung metastasis and short survival in dogs. Although various therapies have been reported, the etiological mechanism of osteosarcoma remains undetermined and the development of novel therapeutic agents is warranted. In this study, we have reported the diverse functions of quercetin, one of the well-known flavonoid, in D-17 and DSN (canine osteosarcoma) cell lines. Current results indicate that quercetin decreases proliferative properties and increases programmed cell death, in addition to altering the cell cycle, mitochondrial depolarization, level of reactive oxygen species, and concentration of cytoplasmic calcium in both cells. Furthermore, it was observed that quercetin suppresses phosphorylation of AKT, P70S6K, and S6 proteins and upregulates phosphorylation of ERK1 or 2, P38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and P90RSK proteins in both cell lines. Collectively, we suggest that quercetin can be used as a pharmacological agent for suppressing the proliferation and inducing the apoptosis of canine osteosarcoma cells.
    Keywords:  canine osteosarcoma; cell death; cell signal transduction; mitochondria-mediated pathway; quercetin
  54. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2019 Mar;48(2): 179-199
    Gao Q, Jiang Y, Luo T, Xu Y, Le G, Shi Y.
      OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of gamma aminobutyric acid(GABA) fortified rice diet intervention on oxidative stress and pancreatic injury in type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2 DM) mice.METHODS: Of the 70 male ICR mice, 10 were randomly selected as blank control group and they were always fed with the normal white rice feed. The remaining 60 mice were fed with high-fat white rice for 9 weeks. They were fasted for 12 h and injected intraperitoneally with streptozocin(STZ) at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weigh for two consecutive days. The control group was injected with the corresponding volume of normal saline. Subsequently, 50 T2 DM mice with successful modeling were randomly divided into 5 groups according to blood glucose, 10 in each group: T2 DM model control group, germinated brown rice positive control group(GABA content is 0. 2 g/kg feed), GABA-fortified rice low, medium and high dose group(GABA content was 0. 02, 0. 1 and 0. 2 g/kg feed respectively) and each target diet was fed for 6 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed one week before the end of the experiment to observe the hypoglycemic effect of different doses of GABA fortified rice. After the end of the experiment, HE staining was used to observe the morphology of pancreas. At the same time, the redox indicators from plasma and pancreas of reactive oxygen species(ROS), malondialdehyde(MDA), total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase(SOD) were examined in each group; The mRNA expressions of oxidative stress-related genes including glycogen synthase kinase-3β(GSK-3β), nuclear transcription factor 2(Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1(HO-1) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase1(NQO1), insulin secretion related genes including pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1(PDX-1), mus musculus v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein A(MafA), glucokinase(GCK), glucose transporter 2(GLUT2) and the apoptosis associated genes including b-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax) and caspase-3 in pancreas were assayed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR.
    RESULTS: The intervention of GABA fortified rice could alleviate the improvement of the blood glucose level and the lack of insulin secretion in T2 DM mice and relieve plasma and pancreatic oxidative stress. besides, The intervention of GABA fortified rice could up-regulate the expression of insulin secretion-related genes PDX-1, GCK, GLUT2, inhibit the expression of pro-apoptotic gene caspase-3 and promote the expression of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2. There was a dose-response relationship between the above result and the 0. 2 g/kg dose group was the most significant, which achieved similar result to germinated brown rice.
    CONCLUSION: GABA-fortified rice can significantly improve the plasma and pancreatic redox status of STZ-induced T2 DM mice, regulate the expression levels of oxidative stress-related genes and apoptosis-related genes, thereby protect pancreatic tissue morphology, improve pancreatic insulin secretion and thereby alleviate glucose metabolism.
    Keywords:  germinated brown rice; oxidative stress; pancreas protection; type 2 diabetes; γ-aminobutyric acid
  55. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2019 May 30.
    Kam MK, Lee DG, Kim B, Lee HS, Lee SR, Bae YC, Lee DS.
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by amyloid beta oligomers (AβO), which induce cell death by triggering oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Oxidative stress is regulated by antioxidant enzymes, including peroxiredoxins. Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are classified into six subtypes, based on their localization and cysteine residues, and protect cells by scavenging hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4) is unique in being localized to the ER; however, whether Prx4 protects neuronal cells from AβO-induced toxicity remains unclear, although Prx4 expression is upregulated in AβO-induced oxidative stress and ER stress. In this study, we established HT-22 cells in which Prx4 was either overexpressed or silenced to investigate its role in AβO-induced toxicity. AβO-stimulation of HT-22 cells with overexpressed Prx4 caused decreases in both AβO-induced ROS and ER stress (followed by ER expansion). In contrast, AβO stimulation caused increases in both ROS and ER stress that were notably higher in HT-22 cells with silenced Prx4 expression than in HT-22 cells. Consequently, Prx4 overexpression decreased apoptotic cell death and ameliorated the AβO-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+. Therefore, we conclude that Prx4 has a protective effect against AβO-mediated oxidative stress, ER stress, and neuronal cell death. Furthermore, these results suggest that Prx4 may be a target for preventing AβO toxicity in AD. Graphical abstract .
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid beta oligomer; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Oxidative stress; Peroxiredoxin 4
  56. Chemosphere. 2019 May 16. pii: S0045-6535(19)31008-2. [Epub ahead of print]231 60-71
    Li H, Zhu Q, Wang S, Huang T, Li X, Ni C, Fang Y, Li L, Lian Q, Ge RS.
      Paraquat, a widely used nonselective herbicide, is a serious hazard to human health. However, the effects of paraquat on the male reproductive system remain unclear. In this study, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS, 75 mg/kg) to initiate a regeneration of Leydig cells. EDS-treated rats were orally exposed to paraquat (0.5, 2, 8 mg/kg/day) from post-EDS day 17 to day 28 and effects of paraquat on Leydig and Sertoli cell functions on post-EDS day 35 and day 56 were investigated. Paraquat significantly decreased serum testosterone levels at 2 and 8 mg/kg. Paraquat lowered Leydig cell Hsd17b3, Srd5a1, and Hsd11b1 mRNA levels but increased Hsd3b1 on post-EDS day 35. Paraquat lowered Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, and Hsd11b1 but increased Srd5a1 on post-EDS day 56. However, paraquat did not alter Leydig cell number and PCNA labeling index. Epididymal staining showed that few sperms were observed in paraquat-treated rats. Primary culture of adult Leydig cells showed that paraquat diminished testosterone output and induced reactive oxygen species generation at 1 and 10 μM and apoptosis rate at 10 μM. In conclusion, a short-term exposure to paraquat delays Leydig cell regeneration from stem/progenitor Leydig cells, causing low production of testosterone and an arrest of spermatogenesis.
    Keywords:  Differentiation; Leydig cell regeneration; Leydig cells; Paraquat; Reactive oxygen species; Steroidogenesis
  57. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2019 Jun 01. 24 1401-1425
    Fang ZY, Xiao W, Chen SR, Zhang MH, Qiu Y, Liu YX.
      Currently, there are few male contraceptive methods that are purely based on prevention of the entry of the sperm into the female reproductive tract. An alternative approach for designing reversible male contraceptive is achieved by transient testicular heating (TTH). This treatment, through massive germ cell apoptosis, causes reversible oligospermia or azoospermia. Here, we describe as how TTH causes DNA damage, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, sperm protein expression, and alters the biochemical components of seminal plasma. Further understanding of TTH will help design safe and reversible male contraception.