bims-aporos Biomed news
on Apoptosis and reactive oxygen species
Issue of 2019‒04‒14
fifty-six papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University


  1. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2019 Apr 08. e22336
    Zhu S, Zhou J, Zhou Z, Zhu Q.
      Abamectin (ABA) is one of the most widely used compounds in agriculture and veterinary medicine. However, the cytotoxicity of ABA in human gastric cells is utterly unknown. In this study, ABA suppressed the proliferation of MGC803 cells by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1-phase. Moreover, ABA induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by inducing the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of Bax/Bcl-2, and activation of caspase-3. ABA significantly improved the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and reduced P62 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Through detection of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, we found ABA induced the accumulation of intracellular ROS and then reduced PI3K/AKT signaling activation related to MGC803 cell apoptosis and autophagy. Our results indicate that ABA exerts cytotoxic effects on human MGC803 cells through apoptosis and autophagy by inhibiting ROS-mediated PI3K/AKT signaling. Furthermore, ABA may be a potential risk to human gastric health.
    Keywords:  AKT; PI3K; abamectin; apoptosis; autophagy; reactive oxygen species
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22336
  2. Int J Oncol. 2019 Feb 11.
    Ouyang M, Luo Z, Zhang W, Zhu D, Lu Y, Wu J, Yao X.
      Irinotecan (CPT‑11) is a DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor which is widely used in clinical chemotherapy, particularly for colorectal cancer treatment. However, late‑onset diarrhea is one of the severe side‑effects of this drug and this restricts its clinical application. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of curcumin treatment on CPT‑11‑induced intestinal mucosal injury both in vitro and in vivo and to elucidate the related mechanisms involved in these effects. For this purpose, mice were intraperitoneally injected with CPT‑11 (75 mg/kg) for 4 days to establish a model of late‑onset diarrhea. Curcumin (100 mg/kg) was intragastrically administered 8 days before the injection of CPT‑11. Injury to small intestinal tissues was examined by H&E staining. The protein expression of prolyl 4‑hydroxylase subunit beta (P4HB) and peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) was detected by immunohistochemistry, as well as western blot analysis. IEC‑6 cell viability was detected by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was performed to examine the cell apoptotic rate, mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the localization of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB. The levels of cleaved caspase‑3, glucose‑regulated protein, 78 kDa (GRP78), P4HB, PRDX4 and CHOP were detected by western blot analysis. The results revealed that in vivo, curcumin effectively attenuated the symptoms of diarrhea and abnormal intestinal mucosa structure induced by CPT‑11 in nude mice. Treatment with curcumin also increased the expression of P4HB and PRDX4 in the tissue of the small intestine. In vitro, curcumin, exhibited little cytotoxicity when used at concentrations <2.5 µg/ml for 24 h in IEC‑6 cells. At this concentration, curcumin also improved cell morphology, inhibited apoptosis, maintained mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced the elevated levels of ROS induced by CPT‑11 (20 µg/ml). Furthermore, curcumin abolished NF‑κB signal transduction and protected the cells from CPT‑11‑induced apoptosis by upregulating the expression of molecular chaperones, such as GRP78, P4HB and PRDX4, and suppressing the levels of the apoptosis‑related proteins, CHOP and cleaved caspase‑3. On the whole, our data indicate that curcumin exerted protective effects against CPT‑11‑induced intestinal mucosa injury. The protective effects of curcumin are mediated by inhibiting the activation of NF‑κB, and suppressing oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2019.4714
  3. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2019 Apr 08. e22337
    Sharma G, Parihar A, Parihar P, Parihar MS.
      Elevated levels of saturated fatty acids show a strong cytotoxic effect in liver cells. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrially localized member of NAD+ -dependent deacetylase has been shown to protect hepatocytes against the oxidative stress. The role of SIRT3 on the cytotoxicity caused by fatty acids in liver cells is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression level of SIRT3, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial impairments in human hepatoma HepG2 cells exposed to palmitic acid (PA). Our results showed that PA treatment caused the deposition of lipid droplets and resulted in an increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-α in a dose-dependent manner. Excessive accumulation of PA induces the reactive oxygen species formation and apoptosis while dissipating the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. The level of SIRT3 expression in both nuclear and mitochondrial fractions in HepG2 cells was decreased with the increase in PA concentrations. However, in the cytosolic fraction, the SIRT3 was undetectable. In conclusion, our results showed that PA caused an increase in inflammation and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. The exposure of PA also resulted in the decline in transmembrane potential and an increase in apoptosis. The underexpression of nuclear and mitochondrial SIRT3 by PA suggests that the PA target the process that regulates the stress-related gene expression and mitochondrial functions.
    Keywords:  fatty acids; mitochondrial transmembrane potential; oxidative stress; programmed cell death; sirtuin 3
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22337
  4. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2019 Mar;9(2): 279-293
    Qi S, Guo L, Yan S, Lee RJ, Yu S, Chen S.
      Over recent decades, many studies have reported that hypocrellin A (HA) can eliminate cancer cells with proper irradiation in several cancer cell lines. However, the precise molecular mechanism underlying its anticancer effect has not been fully defined. HA-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were evaluated after photodynamic therapy (PDT). A temporal quantitative proteomics approach by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) 2D liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) was introduced to help clarify molecular cytotoxic mechanisms and identify candidate targets of HA-induced apoptotic cell death. Specific caspase inhibitors were used to further elucidate the molecular pathway underlying apoptosis in PDT-treated A549 cells. Finally, down-stream apoptosis-related protein was evaluated. Apoptosis induced by HA was associated with cell shrinkage, externalization of cell membrane phosphatidylserine, DNA fragmentation, and mitochondrial disruption, which were preceded by increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations. Further studies showed that PDT treatment with 0.08 µmol/L HA resulted in mitochondrial disruption, pronounced release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-3, -9, and -7. Together, HA may be a possible therapeutic agent directed toward mitochondria and a promising photodynamic anticancer candidate for further evaluation.
    Keywords:  ACN, acetonitrile; CLSM, confocal laser scanning confocal microscopy; DCFH-DA, 2′,7′-dichlorofuorescin diacetate; DMEM, Dulbecco׳s modified Eagle׳s medium; Dox, doxorubicin; ECL, enhanced chemiluminescence; FCCP, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone; FDR, false discovery rate; GO, gene ontology; HA, hypocrellin A; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; Hypocrellin A; IAA, iodoacetamide; IKK, IκB kinase complex; JC-1, 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethyl-benzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide; LC–MS/MS; MMP, mitochondrial membrane potential; MPT, mitochondrial permeability transition; NAC, N-acetyl-l-cysteine; OCR, oxygen consumption rate; PDT, photodynamic therapy; PI, propidium iodide; PS, photosensitizer; Photodynamic therapy; Proteomic; ROS, reactive oxygen species; Reactive oxygen species; SCX, strong cation exchange; TCM, traditional Chinese medicinal; TEM, transmission electron microscope; TFA, trifluoroacetic acid; UA, urea; iTRAQ; iTRAQ, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation; z-IETD-fmk, z-Ile-Glu-Asp-fluoromethylketone; z-LEHD-fmk, z-Leu-Glu(OMe)-His-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone; z-VAD-fmk, z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2018.12.004
  5. Cancers (Basel). 2019 Apr 08. pii: E498. [Epub ahead of print]11(4):
    Park SY, Lee SJ, Cho HJ, Kim JT, Yoon HR, Lee KH, Kim BY, Lee Y, Lee HG.
      Resistance to radiotherapy is considered an important obstacle in the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms that enable tumor cells to tolerate the effects of radiation remain unclear. Moreover, radiotherapy causes accumulated mutations in transcription factors, which can lead to changes in gene expression and radiosensitivity. This phenomenon reduces the effectiveness of radiation therapy towards cancer cells. In the present study, radiation-resistant (RR) cancer cells were established by sequential radiation exposure, and hemoglobin subunit epsilon 1 (HBE1) was identified as a candidate radiation resistance-associated protein based on RNA-sequencing analysis. Then, compared to radiosensitive (RS) cell lines, the overexpression of HBE1 in RR cell lines was used to measure various forms of radiation-induced cellular damage. Consequently, HBE1-overexpressing cell lines were found to exhibit decreased radiation-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell mortality. Conversely, HBE1 deficiency in RR cell lines increased intracellular ROS production, G2/M arrest, and apoptosis, and decreased clonogenic survival rate. These effects were reversed by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. Moreover, HBE1 overexpression was found to attenuate radiation-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis via an inositol-requiring enzyme 1(IRE1)-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. In addition, increased HBE1 expression induced by γ-irradiation in RS cells attenuated expression of the transcriptional regulator BCL11A, whereas its depletion in RR cells increased BCL11A expression. Collectively, these observations indicate that the expression of HBE1 during radiotherapy might potentiate the survival of radiation-exposed colorectal cancer cells.
    Keywords:  BCL11A; ER stress; HBE1; JNK; cell cycle arrest; oxidative stress; radioresistant
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040498
  6. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2019 Apr 08.
    Karakas D, Cevatemre B, Oral AY, Yilmaz VT, Ulukaya E.
      BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancer types and it is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. Even though novel treatment modalities have been developed, it still a life threatening disease. Therefore novel compounds are needed to improve the overall survival.METHODS: In our study it was aimed to evaluate the anti-cancer activity of newly synthesized Platinum (II) [Pt(II)] complex on DU145, LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of Pt(II) complex were tested by SRB and ATP cell viability assays. To detect the mode of cell death; fluorescent staining, flow cytometry and western blot analyses were performed.
    RESULTS: The Pt(II) complex treatment resulted in decrease cell viability and increasing levels of apoptotic markers (pyknotic nuclei, annexin-V, caspase 3/7 activity) and decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in a dose dependent manner. Among cell types, tested PC-3 cells were found to be more sensitive to Pt(II) complex, demonstrating elevation of DNA damage in this cell line. In addition, Pt(II) complex induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by triggering ROS generation. More importantly, pre-treatment with NAC alleviated Pt(II) complex-mediated ER stress and cell death in PC-3.
    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest an upstream role for ROS production in Pt(II) complex-induced ER stress-mediated apoptotic cell death. Considering the ROS-mediated apoptosis inducing the effect of Pt(II) complex, it warrants further evaluation as a novel metal-containing anticancer drug candidate.
    Keywords:  Prostate cancer; apoptosis; cytotoxicity; oxidative stress; platinum(II) complex. ; unfolded protein response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2174/1871520619666190409103334
  7. J Ginseng Res. 2019 Apr;43(2): 326-334
    Kim DH, Kim DW, Jung BH, Lee JH, Lee H, Hwang GS, Kang KS, Lee JW.
      Background: The objective of our study was to analyze the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside derivatives Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg1, and Rg3 against glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity in HT22 hippocampal mouse neuron cells.Methods: The neuroprotective effect of ginsenosides were evaluated by measuring cell viability. Protein expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Bcl2, Bax, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were determined by Western blot analysis. The occurrence of apoptotic and death cells was determined by flow cytometry. Cellular level of Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were evaluated by image analysis using the fluorescent probes Fluor-3 and 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, respectively. In vivo efficacy of neuroprotection was evaluated using the Mongolian gerbil of ischemic brain injury model.
    Result: Reduction of cell viability by glutamate (5 mM) was significantly suppressed by treatment with ginsenoside Rb2. Phosphorylation of MAPKs, Bax, and nuclear AIF was gradually increased by treatment with 5 mM of glutamate and decreased by co-treatment with Rb2. The occurrence of apoptotic cells was decreased by treatment with Rb2 (25.7 μM). Cellular Ca2+ and ROS levels were decreased in the presence of Rb2, and in vivo data indicated that Rb2 treatment (10 mg/kg) significantly diminished the number of degenerated neurons.
    Conclusion: Our results suggest that Rb2 possesses neuroprotective properties that suppress glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. The molecular mechanism of Rb2 is by suppressing the MAPKs activity and AIF translocation.
    Keywords:  Ginsenoside Rb2; MAPK; Neurotoxicity; Reactive oxygen species
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2018.12.002
  8. J Ginseng Res. 2019 Apr;43(2): 179-185
    Choudhry QN, Kim JH, Cho HT, Heo W, Lee JJ, Lee JH, Kim YJ.
      Background: Oxidative stress induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play important causative roles in various pathological conditions. Black ginseng (BG), a type of steam-processed ginseng, has drawn significant attention due to its biological activity, and is more potent than white ginseng (WG) or red ginseng (RG).Methods: We evaluated the protective effects of BG extract (BGE) against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage, in comparison with WG extract (WGE) and RG extract (RGE) in a cell culture model. Ethanolic extracts of WG, RG, and BG were used to evaluate ginsenoside profiles, total polyphenols, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity. Using AML-12 cells treated with H2O2, the protective effects of WGE, RGE, and BGE on cellular redox status, DNA, protein, lipid damage, and apoptosis levels were investigated.
    Results: BGE exhibited significantly enhanced antioxidant potential, as well as total flavonoid and polyphenol contents. ATP levels were significantly higher in BGE-treated cells than in control; ROS generation and glutathione disulfide levels were lower but glutathione (GSH) and NADPH levels were higher in BGE-treated cells than in other groups. Pretreatment with BGE inhibited apoptosis and therefore protected cells from oxidative stress-induced cellular damage, probably through ROS scavenging.
    Conclusion: Collectively, our results demonstrate that BGE protects AML-12 cells from oxidative stress-induced cellular damages more effectively than WGE or RGE, through ROS scavenging, maintenance of redox status, and activation of the antioxidant defense system.
    Keywords:  Panax ginseng; antioxidant; black ginseng; chemoprotection; oxidative stress
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2017.10.003
  9. Neurol Res. 2019 Apr 11. 1-15
    Mostafa DG, Khaleel EF, Badi RM, Abdel-Aleem GA, Abdeen HM.
      Recent evidence has suggested that cadmium (Cd) ions-induced neurotoxicity is associated with increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial-dependent and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate if rutin hydrate (RH), a well-reported neuroprotective and an antioxidant flavonoid, can ameliorate cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting the resultant ER stress. Rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 16/group) of control, control + RH (100 mg/kg), CdCl2 (5 mg/kg), and CdCl2 + RH. All treatments were administered orally for 30 days, on daily basis. Brain homogenates from CdCl2-treated rats showed increased oxidative stress and induced activation of ER stress characterized by increasing mRNA and protein levels of GRP78, ATF-6, CHOP and Xbp-1 and protein levels of p-elF2α, p-JNK1/2 and cleaved caspase-12. Also, CdCl2 significantly reduced Bcl-2, enhanced Bax translocation to the mitochondrial membrane, increased cytoplasmic levels of cytochrome-C and caspase-3, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) (increased Vmax and reduced time to Vmax). In contrast, RH significantly enhanced levels GSH and activities of SOD, GSH-Px, decreased levels of MDA and inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP) in the brains of both control and CdCl2-treated rats. Interestingly, in brain homogenates of CdCl2-treated rats only, RH reduced all markers of ER stress, increased Bcl-2, reduced mitochondrial Bax translocation and improved mitochondrial coupling. It also reduced cytosolic levels of cytochrome-C, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-12. Overall, these findings support the efficiency of RH to inhibit ER stress in brains CdCl2-treated rats which is added to its existing mechanisms of neuroprotection. Abbreviations: ATF-6: activating transcription factor-6; Bax: Bcl-associated x; BBB: blood-brain barrier; Bcl-2: B-cell lymphoma 2; BiP: immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein; [Ca2+]i: intracellular free Ca2+ concentration; Cd: cadmium; CdCl2: cadmium chloride; CHOP: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein; CMC: carboxymethyl cellulose; Δψm: mitochondrial membrane potential; elF2α: phospho-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERAD: ER-associated protein degradation; ERK1/2: extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2; GADD 153: growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 153; GRP78, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein; GSH: reduced glutathione; GSH: reduced glutathione; GSH-Px: glutathione peroxidase; GSSG: glutathione disulfide (oxidized glutathione); IRE-1: inositol-requiring enzyme-1; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MDA: malondialdehyde; mTOR: Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin; mtPTP: mitochondrial permeability transition pore; ONOO-: peroxynitrite; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; PERK: protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase; p-JNK: phospho-JNK; qPCR: quantitative PCR; RCR: respiratory control ratio; RH: rutin hydrate; RHoGDI: Rho-GDP-dissociation inhibitor; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SOD: superoxide dismutase; UPR: unfolded protein response; VDAC: voltage-dependent anion channel; Vmax: maximal rate of pore opening; Xbp-1: X-box binding protein 1.
    Keywords:  Cadmium chloride; brain; endoplasmic reticulum stress; rats; rutin hydrate
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2019.1596206
  10. Theriogenology. 2019 Mar 29. pii: S0093-691X(19)30069-X. [Epub ahead of print]131 89-95
    Liu S, Shen M, Li C, Wei Y, Meng X, Li R, Cao Y, Wu W, Liu H.
      Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of granulosa cells (GCs) is believed to be an important cause of follicular atresia. Our previous work showed that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (also known as JNK) might promote apoptosis in GCs during oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the upstream signaling required for JNK-mediated GCs apoptosis during oxidative stress. Since PKCδ and ASK1 have been suggested to regulate JNK activity in some types of cells, we hypothesized that PKCδ and ASK1 might contribute to JNK-dependent apoptosis in GCs suffering oxidative stimulation. To test this assumption, porcine GCs obtained from healthy follicles were treated with H2O2 alone, or together with inhibitors against PKCδ and JNK, and then collected for cell viability assay, TUNEL staining, immunoprecipitation, western blotting, or JNK activity detection in vitro. The current results showed that the cell viability loss, DNA fragmentation, morphological shrinkage, and nuclear condensation in H2O2-treated porcine GCs was correlated with enhanced activation of JNK. Although ASK1 was supposed to be a JNK activator, we found no definite role of ASK1 in JNK-induced GCs apoptosis during oxidative stress. Further investigations revealed that H2O2-mediated PKCδ activation was required for the apoptotic death of porcine GCs. Particularly, the pro-apoptotic effects of PKCδ on porcine GCs might be achieved by activating the mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that p-PKCδ acts as an upstream activator of JNK in H2O2-treated porcine GCs. However, JNK has no regulatory effect on PKCδ activity. Taken together, our findings provided a novel model of GCs apoptosis involving the activation of PKCδ/JNK/mitochondrial apoptosis axis during oxidative stress.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; JNK; Oxidative stress; PKCδ; Porcine ovarian granulosa cells
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2019.03.023
  11. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 ;2019 3286928
    Ji L, Wang Q, Huang F, An T, Guo F, Zhao Y, Liu Y, He Y, Song Y, Qin G.
      Objective: The generation of hyperglycemia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key event in diabetic nephropathy (DN) development. Since forkhead box class O1 (FOXO1) is associated with oxidative stress and shows a positive effect on DN, its role on renal function and the underlying mechanism is still unclear.Methods: We examined the role of FOXO1 in vivo (in a transgenic diabetic mouse model overexpressing Foxo1) and in vitro (in human HK-2 cells with FOXO1 knockin (KI) and knockout (KO) cultured under high glucose).
    Results: Renal proximal tubular cells of kidney biopsies from patients with DN showed tubulointerstitial fibrosis and apoptosis. Accordingly, these proximal tubular injuries were accompanied by the increase of ROS generation in diabetic mice. Tissue-specific Foxo1 overexpression in transgenic mice had a protective effect on the renal function and partially reversed tubular injuries by attenuating the diabetes-induced increase in TXNIP and decrease in the TRX levels. FOXO1 knockin and knockout HK-2 cells were constructed to identify the associations between FoxO1 and TXNIP-TRX using CRISPR/CAS9. Similarly, the effects of FOXO1 KI and KO under high glucose were significantly modulated by the treatment of TRX inhibitor PX-12 and TXNIP small interfering RNA. In addition, TXNIP and TXN were identified as the direct FOXO1 transcriptional targets by chromatin immunoprecipitation.
    Conclusion: The regulatory role of FOXO1/TXNIP-TRX activation in DN can protect against the high glucose-induced renal proximal tubular cell injury by attenuating cellular ROS production. Modulating the FOXO1/TXNIP-TRX pathway may be a new therapeutic target in DN.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3286928
  12. Nat Commun. 2019 Apr 12. 10(1): 1704
    Zhang W, Hu X, Shen Q, Xing D.
      Cancer cells exhibit slightly elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared with normal cells, and approximately 90% of intracellular ROS is produced in mitochondria. In situ mitochondrial ROS amplification is a promising strategy to enhance cancer therapy. Here we report cancer cell and mitochondria dual-targeting polyprodrug nanoreactors (DT-PNs) covalently tethered with a high content of repeating camptothecin (CPT) units, which release initial free CPT in the presence of endogenous mitochondrial ROS (mtROS). The in situ released CPT acts as a cellular respiration inhibitor, inducing mtROS upregulation, thus achieving subsequent self-circulation of CPT release and mtROS burst. This mtROS amplification endows long-term high oxidative stress to induce cancer cell apoptosis. This current strategy of endogenously activated mtROS amplification for enhanced chemodynamic therapy overcomes the short lifespan and action range of ROS, avoids the penetration limitation of exogenous light in photodynamic therapy, and is promising for theranostics.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09566-3
  13. Acta Histochem. 2019 Apr 03. pii: S0065-1281(19)30001-7. [Epub ahead of print]
    Guo Q, Liu S, Wang S, Wu M, Li Z, Wang Y.
      β-Hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) reportedly has neuroprotective and anti-oxidation properties. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of BHBA against epilepsy. C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to lithium chloride and pilocarpine to induce epilepsy and then were administrated with 300 mg/kg/day BHBA for 30 days. The learning impairment was evaluated via Morris Water Maze. Neuron loss and cell apoptosis were detected through Nissl staining and TUNEL staining. The levels of oxidative stress-related factors were determined by commercial kits. The protein expression levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), p-AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and pro-apoptotic Bax were measured through Western blots. It was found BHBA improved epilepsy- caused learning deficiency and attenuated epilepsy-mediated neuron loss and cell apoptosis in the hippocampus. BHBA ameliorated oxidative stress via decreasing the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde plus strengthening the activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. BHBA also promoted the phosphorylation of AMPK and upregulated PPARα in the epileptic hippocampus. In conclusion, BHBA attenuates neuronal damage in epileptic mice, which is associated with its anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects as well as the activation of AMPK and PPARα.
    Keywords:  AMPK; Apoptosis; Epilepsy; Oxidative stress; PPARα; β-Hydroxybutyric acid
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2019.03.009
  14. Cryobiology. 2019 Apr 05. pii: S0011-2240(18)30625-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Yang C, Xu L, Cui Y, Wu B, Liao Z.
      This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of potent humanin analogue (HNG) supplementation to freezing media on freezing-thawing induced human sperm damage. We collected semen samples with normal sperm parameters from 15 healthy men. After the swim-up processing, the motile spermatozoa from each of the men were allocated to four equal groups: In the control group, the spermatozoa were frozen in media without HNG supplementation. In the other three groups, the spermatozoa were frozen in media supplemented with different concentrations of HNG (2 μM, 10 μM and 20 μM, respectively). We analyzed the sperm motility, viability, sperm mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis, sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and caspase-3 activity for the sperm in each group. As a result, supplementation of HNG with 2 μM, 10 μM and 20 μM to the freezing media all significantly improved sperm motility and viability (all p < 0.05) when compared with the control group. Similarly, we found that supplementation of HNG reduced the damage to the mitochondrial membrane and DNA integrity, and inhibited the reaction of oxidative stress and the activity of caspase-3 in sperm. Although these protective effects increased with the elevated concentration of HNG in the freezing media, a final HNG concentration of 20 μM failed to exert significant improvements when compared with the concentration of 10 μM (all p > 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that HNG supplementation to the freezing media could protect sperm cells from freezing-thawing induced sperm damage.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Cryopreservation; Humanin; Oxidative stress; Sperm
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2019.04.001
  15. J Cell Mol Med. 2019 Apr 07.
    Guo X, Gu X, Hareshwaree S, Rong X, Li L, Chu M.
      Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived conditioned medium (iPS-CM) could improve cell viability in many types of cells and may be a better alternative for the treatment of myocardial infarction. This study aimed to examine the influence of iPS-CM on anti-apoptosis and the proliferation of H9C2 cardiomyocytes and investigate the underlying mechanisms. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to 200 μmol/L hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) for 24 hours with or without pre-treatment with iPS-CM. The ratio of apoptotic cells, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψm) and the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species were analysed by flow cytometric analysis. The expression levels of BCL-2 and BAX proteins were analysed by Western blot. Cell proliferation was assessed using cell cycle and EdU staining assays. To study cell senescence, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining was conducted. The levels of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and glutathione were also quantified using commercially available enzymatic kits. The results showed that iPS-CM containing basic fibroblast growth factor significantly reduced H2 O2 -induced H9C2 cardiomyocyte apoptosis by activating the autophagy flux pathway, promoted cardiomyocyte proliferation by up-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and inhibited oxidative stress and cell senescence. In conclusion, iPS-CM effectively enhanced the cell viability of H9C2 cardiomyocytes and could potentially be used to inhibit cardiomyocytes apoptosis to treat myocardial infarction in the future.
    Keywords:  H9C2 cardiomyocytes; apoptosis; induced pluripotent stem cell-derived conditioned medium; myocardial infarction; proliferation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14327
  16. Am J Transl Res. 2019 ;11(3): 1343-1358
    Guan M, Zhang Y, Huang Q, He L, Fang Q, Zhang J, Gao S, Fang J, Ma Y, Su K, Gao X.
      Aging and exposure to noise or ototoxic drugs are major causes of hair cell death leading to human hearing loss, and many agents have been developed to protect hair cells from apoptosis. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a fundamental ingredient in the culture medium of hair cell-like House Ear Institute Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC-1) cells, but there have been no reports about the function of FBS in HEI-OC-1 cell apoptosis. In this study, we found that FBS deprivation alone significantly increased HEI-OC-1 cell apoptosis in the absence of neomycin exposure and that the presence of FBS significantly inhibited HEI-OC-1 cell apoptosis after neomycin exposure compared to FBS-deprived cells. Further, we found that the protective effect of FBS was dose dependent and more effective than the growth factors B27, N2, EGF, bFGF, IGF-1, and heparan sulfate. We also found that FBS deprivation significantly disrupted the expression level of mitochondrial proteins, increased pro-apoptotic gene expression, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased reactive oxygen species accumulation in HEI-OC-1 cells after neomycin exposure. These findings indicate that FBS is involved in maintaining the level of mitochondrial proteins, maintaining the balance of oxidant gene expression, and preventing the accumulation of ROS, and thus FBS maintains normal mitochondrial function and inhibits apoptosis in HEI-OC-1 cells after neomycin exposure.
    Keywords:  Fetal bovine serum; HEI-OC-1 cells; apoptosis; neomycin; protection
  17. Int J Oncol. 2019 Feb 25.
    Piotrowska A, Wierzbicka J, Rybarczyk A, Tuckey RC, Slominski AT, Żmijewski MA.
      Melanoma represents a significant challenge in cancer treatment due to the high drug resistance of melanomas and the patient mortality rate. This study presents data indicating that nanomolar concentrations of the hormonally active form of vitamin D, 1α,25‑dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3], its non‑calcemic analogues 20S‑hydroxyvitamin D3 and 21‑hydroxypregnacalciferol, as well as the low‑calcemic synthetic analog calcipotriol, modulate the efficacy of the anticancer drugs cisplatin and dacarbazine. It was observed that vitamin D analogs sensitized melanoma A375 cells to hydrogen peroxide used as an inducer of oxidative stress. On the other hand, only 1α,25(OH)2D3 resulted in a minor, but significant effect on the proliferation of melanoma cells treated simultaneously with dacarbazine, but not cisplatin. Notably, cisplatin (300 µM) exhibited a higher overall antiproliferative activity than dacarbazine. Cisplatin treatment of melanoma cells resulted in an induction of apoptosis as demonstrated by flow cytometry (accumulation of cells at the subG1 phase of the cell cycle), whereas dacarbazine caused G1/G0 cell cycle arrest, with the effects being improved by pre‑treatment with vitamin D analogs. Treatment with cisplatin resulted in an initial increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dacarbazine caused transient stimulation of ROS levels and the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) (after 1 or 3 h of treatment, respectively), but the effect was not detectable following prolonged (24 h) incubation with the drug. Vitamin D exhibited modulatory effects on the cells treated with dacarbazine, decreasing the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for the drug, stimulating G1/G0 arrest and causing a marked decrease in Δψm. Finally, cisplatin, dacarbazine and 1α,25(OH)2D3 displayed modulatory effects on the expression of ROS and vitamin D‑associated genes in the melanoma A375 cells. In conclusion, nanomolar concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 only had minor effects on the proliferation of melanoma cells treated with dacarbazine, decreasing the relative IC50 value. However, co‑treatment with vitamin D analogs resulted in the modulation of cell cycle and ROS responses, and affected gene expression, suggesting possible crosstalk between the signaling pathways of vitamin D and the anticancer drugs used in this study.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2019.4725
  18. Exp Cell Res. 2019 Apr 07. pii: S0014-4827(19)30152-1. [Epub ahead of print]
    Yu S, Zhang L, Liu C, Yang J, Zhang J, Huang L.
      Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis is the initial step of atherogenesis and associated with Ca2+ overload. Mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (MAM), regulated by tethering proteins such as phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS2), is essential for mitochondrial Ca2+ overload by mediating ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer. In our study, we aimed to investigate the role of PACS2 in ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the underlying mechanisms. Ox-LDL dose- and time-dependently increased cell apoptosis concomitant with mitochondrial Ca2+ elevation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cytochrome c release. Silencing PACS2 significantly inhibited ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis at 24 h in addition to the effects of ox-LDL on mitochondrial Ca2+, MMP, and ROS at 2 h. Besides, ox-LDL promoted PACS2 localization at mitochondria as well as ER-mitochondria contacts at 2 h. Not only that, ox-LDL upregulated PACS2 expression at 24 h. Furthermore, silencing PACS2 inhibited ox-LDL-induced mitochondrial localization of PACS2 and MAM formation at 24 h. Altogether, our findings suggest that PACS2 plays an important role in ox-LDL-induced EC apoptosis by regulating MAM formation and mitochondrial Ca2+ elevation, implicating that PACS2 may be a promising therapeutic target for atherosclerosis.
    Keywords:  Atherosclerosis; Calcium; Endothelial cell apoptosis; Mitochondria-associated ER membrane; Mitochondrial dysfunction; PACS2
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2019.04.002
  19. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Apr 05. pii: E1707. [Epub ahead of print]20(7):
    Yun CW, Han YS, Lee SH.
      Anti-cancer drug resistance is a serious issue for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Although recent studies have shown the mechanism by which CRC cells become drug resistant, novel strategies for overcoming this drug resistance have not yet been developed. To address this problem, we characterized 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-resistant CRC cells after treatment with 5FU, and focused on the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) in these cells. In 5FU-resistant CRC cells, the 5FU did not considerably decrease the mitochondrial biogenesis or mitochondrial complex I and IV activities, and only partially decreased the antioxidant enzymatic activity, oxygen consumption ratio, and cell survival. The expression of PGC-1α was remarkably increased in the 5FU-resistant CRC cells compared with the 5FU-sensitive CRC cells. The 5FU-resistant CRC cells displayed enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and antioxidant enzyme activities against 5FU-induced reactive oxygen species, because of the increased expression of PGC-1α. PGC-1α inhibited 5FU-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the 5FU-resistant CRC cells, resulting in the suppression of apoptosis. These findings reveal that PGC-1α plays an important role in drug resistance in 5FU-resistant CRC cells. Moreover, PGC-1α could serve as a novel target in patients with 5FU-resistant CRC.
    Keywords:  PGC-1α; apoptosis; colorectal cancer cells; drug resistance; endoplasmic reticulum stress; mitochondrial biogenesis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071707
  20. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Apr 05. pii: E1700. [Epub ahead of print]20(7):
    Armstrong JA, Cash NJ, Morton JC, Tepikin AV, Sutton R, Criddle DN.
      Mitochondrial dysfunction is a core feature of acute pancreatitis, a severe disease in which oxidative stress is elevated. Mitochondrial targeting of antioxidants is a potential therapeutic strategy for this and other diseases, although thus far mixed results have been reported. We investigated the effects of mitochondrial targeting with the antioxidant MitoQ on pancreatic acinar cell bioenergetics, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and cell fate, in comparison with the non-antioxidant control decyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (DecylTPP) and general antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). MitoQ (µM range) and NAC (mM range) caused sustained elevations of basal respiration and the inhibition of spare respiratory capacity, which was attributable to an antioxidant action since these effects were minimal with DecylTPP. Although MitoQ but not DecylTPP decreased cellular NADH levels, mitochondrial ATP turnover capacity and cellular ATP concentrations were markedly reduced by both MitoQ and DecylTPP, indicating a non-specific effect of mitochondrial targeting. All three compounds were associated with a compensatory elevation of glycolysis and concentration-dependent increases in acinar cell apoptosis and necrosis. These data suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute a significant negative feedback control of basal cellular metabolism. Mitochondrial targeting using positively charged molecules that insert into the inner mitochondrial member appears to be deleterious in pancreatic acinar cells, as does an antioxidant strategy for the treatment of acute pancreatitis.
    Keywords:  DecylTPP; MitoQ; Seahorse; antioxidants; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitochondrial targeting; oxidative stress; pancreatic acinar cell
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071700
  21. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 ;2019 2821597
    Thiagarajan S, Arapoc DJ, Husna Shafie N, Keong YY, Bahari H, Adam Z, Ei T.
      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide with about 40% occurring in developing countries. The two varieties of Momordica charantia, which are Chinese and Indian bitter melon, have been subjected to antiproliferative activity in human non-small cell lung cells A549. The A549 cells were treated with hot and cold aqueous extraction for both the bitter melon varieties, and the antiproliferative activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic mechanism of action on A549 human lung cancer cells was evaluated first morphologically using Hoechst 33358, and cytoskeleton staining using Filamentous-actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton FICT and DAPI followed by caspase-3/7, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and p53 activity. Chinese hot aqueous extraction (CHA) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against A549 human lung cancer cells. The morphological analysis of mitochondria destruction and the derangement of cytoskeleton showed apoptosis-inducing activity. CHA increased the caspase-3/7 activity by 1.6-fold and the ROS activity by 5-fold. Flow cytometric analysis revealed 34.5% of apoptotic cells significantly (p<0.05) compared to cisplatin-treated A549 human cancer cells. CHA is suggested to induce apoptosis due to their rich bioactive chemical constituents. These findings suggest that the antiproliferative effect of CHA was due to apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondria injury.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2821597
  22. J Cell Mol Med. 2019 Apr 11.
    Liu L, Cui Y, Li X, Que X, Xiao Y, Yang C, Zhang J, Xie X, Cowan PJ, Tian J, Hao H, Liu Z.
      Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a group of heterogeneous cells in bone marrow (BM) and blood. Ischaemia increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that regulates EPC number and function. The present study was conducted to determine if ischaemia-induced ROS differentially regulated individual EPC subpopulations using a mouse model concomitantly overexpressing superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD3 and glutathione peroxidase. Limb ischaemia was induced by femoral artery ligation in male transgenic mice with their wild-type littermate as control. BM and blood cells were collected for EPCs analysis and mononuclear cell intracellular ROS production, apoptosis and proliferation at baseline, day 3 and day 21 after ischaemia. Cells positive for c-Kit+ /CD31+ or Sca-1+ /Flk-1+ or CD34+ /CD133+ or CD34+ /Flk-1+ were identified as EPCs. ischaemia significantly increased ROS production and cell apoptosis and decreased proliferation of circulating and BM mononuclear cells and increased BM and circulating EPCs levels. Overexpression of triple antioxidant enzymes effectively prevented ischaemia-induced ROS production with significantly decreased cell apoptosis and preserved proliferation and significantly increased circulating EPCs level without significant changes in BM EPC populations, associated with enhanced recovery of blood flow and function of the ischemic limb. These data suggested that ischaemia-induced ROS was differentially involved in the regulation of circulating EPC population.
    Keywords:  EPCs; Gpx-1; ROS; SOD1; SOD3; angiogenesis; limb ischaemia
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14287
  23. Biochimie. 2019 Apr 04. pii: S0300-9084(19)30101-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Wang J, Wang X, Li ZZ, Guo F, Ding CZ, Zhao YY, Liu YL, Ma XJ, Li C, Wu LN, Qin Q, Zhao SY, Zhao D, Hao X, Wang SJ, Qin GJ.
      Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a component of the outer structure of cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, could induce apoptosis in the intestinal endocrine cell line STC-1. However, the signaling cascades involved in this process have not been elucidated. Hence, we investigated the mechanism of cell apoptosis and hyposecretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) induced by LPS in the GLUTag enteroendocrine cell line. LPS decreased the cell viability of GLUTag cells, up-regulated the TNF-α level, induced the apoptosis and down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of GLP-1. In addition, TNF-α promoted LPS-induced apoptosis of GLUTag cells through mediating the formation of the RIP1/RIP3 necrosome. RIP1 and RIP3 knockdown increased cell viability, the mRNA and protein levels of GLP-1 and the mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins (p-mTOR and p-S6), and decreased the relative caspase 3/7 activity, cell apoptosis and ROS production. Further studies showed that ROS inhibited the mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine increased cell viability, GLP-1 expressions and the mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins, and inhibited the ROS production. However, the mTOR specific inhibitor (Rapa) reversed all these above effects. Taken together, our result revealed that LPS induced the apoptosis of GLUTag cells and GLP-1 hyposecretion through the RIP/ROS/mTOR pathway.
    Keywords:  RIP/ROS pathway; glucagon-like peptide 1; lipopolysaccharide; mTOR pathway; murine L cell apoptosis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2019.04.001
  24. Am J Transl Res. 2019 ;11(3): 1510-1520
    Tao L, Huang K, Wang J, Xue Y, Zhou Y, He F, Shen Y, Wang J, Gu X, Ji K, Qian L, Guo X.
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether retinol palmitate could protect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and explore the underlying mechanism. Retinol palmitate reduced the level of reactive oxygen species and prevented cellular apoptosis. In vivo, retinol palmitate increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and reduced the level of malondialdehyde in I/R mice. Retinol palmitate also decreased myocardial infarct size and reduced cellular apoptosis by suppressing the expression of proapoptotic-related proteins and increasing that of SOD-related proteins. Our results suggest that retinol palmitate pretreatment has a protective effect against myocardial I/R injury by maintaining the balance between intracellular oxidants and antioxidants.
    Keywords:  Retinol palmitate; antioxidant; apoptosis; myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury
  25. Chem Res Toxicol. 2019 Apr 12.
    Dong W, Zhu Q, Yang B, Qin Q, Wang Y, Xia X, Zhu X, Liu Z, Song E, Song Y.
      Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the most refractory environmental pollutants. For their ubiquitous existence in the biological systems (including human body), it is important to investigate their toxic behavior. Our previous findings demonstrated that a high reactive metabolite of PCB, namely PCB29-pQ, causes several programmed cell death (PCD), such as intrinsic/extrinsic apoptosis and autophagic cell death. The mechanistic study suggested the toxic actions of PCB29-pQ is largely related to its reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generation ability. Pyroptosis is a caspase 1-mediated pro-inflammatory PCD which was discovered recently. The aim of this study is to seek the linkage of pyroptosis between PCB29-pQ exposures. We first confirmed that PCB29-pQ stimulates Hela cells to produce excess amounts of ROS. Then, we found PCB29-pQ activates NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome that mediates caspase 1 activation. The activated caspase 1 (cleaved caspase 1) promotes gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage and translocation, which facilitates the release of intracellular inflammatory substances by forming membrane hole, ultimately leading cells to pyroptosis. PCB29-pQ-induced high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release and subsequent binding to its receptors [toll like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, TLR9 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)] are essential on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. The current study revealed pyroptosis as a new death mode induced by PCB29-pQ, which enrich the understanding of PCBs-induced toxicity and help to prevent the toxic effects of residual PCBs in the environment.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.8b00376
  26. Int Heart J. 2019 Apr 10.
    Ge ZD, Lian Q, Mao X, Xia Z.
      Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the main causes of heart failure and death in patients with diabetes mellitus. Reactive oxygen species produced excessively in diabetes mellitus cause necrosis, apoptosis, ferroptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis of the myocardium as well as impair the cardiac structure and function. It is increasingly clear that oxidative stress is a principal cause of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (NRF2) activates the transcription of more than 200 genes in the human genome. Most of the proteins translated from these genes possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-ferroptotic, and anti-fibrotic actions. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that NRF2 and its target genes are crucial in preventing high glucose-induced oxidative damage in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Recently, many natural and synthetic activators of NRF2 are shown to possess promising therapeutic effects on diabetic cardiomyopathy in animal models of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Targeting NRF2 signaling by pharmacological entities is a potential approach to ameliorating diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the persistent high expression of NRF2 in cancer tissues also protects the growth of cancer cells. This "dark side" of NRF2 increases the challenges of using NRF2 activators to treat diabetic cardiomyopathy. In addition, some NRF2 activators were found to have off-target effects. In this review, we summarize the current status and challenges of NRF2 as a potential therapeutic target for diabetic cardiomyopathy.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Diabetes mellitus; Reactive oxygen species
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1536/ihj.18-476
  27. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019 Apr 08. 1-8
    Xu Q, Kanthasamy AG, Reddy MB.
      Oxidative stress, iron dysregulation, and inflammation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Considering the entwined relationship among these factors, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) may be a good candidate for PD treatment due to its protective effects against those factors. The objective of this study is to determine whether EGCG protects N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells from H2O2 - and TNFα- induced neurotoxicity. Seven treatments were included: control, H2O2, TNFα, FeSO4, H2O2 + EGCG, TNFα + EGCG, FeSO4 + EGCG. Cells were pretreated with 10 μM EGCG, followed by 50 μM H2O2, 30 ng/ml TNFα or 50 μM FeSO4. Neuroprotective effects of EGCG were assessed by cell viability assay, caspase-3 activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and iron related protein expressions. Caspase-3 activity was increased to 2.8 fold (P < 0.001) and 1.5 fold (P < 0.01) with H2O2 and TNFα treatment; However, EGCG pretreatment significantly decreased the caspase activity by 50.2% (P < 0.001) and 30.1% (P < 0.05). Similarly, cell viability was reduced to 69.2% (P < 0.01) and 89% (P < 0.01) by H2O2 and TNFα, which was partially blocked by EGCG pretreatment. Also, EGCG significantly (P < 0.001) protected against H2O2- induced ROS in a time dependent manner. In addition, both H2O2 and TNFα significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated hepcidin expression and marginally reduced ferroportin (Fpn) expression unlike iron treatment alone. Collectively, our results show that EGCG protects against both TNFα- and H2O2- induced neuronal apoptosis. The observed neuroprotection may be through the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation which is possibly mediated mainly by hepcidin and partially by Fpn.
    Keywords:  EGCG; MPTP; Parkinson’s disease; iron
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000493
  28. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2019 Mar 01. pii: /j/aiht.2019.70.issue-1/aiht-2019-70-3159/aiht-2019-70-3159.xml. [Epub ahead of print]70(1): 18-29
    Erkekoglu P, Chao MW, Tseng CY, Engelward BP, Kose O, Kocer-Gumusel B, Wogan GN, Tannenbaum SR.
      Exposure to alkyl anilines may lead to bladder cancer, which is the second most frequent cancer of the urogenital tract. 3,5-dimethylaniline is highly used in industry. Studies on its primary metabolite 3,5-dimethylaminophenol (3,5-DMAP) showed that this compound causes oxidative stress, changes antioxidant enzyme activities, and leads to death of different mammalian cells. However, there is no in vitro study to show the direct effects of 3,5-DMAP on human bladder and urothelial cells. Selenocompounds are suggested to decrease oxidative stress caused by some chemicals, and selenium supplementation was shown to reduce the risk of bladder cancer. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether selenocompounds organic selenomethionine (SM, 10 µmol/L) or inorganic sodium selenite (SS, 30 nmol/L) could reduce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis in UROtsa cells exposed to 3,5-DMAP. 3,5-DMAP caused a dose-dependent increase in intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species, and its dose of 50 µmol/L caused lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in different cellular fractions. The comet assay also showed single-strand DNA breaks induced by the 3,5-DMAP dose of 50 µmol/L, but no changes in double-strand DNA breaks. Apoptosis was also triggered. Both selenocompounds provided partial protection against the cellular toxicity of 3,5-DMAP. Low selenium status along with exposure to alkyl anilines can be a major factor in the development of bladder cancer. More mechanistic studies are needed to specify the role of selenium in bladder cancer.
    Keywords:  alkyl anilines; cytotoxicity; genotoxicity; reactive oxygen species; selenium; selenomethionine; sodium selenite
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2478/aiht-2019-70-3159
  29. Molecules. 2019 Apr 08. pii: E1376. [Epub ahead of print]24(7):
    Lee ML, Sulistyowati E, Hsu JH, Huang BY, Dai ZK, Wu BN, Chao YY, Yeh JL.
      To test whether KMUP-1 (7-[2-[4-(2-chlorophenyl) piperazinyl]ethyl]-1,3-dimethylxanthine) prevents myocardial ischemia-induced apoptosis, we examined KMUP-1-treated H9c2 cells culture. Recent attention has focused on the activation of nitric oxide (NO)-guanosine 3', 5'cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway triggered by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, including extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 in the mechanism of cardiac protection during ischemia-induced cell-death. We propose that KMUP-1 inhibits ischemia-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells culture through these pathways. Cell viability was assessed using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and apoptotic evaluation was conducted using DNA ladder assay and Hoechst 33342 staining. The level of intracellular calcium was detected using - Fura2-acetoxymethyl (Fura2-AM) staining, and mitochondrial calcium with Rhod 2-acetoxymethyl (Rhod 2-AM) staining under fluorescence microscopic observation. The expression of endothelium NO synthase (eNOS), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), soluble guanylate cyclase α1 (sGCα1), PKG, Bcl-2/Bax ratio, ERK1/2, p38, and JNK proteins were measured by Western blotting assay. KMUP-1 pretreatment improved cell viability and inhibited ischemia-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cells. Calcium overload both in the intracellular and mitochondrial sites was attenuated by KMUP-1 pretreatment. Moreover, KMUP-1 reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased plasma NOx (nitrite and nitrate) level, and the expression of eNOS. Otherwise, the iNOS expression was downregulated. KMUP-1 pretreatment upregulated the expression of sGCα1 and PKG protein. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expression was increased by the elevated level of Bcl2 and decreased level of Bax. In comparison with the ischemia group, KMUP-1 pretreatment groups reduced the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2, p-p38, and p-JNK as well. Therefore, KMUP-1 inhibits myocardial ischemia-induced apoptosis by restoration of cellular calcium influx through the mechanism of NO-cGMP-MAPK pathways.
    Keywords:  KMUP-1; cardiomyocyte apoptosis; hypoxia; nitric oxide
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071376
  30. Arch Toxicol. 2019 Apr 08.
    Hong H, Dooley KE, Starbird LE, Francis HW, Farley JE.
      Individuals treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) with aminoglycosides (AGs) in resource-limited settings often experience permanent hearing loss. However, AG ototoxicity has never been conceptually integrated or causally linked to MDR-TB patients' pre-treatment health condition. We sought to develop a framework that examines the relationships between pre-treatment conditions and AG-induced hearing loss among MDR-TB-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) approach was used to develop a framework linking key events (KEs) within a biological pathway that results in adverse outcomes (AO), which are associated with chemical perturbation of a molecular initiating event (MIE). This AOP describes pathways initiating from AG accumulation in hair cells, sound transducers of the inner ear immediately after AG administration. After administration, the drug catalyzes cellular oxidative stress due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Since oxidative stress inhibits mitochondrial protein synthesis, hair cells undergo apoptotic cell death, resulting in irreversible hearing loss (AO). We identified the following pre-treatment conditions that worsen the causal linkage between MIE and AO: HIV, malnutrition, aging, noise, smoking, and alcohol use. The KEs are: (1) nephrotoxicity, pre-existing hearing loss, and hypoalbuminemia that catalyzes AG accumulation; (2) immunodeficiency and antioxidant deficiency that trigger oxidative stress pathways; and (3) co-administration of mitochondrial toxic drugs that hinder mitochondrial protein synthesis, causing apoptosis. This AOP clearly warrants the development of personalized interventions for patients undergoing MDR-TB treatment. Such interventions (i.e., choosing less ototoxic drugs, scheduling frequent monitoring, modifying nutritional status, avoiding poly-pharmacy) will be required to limit the burden of AG ototoxicity.
    Keywords:  Aminoglycoside; Ototoxicity; Sensorineural hearing loss; Tuberculosis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-019-02407-8
  31. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019 Apr 06. pii: S0006-291X(19)30602-3. [Epub ahead of print]
    Wang X, Gao YT, Jiang D, Wang Y, Du H, Lv J, Li SJ.
      High glucose (HG)-induced oxidative stress contributes to the dysfunction of pancreatic β cells in diabetes. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 has been proposed to support reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during respiratory bursts. However, the effect of Hv1 on glucotoxicity in pancreatic β cells is not clear yet. In this study, we examined the protective effects of Hv1-deficiency in HG cultured β cells. Following 48 h of treatment with 30 mM high glucose, Hv1 KO β cells showed higher cell viability, lower cell apoptosis and a more stable insulin gene expression level compared to WT β cells. In both control and HG cultured β cells, deficiency of Hv1 decreased the glucose- and PMA-induced ROS production. Finally, HG incubation led to NOX4 upregulation in WT β cells, which could be inhibited by HV1 deficiency. In conclusion, Hv1-deficiency prevents the HG treatment-induced NOX4 upregulation and protects β cells from glucotoxicity.
    Keywords:  Glucotoxicity; NOX4; Pancreatic β cells; ROS; Voltage-gated proton channel Hv1
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.03.195
  32. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 ;2019 7824684
    Fu B, Zeng Q, Zhang Z, Qian M, Chen J, Dong W, Li M.
      Green tea is one of the most beverages with antioxidants and nutrients. As one of the major components of green tea, (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) was evaluated for its antioxidative properties in the present study. Cell proliferation assay, tube formation, cell migration, apoptosis, and autophagy were performed in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVECs) after oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) to investigate potential anti-ischemia/reperfusion injury properties of ECG in vitro. Markers of oxidative stress as ROS, LDH, MDA, and SOD were further assayed in our study. Data indicated that ECG could affect neovascularization and promote cell proliferation, tube formation, and cell migration while inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy through affecting VEGF, Bcl-2, BAX, LC3B, caspase 3, mTOR, and Beclin-1 expression. All the data suggested that ECG may be protective for the brain against ischemia/reperfusion injury by promoting neovascularization, alleviating apoptosis and autophagy, and promoting cell proliferation in HBMVECs of OGD/R.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7824684
  33. J Cell Physiol. 2019 Apr 08.
    Azizi R, Salemi Z, Fallahian F, Aghaei M.
      Didscoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is involved in the progression of prostate cancer metastasis through stimulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). So DDR1 inhibition can be a helpful target for cancer metastasis prevention. So, we studied the effects of DDR1 inhibition on EMT as well as induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. DDR1 expression was evaluated using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The EMT-associated protein expression was determined using the western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry following treatment with various concentrations of DDR1 inhibitor. The activation of DDR1 and also downstream-signaling molecules Pyk2 and MKK7 were determined using western blot analysis. Cell survival and proliferation after DDR1 inhibition were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, bromodeoxyuridine, and colony formation assays. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the effects of DDR1 inhibition on cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis using annexin V/propidium iodide-based flow cytometry. Results showed that the protein expression of N-cadherin and vimentin were decreased whereas protein expression of E-cadherin was increased after DDR1 inhibition. Results of our western blot analysis indicated that DDR1 inhibitor effectively downregulated P-DDR1, P-Pyk2, and P-MKK7 levels. This result also showed that DDR1 inhibition decreased cell survival and proliferation, induced G1 cell-cycle arrest, induced apoptosis by an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and also by reactive oxygen species creation in prostate cancer cells. These data show that DDR1 inhibition can result in the EMT prevention via inhibition of Pyk2 and MKK7 signaling pathway and induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. Thus, this study identifies DDR1 as an important target for modulating EMT and induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
    Keywords:  EMT; apoptosis; cell-cycle arrest; discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28552
  34. Autophagy. 2019 Apr 07. 1-16
    Zhao X, Su L, He X, Zhao B, Miao J.
      Vascular endothelial cells (VECs) that form the inner wall of blood vessels can be injured by high glucose-induced autophagy and apoptosis. Although the role of long noncoding RNA in regulating cell fate has received widespread attention, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that can both regulate autophagy and apoptosis need to be discovered. In this study, we identified that a small chemical molecule, 3-benzyl-5-([2-nitrophenoxy] methyl)-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (3BDO), synthesized by us, could inhibit VEC autophagy and apoptosis induced by a high concentration of glucose. To find new lncRNAs that regulate autophagy and apoptosis in VECs, we performed lncRNA microarray analysis. We found and verified an upregulated lncRNA named CA7-4 that was induced by a high concentration of glucose could be downregulated by 3BDO most obviously among all of the detected lncRNAs. Meanwhile, we investigated the mechanism of CA7-4 in regulating VEC autophagy and apoptosis. The results showed that CA7-4 facilitated endothelial autophagy and apoptosis as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) by decoying MIR877-3P and MIR5680. Further study elucidated that MIR877-3P could trigger the decrease of CTNNBIP1 (catenin beta interacting protein 1) by combining with its 3' UTR and then upregulating CTNNB1 (catenin beta 1); MIR5680 inhibited the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by targeting and decreasing DPP4 (dipeptidyl peptidase 4). Therefore, CA7-4, MIR877-3P and MIR5680 represent new signal pathways that regulate VEC autophagy and apoptosis under the high-glucose condition. Abbreviations: 3BDO: 3-benzyl-5-([2-nitrophenoxy] methyl)-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one; 3' UTR: 3' untranslated region; AGO2: argonaute RISC catalytic component 2; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase/protein kinase AMP-activated; BAX/BCL2L4: BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator; BCL2: BCL2 apoptosis regulator; CASP3: caspase 3; ceRNA: competing endogenous RNA; CTNNB1: catenin beta 1; CTNNBIP1/ICAT: catenin beta interacting protein 1; DPP4: dipeptidyl peptidase 4; FGF2/FGF-2: fibroblast growth factor 2; HG: high concentration glucose (30 mM glucose); lncRNA: long noncoding RNA; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; miRNA: microRNA; MIR4778-3P: microRNA 4778-3p; MIR561-3P: microRNA 561-3p; MIR5680: microRNA 5680; MIR877-3P: microRNA 877-3p; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; Mut: mutant; NC: negative control; NG: normal concentration glucose (5.5 mM glucose); PARP1: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1; qPCR: quantitative real-time PCR; RNA-FISH: RNA-fluorescence in situ hybridization; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RT-PCR: reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; siRNA: small interfering RNA; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; TGFB2-OT1: TGFB2 overlapping transcript 1; TUNEL: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling; VECs: vascular endothelial cells; WT: wild type.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; autophagy; high glucose; lncRNA; miRNA; vascular endothelial cells
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2019.1598750
  35. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2019 ;52(5): 1075-1091
    Heß V, Kasim M, Mathia S, Persson PB, Rosenberger C, Fähling M.
      BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recently, we have demonstrated that episodic hypoxia occurs in kidneys of mice challenged repetitively with the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA), in analogy to humans on CsA treatment. However, the molecular consequences of episodic hypoxia remain poorly defined, as is its impact on cell survival. Here, we systematically study cell response to episodic, as compared to single course hypoxia.METHODS: In vivo, kidneys of mice challenged daily with CsA for one week were analyzed by microarray analysis, gene ontology analysis, and qPCR. In vitro, renal cells were subjected to hypoxia (1 % O₂) which was either episodic (4 h for 6 consecutive days), short-term (4 h), or sustained (24 h). Western blot analysis quantified hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate detected intracellular ROS. After re-oxygenation, staurosporine served to induce apoptosis, quantified by active caspase-3.
    RESULTS: In vivo, HIF target gene expression was suppressed by daily CsA treatment. Yet, we found up-regulation of genes involved in defence against cellular stress, notably against ROS. Renal cells in vitro behaved largely different under episodic and sustained hypoxia, while their response to short-term hypoxia oscillated between the previous two. Episodic hypoxia exhibited the highest total HIF-1α protein level, lowest nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, and lowest HIF target gene expression. When compared with normoxia, re-oxygenation after sustained hypoxia increased ROS by 3.04 ± 1.04 fold (p<0.001), and re-oxygenation after episodic hypoxia by 1.26 ± 0.16 fold (p<0.01). Staurosporine-induced active caspase-3 was highest after sustained, and lowest after episodic hypoxia.
    CONCLUSION: In vitro episodic hypoxia mimics the largely HIF-independent transcriptome observed after repetitive CsA treatment in vivo. In vitro preconditioning with episodic hypoxia protects against stress-induced apoptosis. Despite of its long-term adverse effects, CsA derived episodic hypoxia induces a unique renal hypoxia response that provides adaptation to re-oxygenation mediated ROS damage.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Cycling hypoxia; Cyclosporine A; Episodic hypoxia; Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF); Intermittent hypoxia; Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.33594/000000073
  36. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 ;2019 2039856
    Tang J, Liu C, Li B, Hong S, Li Q, Wang L, Min J, Hu M, Li Y, He S, Hong L.
      Apoptosis and oxidative damage are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Our previous results indicate that cell apoptosis and oxidative damage increase in a mouse model of mechanical injury-induced SUI and in fibroblasts treated with excessive mechanical strain. Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a well-characterized global antioxidant gene inducer that can reduce oxidative damage and apoptosis. Therefore, we predicted that Nrf2 may have a protective role in mechanical trauma-induced SUI. To test this hypothesis, a mouse model of vaginal distension- (VD-) induced SUI was established. Leak point pressure (LPP); levels of apoptosis, apoptosis-related proteins, and peroxidation products; and the activities of antioxidative proteins in the anterior vaginal wall were measured in wild-type (Nfe2l2+/+) C57BL/6 mice and Nrf2-knockout mice (Nfe2l2-/-). The results showed that Nrf2 knockout aggravated VD-induced reduction in LPP, increase in cell apoptosis and peroxidation product levels, decrease in antioxidative protein activities, and alterations in apoptosis-related protein levels in the vaginal walls of mice. To further confirm the role of Nrf2 in mechanical trauma-induced apoptosis and SUI, VD was performed on mice overexpressing Nrf2 via in vivo transfection of LV-Nfe2l2. The results showed that Nrf2 overexpression significantly alleviated VD-induced abnormalities in the anterior vaginal wall. Taken together, our data suggested that Nrf2 is a potential protective factor in mechanical trauma-induced apoptosis in a mouse model of SUI. Antioxidative therapy may be a promising treatment for mechanical trauma-related SUI.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2039856
  37. Reprod Toxicol. 2019 Apr 06. pii: S0890-6238(18)30612-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    de Freitas ATAG, Figueiredo Pinho C, de Aquino AM, Fernandes AAH, Fantin Domeniconi R, Justulin LA, Scarano WR.
      This study evaluated oxidative stress markers in Human Sertoli cells cultivated on Geltrex® and exposed to Monobutyl Phthalate (MBP), and the potential cytoprotective role of GIM-1 on the antioxidant response. Exposure was performed at 30 min, 1, 12 and 48 hours into 4 groups: control, MBP (10µM), GIM-1 (0,05µM) and MBP + GIM-1. Morphology was evaluated. Antioxidant enzymes were analyzed by colorimetric method; NRF-2, SIRT-1, 8- OHdG and Cleaved Caspase-3 by Western Blot. Larger spaces between cells were shown in MBP treatment; GIM-1 was similar to Control and MBP + GIM-1 showed an intermediate aspect. MBP reduced enzymatic activity of all enzymes and NRF-2 expression, increasing cleaved Caspase-3 expression; while GIM-1 increased antioxidants markers alone and attenuated MPB effects in MBP + GIM-1. MBP induced deleterious effects on Sertoli cells, increasing the oxidative stress, apoptosis and modifying their distribution in culture; however, GIM-1 acted as an important cytoprotective agent reversing our attenuating MBP effects.
    Keywords:  GIM-1; Panax ginseng; Sertoli cells; monobutyl phthalate; oxidative stress
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2019.02.008
  38. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2019 ;153(4): 147-154
    Uchihara Y, Tago K, Funakoshi-Tago M.
      Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are caused by a fusion protein, BCR-ABL, which induces cellular transformation by activating the signaling molecules, STAT5 and Akt. The specific BCR-ABL inhibitors including imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib, are clinically utilized in the treatment with CML and ALL patients. Although these BCR-ABL inhibitors are initially successful in the treatment of leukemia, many patients develop drug resistance due to the appearance of the gatekeeper mutation of BCR-ABL, T315I. Recently, we found that taxodione, a quinone methide diterpene isolated from a conifer, Taxodium distichum, significantly induced apoptosis in human myelogenous leukemia-derived K562 cells, which is positive for the bcr-abl gene. Taxodione reduced the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III, leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An antioxidant agent, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), canceled taxodione-induced ROS production and apoptotic cell death, suggesting that taxodione induced apoptosis through ROS accumulation. Furthermore, in K562 cells treated with taxodione, BCR-ABL, STAT5 and Akt were sequestered in mitochondrial fraction, and their localization changes decrease their abilities to stimulate cell proliferation. Strikingly, NAC canceled these taxodione-caused inhibition of BCR-ABL, STAT5 and Akt. In addition, taxodione significantly induced apoptosis in transformed Ba/F3 cells by not only BCR-ABL but also T315I-mutated BCR-ABL through the generation of ROS, suggesting that taxodione has potential as anti-tumor drug with high efficacy to overcome BCR-ABL T315I mutation-mediated resistance in leukemia cells. It's also expected that these knowledge becomes an important clue in the development of anti-cancer drugs against the broad range of tumors.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1254/fpj.153.147
  39. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 Apr 06. pii: S0014-2999(19)30210-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    Miranda-Sapla MM, Tomiotto-Pellissier F, Assolini JP, Machado Carloto AC, Taciane da Silva Bortoleti B, Gonçalves MD, Tavares ER, Henrique da Silva Rodrigues J, Colado Simão AN, Yamauchi LM, Nakamura CV, Verri WA, Costa IN, Conchon-Costa I, Pavanelli WR.
      Leishmania parasites infect macrophages causing a wide spectrum of human diseases encompassing from cutaneous to visceral forms. The drugs currently used in leishmaniasis treatment are highly toxic and associated with acquired resistance. Seeking novel therapeutic targets, we conducted a comprehensive in vitro study to investigate the action of trans-chalcone (TC) against Leishmania amazonensis promastigote and amastigote forms. TC is a common precursor of flavonoids, however, no extensive research has been developed regarding its pharmacological properties. In silico predictions showed good drug-likeness potential for TC with high oral bioavailability and intestinal absorption. The TC-treatment had a direct action on promastigote forms leading to death by late apoptosis-like process resulting from an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss of mitochondrial integrity, phosphatidylserine exposure, and damage on the membrane. Similar results were found for L. amazonensis-axenic amastigotes. The TC-treatment of L.amazonensis-infected macrophages proved to reduce the percentage of infected cells as well as the number of amastigotes per macrophage, consequently, the number of promastigotes recovered without cytotoxic effects on macrophages, having indicated a selectivity index (SI) of 53.8 for the parasite. Such leishmanicidal effect was followed by a decrease in the levels of TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-10, ROS and NO, in addition to upregulation mRNA expression of Nrf2, heme-oxigenase, and ferritin, modulating iron metabolism, depleting available iron for parasite replication, and survival within macrophages. These results suggested trans-chalcone as a satisfactory support for further studies as well as a possible further lead molecule for the design of new prototypes of antileishmanial drugs.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis-like death; Iron metabolism; Leishmaniasis; Transcription factor Nrf2; trans-Chalcone (PubChem CID:637760)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.03.049
  40. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2019 Mar 28. 44(3): 307-314
    Han L, Zhang X, Qian Y.
      OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of propofol on human cardiac AC16 cells under CoCl2-induced hypoxic injury and the possible mechanisms.
 Methods: Human AC16 cardiomyocytes were treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to mimic hypoxic condition in cultured cardiomyocytes. The AC16 cells were divided into 3 groups: a control group, a CoCl2 hypoxia group (CoCl2 group), and a propofol+CoCl2 group (propofol+ CoCl2 group). The cell viability was assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell apoptosis ratio (AR) and the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were detected by flow cytometry. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in AC16 cells were determined with the ROS-sensitive fluorescent probe. Meanwhile, total intracellular levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in AC16 cells were detected with commercially available kits. Western blot was used to evaluate the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 signaling pathways.
 Results: 1) Compared with the control group, AC16 cell viability was decreased significantly in the CoCl2 group following the treatment with 500 μmol/L CoCl2 (P<0.01); 2) Compared with the control group, AR value in AC16 cells was increased significantly in the CoCl2 group, while Δψm was decreased significantly (all P<0.01). Compared with the CoCl2 group, AR value in AC16 cells was decreased significantly in the propofol+CoCl2 group, while Δψm was increased significantly (both P<0.05); 3) Compared with the control group, the levels of ROS and MDA were increased significantly, and the level of SOD was significantly decreased in the CoCl2 group (all P<0.01). Compared with the CoCl2 group, the ROS and MDA levels in the propofol+CoCl2 group were increased significantly and the SOD levels were decreased significantly (all P<0.05); 4) Compared with the control group, the phosphorylation levels of JNK and p38 were increased significantly (both P<0.05) in the CoCl2 group. Compared with the CoCl2 group, the phosphorylation levels of JNK and p38 were decreased significantly in the propofol+CoCl2 group (both P<0.05).
 Conclusion: The pretreatment with propofol may protect human cardiac AC16 cells from the chemical hypoxia-induced injury through regulation of JNK and p38 signaling pathways.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2019.03.012
  41. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2019 Apr 11. 16(1): 18
    Yuan X, Zhang X, Sun L, Wei Y, Wei X.
      BACKGROUND: Carbon nanomaterials are a growing family of materials featuring unique physicochemical properties, and their widespread application is accompanied by increasing human exposure.MAIN BODY: Considerable efforts have been made to characterize the potential toxicity of carbon nanomaterials in vitro and in vivo. Many studies have reported various toxicology profiles of carbon nanomaterials. The different results of the cytotoxicity of the carbon-based materials might be related to the differences in the physicochemical properties or structures of carbon nanomaterials, types of target cells and methods of particle dispersion, etc. The reported cytotoxicity effects mainly included reactive oxygen species generation, DNA damage, lysosomal damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and eventual cell death via apoptosis or necrosis. Despite the cellular toxicity, the immunological effects of the carbon-based nanomaterials, such as the pulmonary macrophage activation and inflammation induced by carbon nanomaterials, have been thoroughly studied. The roles of carbon nanomaterials in activating different immune cells or inducing immunosuppression have also been addressed.
    CONCLUSION: Here, we provide a review of the latest research findings on the toxicological profiles of carbon-based nanomaterials, highlighting both the cellular toxicities and immunological effects of carbon nanomaterials. This review provides information on the overall status, trends, and research needs for toxicological studies of carbon nanomaterials.
    Keywords:  Carbon nanomaterial; Cytotoxicity; Immunological effects; Macrophage
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12989-019-0299-z
  42. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019 Dec;47(1): 1396-1403
    Esmaeili Govarchin Ghaleh H, Zarei L, Mansori Motlagh B, Jabbari N.
      The aim of this paper was examining the combined impacts of CuO nanoparticles (CuO NPs), hyperthermia (H), and irradiation (R) on an increment of MCF-7 cells. The MTT assay was employed to assess the antiproliferative effects of CuO NPs (25, 50, and 100 μg/ml), hyperthermia (41 °C for 1 h), and irradiation (200 cGy). Moreover, the perniciousness was estimated through the survival capability of cells, and apoptosis, ROS production, and levels of caspase-3, -8 and -9 proteins were determined. A significant (p < .01) decrease in proliferation index (0.124 ± 0.021), a significant (p < .01) increase in apoptosis (42% ± 1.54) of MCF7 cells, a significant (p < .03) increase in ROS formation (32.16 ± 1.9) and a significant (p < .01) increase in LDH release (33.28 ± 1.56) were recorded in the adjacency of MCF-7 cells by a combination of CuO NPs (100 µg/ml) and R + H compared to control and other treatments. The activities of caspase-3 (0.33 ± 0.014) and caspase-9 (0.389 ± 0.019) also increased significantly (p < .05). However, caspase-8 showed no significant changes in its activity (p = .065). Based on these observations, a combination of CuO NPs, hyperthermia, and irradiation could suppress the growth of MCF-7 cells and evoke cell apoptosis via mitochondrial membrane potential.
    Keywords:  CuO nanoparticles; MCF-7 cells; hyperthermia; radiation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2019.1600529
  43. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2019 Apr 05. pii: S0165-5876(19)30166-1. [Epub ahead of print]122 70-75
    Gozeler MS, Ekinci Akdemir FN, Yildirim S, Sahin A, Eser G, Askin S.
      OBJECTIVES: Cisplatin is employed for chemotherapeutic purposes in several types of adult and pediatric cancer. However, side-effects including nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, gastrointestinal effects and neuropathy restrict the use of the drug due to their adverse impacts on quality of life. This study aimed to determine whether levosimendan exhibits a protective effect against cisplatin-related ototoxicity in a rat model by means of functional, biochemical and histochemical analysis.METHODS: The study was employed with 24 female Sprague Dawley rats. After distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) tests applied to all rats, rats were randomly assigned into four groups of six animals each. A single intraperitoneal 15 mg/kg dose of cisplatin was administered to Cisplatin group. Levosimendan group received intraperitoneal levosimendan at a dose of 100 mg/kg for five consecutive days. Cisplatin + Levosimendan group received intraperitoneal levosimendan at a dose of 100 mg/kg for five consecutive days and a single intraperitoneal dose of 15 mg/kg cisplatin at 3rd day of the study. Control group received 8 mL/kg/day intraperitoneal saline solution for five consecutive days. The DPOAE test was repeated on the 6th day of the study. All rats were then sacrificed, the cochleas were removed and set aside for biochemical and histopathological analyses.
    RESULTS: A significant increase in levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly lower activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were observed at rats of cisplatin group. Administration of levosimendan showed significantly lower cochlear MDA levels, while SOD and GPx activities both increased significantly. The DPOAE test performed at 6th day of the study showed a significant impairment in the signal-noise ratio (SNR) levels of rats in Cisplatin group. The SNR levels of rats treated with levosimendan were significantly higher than those of cisplatin group and were similar to those of the control group. Cisplatin impaired the cochlear structure and a severe Caspase 3 and 8-hydroxy-2' -deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) immunopositivity was observed at cochlea of the rats of cisplatin group. Administration of levosimendan protected the structure of cochlea and there was a mild Caspase 3 and 8OHdG immunopositivity.
    CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that levosimendan protects hearing against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity and obviates cellular degeneration. It also significantly reduces oxidative stress and apoptosis, probable mechanisms involved in ototoxicity.
    Keywords:  8-Hydroxy-2′ deoxyguanosine; Caspase-3; Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity; DPOAE; Levosimendan
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.04.004
  44. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Apr 07. pii: E93. [Epub ahead of print]8(4):
    Tetsi L, Charles AL, Georg I, Goupilleau F, Lejay A, Talha S, Maumy-Bertrand M, Lugnier C, Geny B.
      Lower-limb ischemia-reperfusion (IR) is frequent and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors demonstrated antioxidant and beneficial effects in several organs submitted to IR, but their effects on muscle mitochondrial functions after lower-limb IR are unknown. Unilateral hindlimb IR (2 h tourniquet followed by 2 h reperfusion) without or with sildenafil (1mg/kg ip 30 minutes before ischemia) was performed in 18 mice. Maximal oxidative capacity (VMax), relative contribution of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, calcium retention capacity (CRC)-a marker of apoptosis-and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were determined using high-resolution respirometry, spectrofluorometry, and electron paramagnetic resonance in gastrocnemius muscles from both hindlimbs. IR significantly reduced mitochondrial VMax (from 11.79 ± 1.74 to 4.65 ± 1.11 pmol/s*mg wet weight (ww), p < 0.05, -50.2 ± 16.3%) and CRC (from 2.33 ± 0.41 to 0.84 ± 0.18 µmol/mg dry weight (dw), p < 0.05; -61.1 ± 6.8%). ROS tended to increase in the ischemic limb (+64.3 ± 31.9%, p = 0.08). Although tending to reduce IR-related ROS production (-42.4%), sildenafil failed to reduce muscle mitochondrial dysfunctions (-63.3 ± 9.2%, p < 0.001 and -55.2 ± 7.6% p < 0.01 for VMax, and CRC, respectively). In conclusion, lower limb IR impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, but, despite tending to reduce ROS production, pharmacological preconditioning with sildenafil did not show protective effects.
    Keywords:  calcic retention capacity; cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase; ischemia; mitochondria; muscle; oxidative stress; peripheral arterial disease; reactive oxygen species; reperfusion; sildenafil
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040093
  45. Sci Rep. 2019 Apr 09. 9(1): 5825
    Almeer RS, AlBasher GI, Alarifi S, Alkahtani S, Ali D, Abdel Moneim AE.
      Cadmium exposure induces nephrotoxicity by mediating oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to examine the protective effect of royal jelly on Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. Adult male mice were distributed randomly into 4 clusters: untreated, royal jelly-treated (85 mg/kg, oral), CdCl2-treated (6.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and pretreated with royal jelly (85 mg/kg) 2 h before CdCl2 injection (6.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) for seven consecutive days. Cd concentration in the renal tissue and absolute kidney weight of the Cd-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control group. The levels of kidney function markers, kidney injury molecules-1 (KIM-1), metallothionein, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and the apoptosis regulators Bax and caspases-3 also increased significantly in the renal tissue of Cd-treated mice, whereas the levels of glutathione, antioxidant enzyme activities, and the apoptosis inhibitor Bcl-2 were significantly reduced in the renal tissue of Cd-treated group. Histopathological studies showed vacuolation and congested glomeruli in the kidney tissue of Cd-treated mice. However, all aforementioned Cd-induced changes were attenuated by pretreatment with royal jelly. We therefore concluded that royal jelly attenuated Cd-induced nephrotoxicity and it is suggested that this nephroprotective effect could be linked to its ability to promote the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant responsive element (ARE) pathway.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42368-7
  46. Chemosphere. 2019 Mar 30. pii: S0045-6535(19)30623-X. [Epub ahead of print]226 545-552
    Pang Q, Li Y, Meng L, Li G, Luo Z, Fan R.
      Bisphenol A (BPA), a plastic additive, is ubiquitous in the environment and has endocrine disrupting effects. As many countries have prohibited the manufacture and sale of plastic products with BPA, BPA analogs have been used to replace BPA during production, including bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol B (BPB). To investigate the toxicities of BPA and its analogs on neurons, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, Annexin V-FITC (fluorescein) apoptosis detection assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay, and Cell Counting Kit-8 assay were conducted to comprehensively assess the influence of different concentrations of BPA, BPB, and BPS on ROS, apoptosis, damage, and proliferation for hippocampal HT-22 cells, respectively. Results showed that 6 h of exposure to bisphenols (BPs) could increase the ROS levels, 24 h and 48 h of exposure could induce higher apoptosis and LDH leakage rates for HT-22 cells, and 7 d of exposure could inhibit the cell proliferations. In addition, non-monotonic dose-response relationships were observed between the concentrations of bisphenols and the toxic effects mentioned above. The neurotoxic effects of BPA, BPB and BPS on HT-22 cells were in the increasing order of BPS, BPA, and BPB. In conclusion, these results showed that exposure to BPA and its analogs may result in adverse effects on hippocampal neuronal cell lines. BPS is a surrogate with lower neurotoxicity to replace BPA in production of plastic utensils.
    Keywords:  Bisphenol A; Bisphenol B; Bisphenol S; Hippocampus; Neurotoxicity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.03.177
  47. Gene. 2019 Apr 03. pii: S0378-1119(19)30348-8. [Epub ahead of print]703 35-49
    Banerjee B, Koner D, Hasan R, Bhattacharya S, Saha N.
      The facultative air-breathing magur catfish (Clarias magur) frequently face different environmental challenges, such as hyper-ammonia, and desiccation stresses in their natural habitats. All these stresses lead to higher accumulation of body ammonia, thereby causing various harmful effects to the fish due to its toxicity. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying ammonia-induced toxicity is yet not clear. In the present study, we used RNA sequencing and utilized a modified method for de novo assembly of the transcriptome to provide an exhaustive study on the transcriptomic alterations of magur catfish in response to high environmental ammonia (HEA; 25 mM NH4Cl). The final contig assembly produced a total of 311,076 unique transcripts (termed as unigenes) with a GC content of 48.3% and the average length of 599 bp. A considerable number of SSR marker associated with these unigenes were also detected. A total of 279,156 transcripts were successfully annotated by using various databases. Comparative transcriptomic analysis revealed a total of 3453 and 19,455 genes were differentially expressed in the liver and brain tissues, respectively, in ammonia-treated fish compared to the control. Enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed that several GO and KEGG pathway terms were significantly over-represented. Functional analysis of significantly elevated DEGs demonstrated that ammonia stress tolerance of the magur catfish was associated with quite a few pathways related to immune response, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, as well as few transporter proteins involved with ammonia and urea transport. Both liver and brain tissues showed HEA-mediated oxidative damage with consequent activation of antioxidant machinery. However, elevated ROS levels led to an activation of inflammatory cytokines and thus innate immune response in the liver. Conversely, in the brain ROS-mediated irreversible cell damages activated apoptosis via both p53-Bax-Bcl2 and caspase-mediated pathways. The present study provides a novel understanding of the molecular responses of this air-breathing catfish against the ammonia-induced stressors, which could elucidate the underlying mechanisms of adaptation of this facultative air-breather living under various environmental constraints.
    Keywords:  Ammonia toxicity; Clarias magur; Immune response; Oxidative stress; RNA-Seq; de novo transcriptome assembly
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2019.04.009
  48. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2019 Apr 08.
    Zalewski M, Kulbacka J, Saczko J, Drag-Zalesinska M, Choromanska A.
      Overcoming drug resistance in ovarian cancer is the overarching goal in gynecologic oncology. One way to increase drug cytotoxicity without increasing the drug dose is to simultaneously apply multidrug resistance modulator. Valspodar is the second generation P-glycoprotein 1 modulator capable of reversing multidrug resistance in different cancers. In this study, we evaluated the effect of valspodar and cisplatin co-treatment on cell viability, cell death and oxidative status in ovarian cancer cells. The two cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cell lines SK-OV-3 and MDAH-2774 were treated with cisplatin, valspodar, or cisplatin+valspodar for 24 and 48 hours. Untreated cells were used as control group. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Cell death was assessed by TUNEL and comet assay. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and protein thiol groups were analyzed as oxidative stress markers. The expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Valspodar effectively reduced the resistance of SK-OV-3 cells to cisplatin, as demonstrated by increased oxidative stress, decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis in SK-OV-3 cells co-treated with valspodar and cisplatin compared to other groups. However, valspodar did not affect the resistance of MDAH-2774 cells to cisplatin. Stronger staining for MnSOD in MDAH-2774 vs. SK-OV-3 cells after co-treatment with cisplatin and valspodar may determine the resistance of MDAH-2774 cell line to cisplatin.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2019.4073
  49. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2019 Apr 12.
    Xing J, Xu H, Liu C, Wei Z, Wang Z, Zhao L, Ren L.
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been identified as a primary factor involved in brain ischemia-reperfusion injury progression. p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) is a novel ER function regulator. The aim of our study is to explore the influence of Pak2 on ER stress and determine whether melatonin attenuates ER stress-mediated cell death by modulating Pak2 expression in vitro using N2a cells. The results of our study demonstrated that hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR) injury repressed the levels of Pak2, an effect that was accompanied by activation of ER stress. In addition, decreased Pak2 was associated with oxidative stress, calcium overload, and caspase-12-mediated apoptosis activation in HR-treated N2a cells. Interestingly, melatonin treatment reversed the decreased Pak2 expression under HR stress. Knockdown of Pak2 abolished the protective effects of melatonin on ER stress, oxidative stress, and caspase-12-related N2a cells death. Additionally, we found that Pak2 was regulated by melatonin via the AMPK pathway; inhibition of AMPK prevented melatonin-mediated Pak2 upregulation, a result that was accompanied by an increase in N2a cell death. Altogether, these results identify the AMPK-Pak2 axis as a new signaling pathway responsible for ER stress and N2a cell viability under HR injury. Modulation of the AMPK-Pak2 cascade via supplementation of melatonin might be considered an effective approach to attenuate reperfusion-mediated N2a cell damage via repression of ER stress.
    Keywords:  AMPK; ER stress; HR injury; Melatonin; Pak2
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12192-019-00994-0
  50. J Ginseng Res. 2019 Apr;43(2): 218-225
    Lee SO, Lee S, Kim SJ, Rhee DK.
      Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae, more than 90 serotypes of which exist, is recognized as an etiologic agent of pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunization with a pneumococcal pep27 mutant (Δpep27) has been shown to confer comprehensive, long-term protection against even nontypeable strains. However, Δpep27 is effective as a vaccine only after at least three rounds of immunization. Therefore, treatments capable of enhancing the efficiency of Δpep27 immunization should be identified without delay. Panax ginseng Mayer has already been shown to have pharmacological and antioxidant effects. Here, the ability of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) to enhance the efficacy of Δpep27 immunization was investigated.Methods: Mice were treated with KRG and immunized with Δpep27 before infection with the pathogenic S. pneumoniae strain D39. Total reactive oxygen species production was measured using lung homogenates, and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase and antiapoptotic protein expression was determined by immunoblotting. The phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages was also tested after KRG treatment.
    Results: Compared with the other treatments, KRG significantly increased survival rate after lethal challenge and resulted in faster bacterial clearance via increased phagocytosis. Moreover, KRG enhanced Δpep27 vaccine efficacy by inhibiting reactive oxygen species production, reducing extracellular signal-regulated kinase apoptosis signaling and inflammation.
    Conclusion: Taken together, our results suggest that KRG reduces the time required for immunization with the Δpep27 vaccine by enhancing its efficacy.
    Keywords:  Korean Red Ginseng (KRG); Streptococcus pneumoniae; Δpep27
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2017.11.007
  51. Biomater Sci. 2019 Apr 12.
    Kong C, Hao M, Chen X, Zhao X, Wang Y, Li J, Gao Y, Zhang H, Yang B, Jiang J.
      The photothermal response of nanomaterials provides a basis for many biomedical applications, including diagnosis (e.g., biosensor and photoacoustic imaging) and treatment (e.g., drug delivery and photothermal therapy). The use of nano-materials for cancer phototherapy (solid tumor ablation) can cause cell necrosis and apoptosis. However, photothermal effects using the same material can differ among tumor cell types, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. We used polydopamine (PDA)-coated branched Au-Ag nanoparticles (Au-Ag@PDA NPs) for the photothermal treatment of two prostate cancer cell lines. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by CCK8, flow cytometry, and expression analyses of related genes by western blotting. Photothermal therapy resulted in oxidative stress in prostate cancer cells and activated the mitochondrial-related apoptosis pathway, increasing the Bax expression. In addition, we observed a greater photothermal treatment effect on the androgen-dependent cells LNCaP than the androgen-independent cells DU145. Pretreatment with an inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway (BAY 11-7082) enhanced the expression of BAX in the DU145 cells and increased the sensitivity of the cells to the heat treatment of Au-Ag@PDA NPs both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings explain the differences in the observed effects of photothermal therapy and provide the direction for further improvements to this strategy.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1039/c8bm01007b
  52. Cell Biol Int. 2019 Apr 08.
    Bapary M, Takano JI, Soma S, Sankai T.
      Light is an indispensable part of routine laboratory works in which conventional light is generally used. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have come to replace the conventional light thus could be a potent target in biomedical studies. Since blue light is a major component of visible light wavelength, in this study, using a somatic cell from African green monkey kidney, we assessed the possible consequences of blue spectra of LED light in future animal experiments and proposed a potent mitigation against light induced damages. COS-7 cells were exposed to blue LED light (450 nm) and the growth and DNA damage were assessed at different exposure times. A higher suppression in cell growth and viability was observed under a longer period of blue LED light exposure. The number of apoptotic cells increased as light exposure time was prolonged. Reactive oxygen species generation was also elevated in accordance to the extension of light exposure times. A comparison to dark-maintained cells revealed that the upregulation of ROS by blue LED light plays a significant role in causing cellular dysfunction in DNA in a time-dependent manner. In turn, antioxidant treatment has shown to improve the cell growth and viability under blue LED light conditions. This indicates that antioxidants are potential against blue LED light-induced somatic cell damage. It is expected that this study will contribute to the understanding of the basic mechanism of somatic cell death under visible light and to maximize the beneficial use of LED light in future animal experiments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:   COS-7 ; Antioxidants; Apoptosis; Blue wavelength of light; Light Emitting Diode
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11131
  53. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019 Mar 30. 7(6): 925-936
    Mahmoud HM, Osman M, Elshabrawy O, Abdallah HMI, Khairallah A.
      BACKGROUND: The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) plays a pleiotropic role in the innate immunity and is considered a crucial mediator of liver disease. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor activation has been reported to attenuate liver fibrosis in CCl4 exposed mice and also plays a potential role in liver regeneration in a mouse model of I/R and protection against alcohol-induced liver injury.AIM: In this study, we investigated the impact of CB2 receptors on the antifibrotic and regenerative process associated with cholestatic liver injury.
    METHODS: Twenty-six rats had bile duct ligation co-treated with silymarin and AM1241 for 3 consecutive weeks. Serum hepatotoxicity markers were determined, and histopathological evaluation was performed.
    RESULTS: Following bile duct ligation (BDL) for 3 weeks, there was increased aminotransferase levels, marked inflammatory infiltration and hepatocyte apoptosis with induced oxidative stress, as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation. Conversely, following treatment with the CB2 agonist, AM-1241, BDL rats displayed a reduction in liver injury and attenuation of fibrosis as reflected by expression of hydroxyproline and α-smooth muscle actin. AM1241 treatment also significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation end-products, p53-dependent apoptosis and also attenuated inflammatory process by stimulating IL-10 production. Moreover, AM1241 treated rats were associated with significant expression of hepatic progenitor/oval cell markers.
    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study points out that CB2 receptors reduce liver injury and promote liver regeneration via distinct mechanisms including IL-10 dependent inhibition of inflammation, reduction of p53-reliant apoptosis and through stimulation of oval/progenitor cells. These results suggest that CB2 agonists display potent hepatoregenrative properties, in addition to their antifibrogenic effects.
    Keywords:  AM1241; Bile duct ligation; CD34; Cannabinoid receptor 2; Hepatic progenitor cells; IL-10; Liver fibrosis; p53
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.194
  54. Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Apr 05. pii: S1567-5769(18)31431-0. [Epub ahead of print]72 21-30
    Zhang Z, Wang X, Ma C, Li Z, Chen H, Zhang Z, Li T.
      Although the protective effects of genipin against acute lung injury (ALI) have been described previously, the associated mechanism remains unclear. We have previously reported that genipin exerts its pharmacological effects by regulating autophagy. Here, we hypothesized that the up-regulation of autophagy may contribute to the protective effects exhibited by genipin against ALI. In the present study, ALI was induced by intratracheal LPS administration in rats. Genipin treatment significantly reduced LPS-induced lung injury as evidenced by improved histopathology, decreased lung edema, total cells, and protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). This protection was inhibited by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an inhibitor of autophagy. Genipin treatment reduced the expression of P62 and increased the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3II, indicating increased autophagy. Genipin treatment also alleviated LPS-induced cell apoptosis (down-regulation of Bax, up-regulation of Bcl-2, and decreased number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end label-positive cells) and oxidative stress (increased SOD and decreased MDA content) in the lung. Furthermore, genipin attenuated LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the lung and BALF. These protective effects induced by genipin were reversed by 3-MA treatment, indicating that autophagy was involved in the protective effects exerted by genipin against inflammation and apoptosis in ALI. In A549 cells incubated with LPS for 6 h, genipin treatment increased the number of GFP-LC3 punctae. 3-MA prevented the protective effects of genipin against mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. These findings suggest that genipin protects against apoptosis and inflammation in LPS-induced ALI by promoting autophagy.
    Keywords:  Acute lung injury; Apoptosis; Autophagy; Genipin; Inflammation; Mitochondria
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.03.052
  55. PLoS One. 2019 ;14(4): e0215170
    Rezzani R, Favero G, Ferroni M, Lonati C, Moghadasian MH.
      Interactive relationships among metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation at skeletal muscle level play a key role in the pathogenesis of disorders related to oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress result in cellular energy deficiency, inflammation and cell death inducing a vicious cycle that promotes muscle wasting. The histidine-containing dipeptides, carnosine and anserine, are carbonyl scavengers whose cytoprotective contributions extend beyond the antioxidant defence, but the physiological meaning of these capacities is actually limited. In the present study, we compared and investigated the potential protective effects of three different histidine-containing dipeptides: carnosine, anserine and carnosinol, a carnosine-mimetic new compound, against oxidative stress induction in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells. The hydrogen peroxide induced-oxidative stress significantly altered cell morphology, induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation, decreased mitochondrial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)/sirtuin3 pathway and the antioxidant system. Notably, all three investigated dipeptides in the present study, with a different extent and in a concentration-dependent manner, reduced myotube oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation. The present study underlined that carnosinol, maintaining the safety condition of carnosine and anserine, was the more efficient studied dipeptide in the preservation of mitochondrial environment mediated by PGC-1α and sirtuin3 expression and thereby in the reduction of oxidative stress-related alterations in this in vitro skeletal muscle model. Furthermore, we observed that carnosinol's antioxidant effects are not blocked inhibiting sirtuin3, but are maintained with almost the same extend, indicating its multiple capacities of reactive carbonyl species-scavenging and of mitochondrial modulation through PGC-1α. In conclusion, carnosinol retained and surpassed the efficacy of the well-known investigated histidine-containing dipeptides improving oxidative stress, inflammation and also cell metabolism and so becoming a greatly promising therapeutic carnosine derivate.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0215170
  56. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2019 Apr 10.
    Kumar A, Gupta M, Sharma R, Sharma N.
      BACKGROUND: Deltamethrin (DLM) is a type 2 pyrethroid insecticide used in agriculture and home to control pests. However, emerging reports have indicated the immunotoxicity of DLM.OBJECTIVE: Thus, in the current investigation, we have checked the immune-protective role of quercetin in DLM-induced immunotoxicity by using in silico and in vitro techniques.
    RESULTS: In silico results have shown good interaction of quercetin towards immune cell receptors (T & B cell receptors). The findings of in vitro studies indicated the decrease in oxidative stress which is elevated by DLM in concentration & time dependent manner. The increased caspases-3 activity was decreased by treatment of quercetin. The apoptosis induced by DLM in thymus and spleen was suppressed only at higher concentration (50μg/ml) of quercetin. Finally, the phenotypic changes due to DLM were restored by quercetin.
    CONCLUSION: Quercetin has strong binding affinity towards CD4, CD8 and CD28, CD45 receptors and protects the thymocytes and splenocytes against DLM-induced apoptotic signaling pathways.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Deltamethrin; Oxidative stress; Phenotyping; Pyrethroid insecticide; Quercetin.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2174/1871530319666190410144540