bims-aporos Biomed news
on Apoptosis and reactive oxygen species
Issue of 2018‒12‒09
fifty-two papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University


  1. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2018 Nov 30. 38(11): 1306-1311
    Han X, Xu J, Xu S, Sun Y, He M, Li X, Li X, Pi J, Yu R, Tian W.
      OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in mediating the protective effect of gastrodin against oxidative stress damage in H9c2 cardiac myocytes.METHODS: H9c2 cardiac myocytes were treated with H2O2, gastrodin, gastrodin+H2O2, cyclosporin A (CsA), or CsA+gas+H2O2 group. MTT assay was used to detect the survival ratio of H9c2 cells, and flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining was used to analyze the early apoptosis rate after the treatments. The concentration of ATP and level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells were detected using commercial kits. The mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells was detected with laser confocal microscopy. The expression of cytochrome C was detected with Western blotting, and the activity of caspase-3 was also assessed in the cells.
    RESULTS: Gastrodin pretreatment could prevent oxidative stress-induced reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, and this effect was inhibited by the application of CsA. Gastrodin significantly lowered the levels of ROS and apoptosis-related factors in H2O2-exposed cells, and such effects were reversed by CsA. CsA significantly antagonized the protective effect of gastrodin against apoptosis in H2O2-exposed cells.
    CONCLUSIONS: Gastrodin prevents oxidative stress-induced injury in H9c2 cells by inhibiting mPTP opening to reduce the cell apoptosis.
    Keywords:  cyclosporin; gastrodin; mitochondrial permeability transition pore; oxidative stress injury
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2018.11.05
  2. Biomed Res Int. 2018 ;2018 3169431
    Basu C, Sur R.
      Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) mediated oxidative stress leading to hepatocyte apoptosis plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several chronic liver diseases. This study demonstrates that S-allyl cysteine (SAC) renders cytoprotective effects on H2O2 induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Cell viability assay showed that SAC protected HepG2 cells from H2O2 induced cytotoxicity. Further, SAC treatment dose dependently inhibited H2O2 induced apoptosis via decreasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, restoring mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm), inhibiting mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and inhibiting proteolytic cleavage of caspase-3. SAC protected cells from H2O2 induced oxidative damage by inhibiting reactive oxygen species accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The mechanism underlying the antiapoptotic and antioxidative role of SAC is the induction of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene in an NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) and Akt dependent manner. Specifically SAC was found to induce the phosphorylation of Akt and enhance the nuclear localization of Nrf-2 in cells. Our results were further confirmed by specific HO-1 gene knockdown studies which clearly demonstrated that HO-1 induction indeed played a key role in SAC mediated inhibition of apoptosis and ROS production in HepG2 cells, thus suggesting a hepatoprotective role of SAC in combating oxidative stress mediated liver diseases.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3169431
  3. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2018 ;12 3973-3984
    Qi S, Feng Z, Li Q, Qi Z, Zhang Y.
      Purpose: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered a direct cause of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). Drugs developed to target ROS are effective for the treatment of NDDs. Orientin is a pyrone glucoside extracted from Polygonum orientale, and it exhibits many pharmacological activities. In this study, we aimed to determine whether orientin could relieve hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal apoptosis and to investigate the specific target of orientin.Materials and methods: In this study, the neuroprotective effect and its possible mechanisms of orientin in mouse pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12) cells stimulated by H2O2, establishing an oxidative stress model, were investigated. And we further tested the role of ROS in the neuroprotective effects of orientin.
    Results: Orientin (5-100 µg/mL) did not cause toxicity in PC12 cells but significantly decreased H2O2-induced reduction in PC12 cell viability, cell apoptosis rates, and nuclear condensation. It also inhibited the activation of caspase-3 and degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Under the stimulation of H2O2, MAPKs (ERK, JNK, and p38), AKT, and Src signaling proteins in PC12 cells were activated in a time-dependent manner. The application of inhibitors that were specific for MAPKs, AKT, and Src effectively alleviated H2O2-induced cell apoptosis. In addition, the Src inhibitor decreased the activation of MAPKs and AKT signaling. More importantly, orientin effectively decreased H2O2-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs, AKT, and Src signaling proteins. Finally, we confirmed that orientin effectively inhibited H2O2-induced accumulation of ROS in cells. In addition, ROS inhibitors blocked the Src-MAPKs/AKT signaling pathway-dependent cell apoptosis stimulated by H2O2.
    Conclusion: These results indicate that alleviation of H2O2-induced cell apoptosis by orientin is Src-MAPKs/AKT dependent. Overall, our study confirms that orientin alleviates H2O2-induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting the ROS-mediated activation of Src-MAPKs/AKT signaling.
    Keywords:  AKT; MAPKs; Src; apoptosis; neuroprotection; orientin; oxidative stress
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S178217
  4. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018 Nov 27. pii: S1532-0456(18)30151-0. [Epub ahead of print]
    Zhu Z, Shi Z, Xie C, Gong W, Hu Z, Peng Y.
      Vascular endothelial cell damage is related to many vascular diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a vital role in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. Herein, H2O2-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) injury model was used to explore the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of ROS-induced oxidative stress and cell dysfunction. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a naturally occurring four-carbon non-protein amino acid, has antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory action. In the present study, we demonstrated that GABA could scavenge free radicals including DPPH and ABTS, reverse H2O2-induced suppression on HUVEC proliferation, HUVEC apoptosis and ROS formation via p65 signaling. Interestingly, GABA treatment alone did not cause significant changes in p65 phosphorylation, suggesting that GABA will not cause imbalance in NF-κB signaling and ROS formation without oxidative stress. Moreover, GABA also modulated Keap1-Nrf2 and Notch signaling pathways upon H2O2 stimulation, suggesting that GABA may exert its effect via multi mechanisms. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that GABA inhibits H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs via inhibiting ROS-induced NF-κB and Caspase 3 pathway activation. GABA may, therefore, have potential as a pharmacological agent in the prevention or treatment of oxidative injury-related cardiovascular disease.
    Keywords:  Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA); Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC); NF-κB signaling pathway; Oxidative injury; Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2018.11.018
  5. Redox Biol. 2018 Nov 20. pii: S2213-2317(18)30729-8. [Epub ahead of print]20 544-555
    Kim YR, Baek JI, Kim SH, Kim MA, Lee B, Ryu N, Kim KH, Choi DG, Kim HM, Murphy MP, Macpherson G, Choo YS, Bok J, Lee KY, Park JW, Kim UK.
      Mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) is a major NADPH-producing enzyme which is essential for maintaining the mitochondrial redox balance in cells. We sought to determine whether IDH2 deficiency induces mitochondrial dysfunction and modulates auditory function, and investigated the protective potential of an antioxidant agent against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cochlear damage in Idh2 knockout (Idh2-/-) mice. Idh2 deficiency leads to damages to hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in the cochlea and ultimately to apoptotic cell death and progressive sensorineural hearing loss in Idh2-/- mice. Loss of IDH2 activity led to decreased levels of NADPH and glutathione causing abnormal ROS accumulation and oxidative damage, which might trigger apoptosis signal in hair cells and SGNs in Idh2-/- mice. We performed ex vivo experiments to determine whether administration of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants might protect or induce recovery of cells from ROS-induced apoptosis in Idh2-deficient mouse cochlea. MitoQ almost completely neutralized the H2O2-induced ototoxicity, as the survival rate of Idh2-/- hair cells were restored to normal levels. In addition, the lack of IDH2 led to the accumulation of mitochondrial ROS and the depolarization of ΔΨm, resulting in hair cell loss. In the present study, we identified that IDH2 is indispensable for the functional maintenance and survival of hair cells and SGNs. Moreover, the hair cell degeneration caused by IDH2 deficiency can be prevented by MitoQ, which suggests that Idh2-/- mice could be a valuable animal model for evaluating the therapeutic effects of various antioxidant candidates to overcome ROS-induced hearing loss.
    Keywords:  Antioxidant; Hearing loss; Idh2; MitoQ; NADP(+); ROS
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2018.11.013
  6. Chem Biol Interact. 2018 Nov 30. pii: S0009-2797(18)30832-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    Yan J, Shen S, He Y, Li Z.
      BACKGROUND: Liver injury is a serious threat for human health and life. Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) has reported to be a vital mediator in flagellin or tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. However, the roles and etiology of TLR5 in hyperammonaemia (HA)-induced liver injury are poor defined.METHODS: HA rats were generated by intragastric administration using ammonium chloride solution. Liver status was assessed by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and measuring serum levels of liver injury markers. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay was used to visualize protein expression in tissues. Apoptotic index in tissues was determined by TUNEL assay. RT-qPCR assay was employed to test mRNA expression. Oxidative stress responses was assessed by detecting levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related indicators. NF-κB activity was examined by TransAM NF-κB colorimetric kit.
    RESULTS: TLR5 was highly expressed in liver tissues of HA rats. TLR5 knockdown ameliorated HA-induced liver injury by inhibiting liver cell apoptosis. TLR5 depletion inhibited HA-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in liver tissues, but had no effect on the infiltration of T and macrophage cells into liver tissues. TLR5 silencing impaired HA-induced oxidative stress responses in hepatocytes, but not in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). TLR5 downregulation inhibited HA-induced activation on TLR5/NF-κB and TLR5/MAPK signaling pathways.
    CONCLUSION: TLR5 silencing reduced HA-induced liver injury by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation responses via inactivating NF-κB and MAPK signals, deepening our understanding on the molecular mechanism of HA-induced liver injury and providing a potential therapeutic target for alleviating liver injury.
    Keywords:  Hyperammonaemia; Liver injury; MAPK; NF-κB; TLR5
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2018.11.026
  7. Anatol J Cardiol. 2018 Dec;20(6): 336-346
    Zhou X, Chang B, Gu Y.
      OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the role of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in cardiomyocyte apoptosis and to determine a possible mechanism.METHODS: H9c2 embryonic rat heart-derived cells were used in the study. Cell viability was determined using the 3-(4.5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5- diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and flow cytometry was used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays were used to detect mRNA and protein expression of the apoptosis-related proteins and miR-21. ELISA was used to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS).
    RESULTS: Palmitate exposure greatly reduced miR-21 expression in cardiomyocytes. Apoptosis increased when miR-21 was inhibited with or without palmitate exposure. Consistently, reduced apoptosis was observed when miR-21 was overexpressed in cardiomyocytes. Caspase-3 activity was reduced after palmitate exposure. Bcl-2 protein expression was increased in H9c2 cells when transfected with the miR-21 mimic. MiR-21 overexpression alone did not induce ROS or DNA fragmentation; however, in conjunction with palmitate exposure, miR-21 mimic reduced ROS and DNA fragmentation. Moreover, palmitate administration overcame the antioxidant effect of 3 mM N-acetylcysteine to significantly inhibit apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activity. The exposure to palmitate greatly reduced p65 and p-p38 expression in the nucleus. A p38 inhibitor had no effect on the expression of Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 in H9c2 cells alone; however, when combined with exposure to palmitate the p38 inhibitor induced Bcl-2 expression and inhibited caspase-3 activity. The p38 inhibitor by itself did not induce apoptosis, ROS production, or DNA fragmentation in H9c2 cells, but when palmitate was included with the p38 inhibitor, apoptosis, ROS production, and DNA fragmentation were reduced.
    CONCLUSION: miR-21 protects cardiomyocytes from apoptosis that is induced by palmitate through the caspase-3/NF-κB signal pathways.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2018.03604
  8. Neurotoxicology. 2018 Nov 30. pii: S0161-813X(18)30349-8. [Epub ahead of print]
    Yu AR, Ju Jeong Y, Hwang CY, Yoon KS, Choe W, Ha J, Kim SS, Kim Pak Y, Yeo EJ, Kang I.
      α-Naphthoflavone (αNF) is a prototype flavone, also known as a modulator of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of αNF-induced cytotoxic effects in HT22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells. αNF induced apoptotic cell death via activation of caspase-12 and -3 and increased expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated proteins, including C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Inhibition of ER stress by treatment with the ER stress inhibitor, salubrinal, or by CHOP siRNA transfection reduced αNF-induced cell death. αNF activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as p38, JNK, and ERK, and inhibition of MAPKs reduced αNF-induced CHOP expression and cell death. αNF also induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, reduced αNF-induced MAPK phosphorylation, CHOP expression, and cell death. Furthermore, αNF activated c-Src kinase, and inhibition of c-Src by a kinase inhibitor, SU6656, or siRNA transfection reduced αNF-induced ROS accumulation, MAPK activation, CHOP expression, and cell death. Inhibition of AhR by an AhR antagonist, CH223191, and siRNA transfection of AhR and AhR nuclear translocator reduced αNF-induced AhR-responsive luciferase activity, CHOP expression, and cell death. Finally, we found that inhibition of c-Src and MAPKs reduced αNF-induced transcriptional activity of AhR. Taken together, these findings suggest that αNF induces apoptosis through ER stress via c-Src-, ROS-, MAPKs-, and AhR-dependent pathways in HT22 cells.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulator; ER stress; HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells; α-Naphthoflavone
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2018.11.011
  9. Cell Prolif. 2018 Dec 04. e12543
    Zhang P, Zhang Y, Liu K, Liu B, Xu W, Gao J, Ding L, Tao L.
      OBJECTIVES: The aim of study was to investigate the anticancer activities of Ivermectin (IVM) and the possible mechanisms in cells level via cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis and migration inhibition in model cancer cell HeLa.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MTT assay was used to study the inhibitory effect of IVM on the proliferation of Hela cells, and the cell cycle was analysed by flow cytometry. The neutral comet assay was used to study the DNA damage. The presence of apoptosis was confirmed by DAPI nuclear staining and flow cytometry. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were determined using Rhodamine 123 staining and DCFH-DA staining. Western blot analysis for apoptosis-related proteins was carried out. We use scratch test to analyse the antimigration potential of IVM.
    RESULTS: Ivermectin can inhibit the viability of HeLa cells significantly. In addition, treatment with IVM resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase which partly account for the suppressed proliferation. Typical apoptosis morphological changes were shown in IVM treatment cells including DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation. At the same time, the results of flow cytometry analysis showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased significantly with the increase of IVM concentration. Moreover, we observed that the mitochondrial membrane potential collapses and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in the cytoplasm increases, which induces cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm, activates caspase-9/-3 and finally induces apoptosis. We also found that IVM can significantly increase intracellular ROS content. At the same time, we determined that IVM can significantly inhibit the migration of HeLa cells.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our experimental results show that IVM might be a new potential anticancer drug for therapy of human cancer.
    Keywords:  antimigratory effects; apoptosis; cell cycle arrest; cervical cancer; ivermectin; mitochondrial pathway
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/cpr.12543
  10. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018 Nov 28. pii: S0006-291X(18)32572-5. [Epub ahead of print]
    Wang Z, Li Y, Wang Y, Zhao K, Chi Y, Wang B.
      High glucose(HG)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ), a new B vitamin, has been demonstrated to be important in antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. However, its effect on HK-2 cells and the potential mechanism are rarely investigated. In this study, we investigated that PPQ had protective effects against HG-induced oxidative stress damage and apoptosis in vitro model of diabetic nephropathy. PPQ at 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 10000 nM could protect HK-2 cell from HG-induced inhibition. The protective effects of PQQ were associated with increasing the level of antioxidants(SOD2, CAT), inhibition of reactive oxygen species(ROS) production, and dependent modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. PPQ significantly upregulated the protein and mRNA expression of Sirtuin3(Sirt3) in HG-induced HK-2 cells. PPQ also reduced apoptosis in HG-induced HK-2 cells by the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a signal pathway. As down-regulated sirt3 or inhibitory the activity of PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway, the protective effects of PPQ were weakened. In conclusion, our data suggest that PPQ achieves the protective effects through PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway and dependent modulation of Sirt3.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; HK-2 cells; Oxidative stress; PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway; Pyrroloquinoline quinine; Sirtuin3
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.11.140
  11. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2018 ;2018 9390784
    Al-Sheddi ES, Farshori NN, Al-Oqail MM, Al-Massarani SM, Saquib Q, Wahab R, Musarrat J, Al-Khedhairy AA, Siddiqui MA.
      In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using aqueous extract of Nepeta deflersiana plant. The prepared AgNPs (ND-AgNPs) were examined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The results obtained from various characterizations revealed that average size of synthesized AgNPs was 33 nm and in face-centered-cubic structure. The anticancer potential of ND-AgNPs was investigated against human cervical cancer cells (HeLa). The cytotoxic response was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and morphological changes. Further, the influence of cytotoxic concentrations of ND-AgNPs on oxidative stress markers, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cell cycle arrest and apoptosis/necrosis was studied. The cytotoxic response observed was in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the results also showed a significant increase in ROS and lipid peroxidation (LPO), along with a decrease in MMP and glutathione (GSH) levels. The cell cycle analysis and apoptosis/necrosis assay data exhibited ND-AgNPs-induced SubG1 arrest and apoptotic/necrotic cell death. The biosynthesized AgNPs-induced cell death in HeLA cells suggested the anticancer potential of ND-AgNPs. Therefore, they may be used to treat the cervical cancer cells.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9390784
  12. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 ;2018 9017835
    Dong XZ, Wang YN, Tan X, Liu P, Guo DH, Yan C.
      This study aims at investigating the radioprotective effect of ethanol extract from Ji-Xue-Teng (JXT, Spatholobus suberectus) on radiation-induced hematopoietic alteration and oxidative stress in the liver. Mice were exposed to a single acute γ-radiation for the whole body at the dose of 6.0 Gy, then subjected to administration of amifostine (45 mg/kg) or JXT (40 g crude drug/kg) once a day for 28 consecutive days, respectively. Bone marrow cells and hemogram including white cells, red cells, platelet counts, and hemoglobin level were examined. The protein expression levels of pJAK2/JAK2, pSTAT5a/STAT5a, pSTAT5b/STAT5b, and Bcl-2 in bone marrow tissue; levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS); and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum and liver tissue were determined. At the end of the experiment, the effect of JXT on cell viability and G-CSF and G-CSFR levels in NFS-60 cells were tested by CCK-8 assay, ELISA, and flow cytometry. The results showed that the mice exposed to γ-radiation alone exhibited a typical hematopoietic syndrome. In contrast, at the end of the 28-day experiment, irradiated mice subjected to oral administration of JXT showed an obvious improvement on blood profile with reduced leucopenia, thrombocytopenia (platelet counts), RBC, and hemoglobin levels, as well as bone marrow cells. The expression of pJAK2/JAK2, pSTAT5a/STAT5a, and Bcl-2 in bone marrow tissue was increased after JXT treatment. The elevation of ROS was due to radiation-induced toxicity, but JXT significantly reduced the ROS level in serum and liver tissue, elevated endogenous SOD and GSH-PX levels, and reduced the MDA level in the liver. JXT could also increase cell viability and G-CSFR level in NFS-60 cells, which was similar to exogenous G-CSF. Our findings suggested that oral administration of JXT effectively facilitated the recovery of hematopoietic bone marrow damage and oxidative stress of the mice induced by γ-radiation.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9017835
  13. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2018 Dec 03. e13229
    Chunchai T, Apaijai N, Keawtep P, Mantor D, Arinno A, Pratchayasakul W, Chattipakorn N, Chattipakorn SC.
      AIM: The study hypothesized that testosterone deprivation aggravates cognitive decline in obesity through increasing oxidative stress, glial activation and apoptosis.METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n=24) were fed with either normal-diet (ND) or HFD for 24 weeks. At week 13, ND-fed rats and HFD-fed rats were randomly assigned to two subgroups to receive either a sham-operation or bilateral-orchiectomy (ORX). Rats were evaluated for metabolic parameters and cognition at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the operation. At the end of protocol, the reactive oxygen species (ROS), glial morphology, and cell apoptosis were determined in hippocampus and cortex.
    RESULTS: Both HFD-fed groups developed obese-insulin resistance, but ND-fed rats did not. HFD-fed rats with sham-operation showed cognitive decline, when compared to ND-fed rats with sham-operation at all time points. At 4- and 8-week after ORX, the cognitive impairment of ND-fed rats and both HFD-fed groups were not different. However, 12-week after ORX, cognitive decline and of glial hyperactivity of HFD-fed rats had the greatest increase among all groups. Hippocampal ROS levels and apoptotic cells in both HFD-fed groups were equally increased, but the cortical ROS levels and apoptotic cells of HFD fed rats with ORX were the highest ones.
    CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that testosterone deprivation aggravates cognitive decline in obesity via increasing oxidative stress, glial activity and apoptosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Cognitive function; Glia function; Obesity; Reactive oxygen species; Testosterone deprivation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/apha.13229
  14. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2018 Dec.;19(12):19(12): 895-909
    Lin YC, Shen ZR, Song XH, Liu X, Yao K.
      OBJECTIVE: This paper applied a transcriptomic approach to investigate the mechanisms of adriamycin (ADR) in treating proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) using ARPE-19 cells.METHODS: The growth inhibitory effects of ADR on ARPE-19 cells were assessed by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and propidium iodide (PI) staining using flow cytometry. The differentially expressed genes between ADR-treated ARPE-19 cells and normal ARPE-19 cells and the signaling pathways involved were investigated by microarray analysis. Mitochondrial function was detected by JC-1 staining using flow cytometry and the Bcl-2/Bax protein family. The phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), phosphorylated checkpoint kinase 1 (p-CHK1), and phosphorylated checkpoint kinase 2 (p-CHK2) were assessed to detect DNA damage and repair.
    RESULTS: ADR could significantly inhibit ARPE-19 cell proliferation and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in vitro. In total, 4479 differentially expressed genes were found, and gene ontology items and the p53 signaling pathway were enriched. A protein-protein interaction analysis indicated that the TP53 protein molecules regulated by ADR were related to DNA damage and oxidative stress. ADR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. p53-knockdown restored the activation of c-caspase-3 activity induced by ADR by regulating Bax expression, and it inhibited ADR-induced ARPE-19 cell apoptosis. Finally, the levels of the γ-H2AX, p-CHK1, and p-CHK2 proteins were up-regulated after ADR exposure.
    CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism of ARPE-19 cell death induced by ADR may be caspase-dependent apoptosis, and it may be regulated by the p53-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction, activating the p53 signaling pathway through DNA damage.
    Keywords:  Adriamycin; Proliferative vitreoretinopathy; Retinal pigment epithelial; p53; Apoptosis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1800408
  15. Metab Brain Dis. 2018 Dec 04.
    Gao W, Wang W, Liu G, Zhang J, Yang J, Deng Z.
      Allicin, one of the main biologically active compounds derived from garlic, was previously reported to possess multiple pharmacological activities. Whether allicin protected against chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) induced depressive-like behaviors remained unknown. Thus, our present study for the first time investigated the potential antidepressant effects and the mechanisms of allicin on the CSDS mice model. Thirty minutes before social defeat stress, allicin (2, 10, 50 mg/kg) was treated by intraperitoneal injection. The duration times of CSDS model establishment and allicin intervene were 10 days. Subsequently, the force swimming test (FST), social interaction test (SIT), and sucrose preference test (SPT) were applied for behavioral assessments. The levels of inflammation mediators were determined by commercial ELISA kits. The concentration of iron was tested, and relative protein expressions were measured by western blot. Oxidative stress and apoptosis markers were also detected by commercial kits and western blot. The behavioral defects induced by social defeat stress were obviously improved by allicin. Microglia activation, as well as inflammatory cytokines elevation in the hippocampus of CSDS also down-regulated by administration of allicin. Furthermore, content of iron and protein expressions of key components in iron metabolism were remarkably aberrant changed in the CSDS mice hippocampus, meanwhile, allicin ameliorated this phenomenon. Allicin decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl, and the protein expression of NOX4, as well as up-regulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. In addition, allicin attenuated the enhanced neuronal apoptosis. Finally, allicin supplementation inhibited the Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome hyperactivity, and the expressions of inflammasome components, such as ACS, caspase-1, and IL-1β in the hippocampus of CSDS mice. Allicin attenuated depressive-like behaviors of CSDS mice through reducing neuroinflammation, ameliorating iron abnromal accumulation, balacing oxidative stress, and attenuation neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus via suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome.
    Keywords:  Allicin; Chronic social defeat stress; Depressive-like behavior; Iron homeostasis; NLRP3; Neuroinflammation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11011-018-0342-z
  16. Cancer Gene Ther. 2018 Dec 05.
    Yao Z, Yang S, Zhao H, Yang H, Jiang X.
      A significant roadblock in treatment of GBM multiforme (GBM) is resistance to temozolomide (TMZ). In this study, we investigated whether I-BET151, a specific BET inhibitor, could sensitize GBM cells to TMZ. Our findings showed that the action of I-BET151 could augment the effect of TMZ on cancer cells U251 and U87 cells. In U251 cells, administration of I-BET151 increased the TMZ-induced apoptosis GBM cells. I-BET151 remarkably enhanced the activities of caspase-3. In addition, I-BET151 promoted TMZ-induced migration and invasion in GBM cells. Moreover, I-BET151 increased the amount of reactive oxygen species as well as superoxide anions with a decrease of activity of SOD and the anti-oxidative properties of GBM cells. I-BET151 also induced increased PUMA expression, which is required for the functions of I-BET151 and regulates the synergistic cytotoxic effects of i-BET151 and TMZ in GBM cells. I-BET151 with TMZ also showed synergistic cytotoxic effects in vivo. These point out to an approach to tackle GBM using TMZ along with BET inhibitors.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41417-018-0068-4
  17. Environ Toxicol. 2018 Dec 05.
    Sakthivel R, Sheeja Malar D, Archunan G, Pandima Devi K.
      In the present study, the modulatory effect of phytol against benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] induced lung carcinogenesis was investigated in Swiss albino mice. During the experimental period, phytol treatment showed no adverse toxic effect and mortality to the experimental animals. Lung tumor was observed in B(a)P treated group and also in animals post-treated with low concentration (50 mg/kg) of phytol. No neoplastic changes were observed in the lung tissue of the animals treated with the maximum dose of phytol (100 mg/kg). An elevated level of antioxidant enzymes combined with macromolecular damage (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content) was observed upon B(a)P treatment whereas, phytol restored the level of antioxidant enzymes which were comparable to the vehicle control group. Moreover, administration of B(a)P induced apoptosis, as observed by the highest expression of Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 proteins in lung tissue of B(a)P alone treated animals. However, phytol treatment reduced the expression of Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 protein and maintained the constant expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These observations positively reveal that phytol regulates the antioxidant enzymes and thereby protects the cells against B(a)P induced carcinogenesis without showing any adverse toxic effect to the animals.
    Keywords:  Phytol; antioxidant; apoptosis; benzo(a)pyrene; carcinogenesis; caspase-3
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.22690
  18. Food Sci Nutr. 2018 Nov;6(8): 2423-2430
    Yoon Y, Lee YM, Song S, Lee YY, Yeum KJ.
      Black soybeans are functional foods containing a variety of bioactives such as isoflavones, carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic acid as well as anthocyanins. Here, we examined whether Cheongja#3 black soybean extract has a protective effect on oxidative stress-induced cell death in human keratinocytes HaCaT. First, we identified fat-soluble bioactives in three varieties of soybean extracts (Saedanbaek, Daechan, and Cheongja#3). In particular, black soybean Cheongja#3 had high amounts of lutein than other varieties. We demonstrated that Cheongja#3 extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, Cheongja#3 protected cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and triggered cell death determined by cell viabilities and apoptotic caspase activities. Next, we identified the underlying mechanism is due to increased Nrf2 antioxidant system by Cheongja#3, thus increasing the expression of heme oxygenases (HO)-1. These results indicated that Cheongja#3 soybean extract has protective role against oxidative stress by upregulating the Nrf-2 antioxidant system in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells.
    Keywords:  HO‐1; Nrf2; anthocyanin; apoptosis; caspases
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.842
  19. Dose Response. 2018 Oct-Dec;16(4):16(4): 1559325818810636
    Cao J, Zhang Y, Wang T, Li B.
      Osteoarthritis (OA) affects elderly population worldwide and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to be positively correlated with OA development. Previous reports prove the cytoprotective effects of baicalin on chondrocytes, whereas the mechanisms are hardly reported. Hence, we aimed to investigate the links between OA, ER stress, and baicalin. Chondrocytes from patients with OA were subjected to H2O2 treatment with or without baicalin pretreatment, and cell viability was assessed via Cell Counting Kit-8. Messenger RNA (mRNA) amounts of apoptosis-related genes (Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3), extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes (Collange I, Collange II, Aggrecan, and Sox9) and ER stress hallmarks (binding immunoglobulin protein [BiP] C/EBP homologous protein [CHOP]) were evaluated via quantitative real-time PCR. Bax, Bcl-2, BiP, and CHOP protein levels were analyzed via Western blot. Baicalin suppressed the changes in cell viability and apoptosis-related gene expressions caused by H2O2. Reactive oxygen species and glutathione/oxidized glutathione assay showed that H2O2 enhanced oxidative stress. Baicalin suppressed H2O2-induced downregulation of mRNA expression of ECM-related genes. Moreover, baicalin reduced H2O2-stimulated increase in oxidative stress and the expression of ER stress hallmarks. Endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer abolished the protective activities, whereas ER stress inhibitor did not exhibit extra protective effects. Baicalin pretreatment protected patient-derived chondrocytes from H2O2 through ER stress inhibition.
    Keywords:  ER stress; H2O2; baicalin; chondrocytes from OA patients; osteoarthritis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1177/1559325818810636
  20. J Cancer. 2018 ;9(23): 4503-4509
    Dai L, Chen J, Cao Y, Del Valle L, Qin Z.
      Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of several human malignancies, particularly Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS), which preferentially arise in immunocompromised patients such as HIV+ subpopulation while still lacking of effective therapeutic options. We recently found that the ribonucleotide reductase (RR) subunit M2 is potentially regulated by the key oncogenic HGF/c-MET pathway in KSHV-related lymphoma cells. One of RR inhibitor, 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP) effectively induced apoptosis of KSHV+ lymphomas and suppressed tumor progression in vivo. In the current study, we found that 3-AP treatment selectively inhibited the proliferation of KSHV-infected endothelial cells, the major cellular components of KS, through inducing DNA damage, reducing the levels of intracellular iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing viral lytic gene expression. By using a KS-like nude mouse model, we found that 3-AP treatment significantly suppressed KSHV induced tumorigenesis in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate targeting RR by 3-AP may represent a promising strategy for improving the treatment of KS in future.
    Keywords:  3-AP; KSHV; Kaposi's Sarcoma; Ribonucleotide reductase
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7150/jca.27437
  21. Metallomics. 2018 Dec 05.
    Wang Y, Zhao H, Guo M, Shao Y, Liu J, Jiang G, Xing M.
      The kidney is the most crucial site for the excretion of arsenic and its metabolites. In this study, Hy-line chickens exposed to different toxicologically relevant doses of arsenic (0, 7.5, 15 and 30 mg kg-1 diet) presented marked renal injury as evidenced by the increased leakage of blood urea nitrogen (up to 2.6 folds) and creatinine (up to 2.3 folds). Furthermore, increased content of renal arsenic (up to 30 folds) and malondialdehyde restrained anti-hydroxyl radical ability, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, catalase) further corroborated extensive renal damage. Meanwhile, as another cellular adaptive survival strategy, inflammation responses were quickly detected upon arsenic exposure as evidenced by elevated nuclear migration of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inflammation-related phenotypes. It was further noted that arsenic-induced mitochondrial damage was accompanied by accumulation of p53 initiated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in nephrocyte, eventually elevating the apoptosis rate (up to 9.1 folds) compared to that of the control groups. Noticeably, correlation analysis illustrated that this mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was initiated following oxidative stress and inflammatory response. This study demonstrated that As2O3 exposure induced oxidative stress and inflammatory-mediated nephrotoxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, eventually leading to apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent pathway in chicken kidneys.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1039/c8mt00234g
  22. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2018 Dec 03. 1-14
    Shati AA.
      This study aimed to investigate the protective role of resveratrol (RES) against cisplatin (Cis)-induced testicular damage and reproductive dysfunction in rats and to examine the underlying mechanisms of protection including its effect on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, P53, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), and Protein kinase B (Akt) signaling. Eight-week-old Rats were divided into four groups (n = 12 each) of 1) control group: received normal saline (i.p.) as vehicle for 45 days, 2) RES-treated group: received RES (20 mg/kg, i.p) for 45 days, 3) Cis-treated group: received Cis (3 mg/kg) for 3 days and then continued on normal saline, and 4) Cis + RES-treated group: received Cis for the first 3 days and then continued on RES for the next 45 days. Serum sex hormones levels, sperm parameters, and levels of testicular antioxidant potential and inflammatory mediators were assessed in all rats. In addition, activation of ER stress, P53, ERK1/2, JNK, and Akt and markers of apoptosis were evaluated in rats' testis. Cis lowered sperm count and motility and increased sperm morphological abnormalities. Testis of Cis-treated rats had low expression of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, CAT, and GPx and decreased the level of GSH. Concomitantly, Cis upregulated levels of cleaved caspase-3, P53, calpain-1/cleaved caspase-12, p-ERK1/2, and p-SAPK/p-JNK. However, RES administration post-Cis administration restored all sperm parameters and prevented testicular apoptosis mediated by inhibition of all above-mentioned apoptotic pathways. Moreover, RES enhanced testosterone, FSH, and LH levels and upregulated p-Akt/p-Bad levels in both control and Cis-treated rats. In conclusion, RES protects against Cis-induced testicular damage and reproductive dysfunction via improving testosterone levels, increasing sperm count, reducing testicular apoptosis via an antioxidant potential, inhibition of ER stress, P53, ERK1/2, JNK, and activation of Akt. Abbreviations: RES: resveratrol, Cis: cisplatin; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERK1/2: extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2; SAPK/JNK: stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase; Akt: protein kinase B; HPG axis: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis; PUFAs: polyunsaturated fatty acids; FSH: Follicular stimulating hormone; LH: Luteinizing hormone; PBS: phosphate buffered saline; GSH: reduced glutathione; GSSG: glutathione disulfide; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-α; IL-6: interleukin-6; GRx: glutathione reductase; SOD: superoxide dismutase; CAT: catalase; 4HNE: 4-hydroxynonenal.
    Keywords:  Cisplatin; ERK1/2; JNK; apoptosis; resveratrol; testis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/19396368.2018.1541114
  23. Pain. 2018 Nov 29.
    Khasabova IA, Khasabov SG, Olson JK, Uhelski ML, Kim AH, Albino-Ramírez AM, Wagner CL, Seybold VS, Simone DA.
      Painful peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of cisplatin treatment. Using a murine model of cisplatin-induced hyperalgesia, we determined whether a PPARγ synthetic agonist, pioglitazone, attenuated the development of neuropathic pain and identified underlying mechanisms. Cisplatin produced mechanical and cold hyperalgesia and decreased electrical thresholds of Aδ and C-fibers, which were attenuated by co-administration of pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, i.p.) with cisplatin. Anti-hyperalgesic effects of pioglitazone were blocked by the PPARγ antagonist T0070907 (10 mg/kg, i.p.). We hypothesized that the ability of pioglitazone to reduce the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons contributed to its anti-hyperalgesic activity. Effects of cisplatin and pioglitazone on somatosensory neurons were studied on dissociated mouse DRG neurons after 24 h in vitro. Incubation of DRG neurons with cisplatin (13 µM) for 24 h increased the occurrence of depolarization-evoked calcium transients, and these were normalized by co-incubation with pioglitazone (10 µM). Oxidative stress in DRG neurons was considered a significant contributor to cisplatin-evoked hyperalgesia because a ROS scavenger attenuated hyperalgesia and normalized the evoked-calcium responses when co-treated with cisplatin. Pioglitazone increased the expression and activity of ROS-reducing enzymes in DRGs and normalized cisplatin-evoked changes in oxidative stress and labeling of mitochondria with the dye MitoTracker Deep Red, indicating that the anti-hyperalgesic effects of pioglitazone were attributed to its antioxidant properties in DRG neurons. These data demonstrate clear benefits of broadening the use of the antidiabetic drug pioglitazone, or other PPARγ agonists, to minimize the development of cisplatin-induced painful neuropathy.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001448
  24. BMC Mol Biol. 2018 Dec 04. 19(1): 15
    Tan SN, Sim SP, Khoo ASB.
      BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is known to be involved in most of the aetiological factors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Cells that are under oxidative stress may undergo apoptosis. We have previously demonstrated that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis could be a potential mechanism mediating chromosome breakages in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Additionally, caspase-activated DNase (CAD) may be the vital player in mediating the chromosomal breakages during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Chromosomal breakage occurs during apoptosis and chromosome rearrangement. Chromosomal breakages tend to cluster in certain regions, such as matrix association region/scaffold attachment region (MAR/SAR). We hypothesised that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis may result in chromosome breaks preferentially at the MAR/SAR sites. The AF9 gene at 9p22 was targeted in this study because 9p22 is a deletion site commonly found in NPC.RESULTS: By using MAR/SAR recognition signature (MRS), potential MAR/SAR sites were predicted in the AF9 gene. The predicted MAR/SAR sites precisely match to the experimentally determined MAR/SARs. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to induce apoptosis in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NP69) and NPC cells (HK1). Nested inverse polymerase chain reaction was employed to identify the AF9 gene cleavages. In the SAR region, the gene cleavage frequency of H2O2-treated cells was significantly higher than that of the non-treated cells. A few chromosomal breakages were detected within the AF9 region which was previously found to be involved in the mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL)-AF9 translocation in an acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patient. As for the non-SAR region, no significant difference in the gene cleavage frequency was found between the untreated control and H2O2-treated cells. Furthermore, H2O2-induced cleavages within the SAR region were reduced by caspase-3 inhibitor, which indirectly inhibits CAD.
    CONCLUSIONS: These results reaffirm our previous findings that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis could be one of the potential mechanisms underlying chromosome breakages in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. MAR/SAR may play a vital role in defining the location of chromosomal breakages mediated by oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, where CAD is the major nuclease.
    Keywords:  AF9 gene; Apoptosis; H2O2; MAR/SAR; NPC; Oxidative stress
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12867-018-0116-5
  25. Environ Pollut. 2018 Nov 22. pii: S0269-7491(18)34911-X. [Epub ahead of print]245 719-724
    Sun HJ, Zhang Y, Zhang JY, Lin H, Chen J, Hong H.
      2,6-dichlorobenzoquinone (2,6-DCBQ), an emerging disinfection by-production, frequently occurs in reclaimed water and drinking water. However, limited information was available regarding its toxicity. To evaluate its impact, zebrafish at early life stage were exposed to 0, 10, 30, 60, 90, or 120 μg L-1 2,6-BDCQ for 72 h. Our results indicated that 2,6-BDCQ decreased zebrafish's survival rate to 65% and 44% at 90 and 120 μg L-1 treatments and increased its aberration rate to 11% and 26% at 90 μg L-1 and 120 μg L-1 treatments. Besides, 2,6-BDCQ had adverse effect on its oxidative stress (elevated superoxide dismutase activity), lipid peroxidation (increased malondialdehyde levels), DNA damage (increased 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine contents) and apoptosis (increased caspase-3 activity). Although lower concentrations (≤60 μg L-1) of 2,6-BDCQ didn't exhibit significant effect on its survival development or lipid peroxidation of zebrafish, they induced obvious DNA damage and apoptosis occurrence. These results revealed 2,6-BDCQ caused genotoxicity and cytotoxicity to zebrafish. This study provides novel insight into 2,6-DCBQ-induced toxicity in zebrafish.
    Keywords:  Cytotoxicity; Dichlorobenzoquinone; Genotoxicity; Lipid peroxidation; Oxidative stress; Zebrafish
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.11.051
  26. Georgian Med News. 2018 Oct; 144-148
    Delibashvili D, Dumbadze Z, Krynytska I, Marushchak M, Habor H, Holovatiuk L.
      The use of food additives in food manufacturing has been a public health issue for many years. Currently, more than 3000 food additives have been approved and estimates has shown that each person may consume 3.6 to 4.5 kg of food additives per year on average. One of the most common food additives in Ukraine and in Europe is monosodium glutamate (MSG). This paper reports the effect of monosodium glutamate administration at "safe" (allowed) doses on the generation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in leukocyte blood suspension of rats. Experimental studies were conducted on 32 non-linear, male, white rats weighing 180-200 g. The experimental animals were administered MSG (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) at a dose of 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg body weight. Control group of animals received normal saline. We have found that consumption of MSG at low dosage was associated with development of excessive reactive oxygen species generation and apoptotic processes in blood leukocytes of rats. Therefore it is advisable not only to investigate the established dangerous doses of E621, but also to study the molecular mechanisms of the "safe" (allowed) doses of MSG effect on a living organism.
  27. Toxicology. 2018 Nov 29. pii: S0300-483X(18)30631-0. [Epub ahead of print]
    Banerjee S, Ghosh S, Sinha K, Chowdhury S, Sil PC.
      Colitis is an inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death constitute the backbone of colitis. Most of the drugs prescribed for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have various side effects. In this scenario, we would like to determine the therapeutic role sulphur dioxide, a gaso-transmitter produced through the metabolism of cysteine in colitis. Colitis was induced through intrarectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in male Wistar rats. Rats were administered with 0.9% saline containing Na2SO3 and NaHSO3 (3:1 ratio; i.e., 0.54 mmol/kg and 0.18 mmol/kg body weight) orally 1 hour after colitis induction followed by the administration of the same solution after each 12 hours for 72 hours. TNBS administration resulted in increased oxidative stress, NF-ĸ B and inflammasome activation, ER stress and autophagy. Moreover, TNBS administration also resulted in activation of p53 and apoptosis. SO2 reversed all these alterations and ameliorated colitis in rats. Administration of an inhibitor of endogenous SO2 production along with TNBS exacerbated colitis. Results suggest that down-regulation of SO2 / glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase pathway is involved in IBD. The protective role of SO2 in colitis is attributed to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant nature. Down-regulation of SO2/glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase pathway is involved in IBD. Since SO2 is not toxic at low concentration and endogenously produced, it may be used with prescribed drugs for synergistic effect after intensive research. Our result demonstrated the therapeutic role of SO2 in colitis for the first time.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; ER stress; apoptosis; inflammation; oxidative stress; sulphur dioxide
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2018.11.010
  28. J Inorg Biochem. 2018 Nov 28. pii: S0162-0134(18)30451-3. [Epub ahead of print]191 126-134
    Xu L, Zhang PP, Fang XQ, Liu Y, Wang JQ, Zhou HZ, Chen ST, Chao H.
      The chemical structures of Ru (II) complexes are known to affect their cellular behavior and toxicity. In this study, three new luminescent Ru (II) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(HIPMP)](ClO4)2 (Ru1, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, HIPMP = 2-(1H-imidazo-[4,5-f] [1,10] phenanthrolin-2-yl)-4-methylphenol), [Ru(phen)2(HIPMP)](ClO4)2 (Ru2, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), [Ru(dmb)2(HIPMP)](ClO4)2 (Ru3, dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine), were synthesized, and their anticancer activities were examined. All three complexes displayed anticancer activities against various cancer cells, with Ru2 exhibiting the highest cytotoxic activities. Ru2 was shown to accumulate specifically in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induce ER stress-mediated apoptosis. In addition, Ru2 could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and trigger mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization. These results demonstrated that Ru2 induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through ER stress and ROS production.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Cytotoxicity; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Ruthenium (II) complexes
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2018.11.015
  29. J Cell Physiol. 2018 Dec 04.
    Rabiee S, Tavakol S, Barati M, Joghataei MT.
      Cancer as a multifactorial and smart disease is now considered a challenging problem. Despite many investigations on drug discovery, it remains incurable, in part, due to insufficient understanding of its special mechanisms. For the first time, we collaterally investigated the effect of acidosis on the contribution of apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy in MDA-MB 231 cells. Our data showed that necrosis, apoptosis, and intracellular reactive oxygen species production drastically decreased from 48 to 72 hr while cell viability and autophagy increased along with a gap between the percentages. Eventually, the decrease of necrosis and apoptosis was related to upregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and fatty acid synthetase, respectively. It seems that at the early stage of cancer progression, apoptosis is the main mechanism of cell mortality and afterward autophagy would be the main mechanism of cell survival. Therefore, at the acute phase of cancer, apoptotic inducer medications would be effective while at the chronic phase of cancer progression, autophagy inhibitor medication would be added as well. This eventually means that autophagy acts as both cell death and survival mechanisms at the onset of cancer progression with the approach towards cell survival. Besides other unknown cell survival mechanisms are involved in cell viability, except for apoptosis and necrosis inhibition and autophagy improvement. This study reiterates the inefficaciousness of autophagy inhibitor's medication at the onset of disease. It also emphasizes discovering other cell death mechanisms for cancer cell adaptation at the onset of disease with the aim of their targeting in cancer invasion therapy.
    Keywords:  acidic pH; apoptosis; autophagy; cancer; drug discovery
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27876
  30. Chem Biol Interact. 2018 Nov 27. pii: S0009-2797(18)31020-2. [Epub ahead of print]
    El-Marasy SA, El Awdan SA, Abd-Elsalam RM.
      Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious neuropsychiatric syndrome due to either acute or chronic hepatic failure. This study aimed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of chrysin, a natural flavenoid on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic encephalopathy in rats. Also the effect of chrysin on motor impairment, cognitive deficits, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, apoptosis and histopathological damage was assessed. HE was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of TAA (200 mg/kg) for three alternative days. Normal and control groups received the vehicle for 21 days. Chrysin was administered orally for 21 days (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) and starting from day 17, rats received i.p. dose of TAA (200 mg/kg) at three alternative days. Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted. Chrysin improved TAA-induced motor incoordination as it reduced final falling latency time in rotarod test, ameliorated cognitive deficits in object recognition test (ORT) and attenuated serum ammonia, hepatic liver enzymes namely, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) brain contents. Chrysin administration also reduced Toll-4 receptor (TLR-4) gene expression, caspase-3 protein expression, hepatic necrosis and astrocyte swelling. This study depicts that chrysin exerted neuroprotective effect in TAA-induced HE rats, evidenced by improvement of cognitive deficits, motor incoordination and histopathological changes such as astrocyte swelling and vacuolization; hallmarks in HE, via reducing hyperammonia, ameliorating hepatic function, in addition to its anti-oxidant, inactivation of TLR-4/NF-κBinflammatory pathway, and anti-apoptotic effects.
    Keywords:  Caspase-3; Chrysin; Hepatic encephalopathy; Oxidative stress; TLR-4/NF-κB pathway; Thioacetamide
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2018.11.021
  31. J Biomed Sci. 2018 Nov 30. 25(1): 87
    Guan R, Zou W, Dai X, Yu X, Liu H, Chen Q, Teng W.
      Mitochondria autophagy, termed as mitophagy, is a mechanism of specific autophagic elimination of mitochondria. Mitophagy controls the quality and the number of mitochondria, eliminating dysfunctional or excessive mitochondria that can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause cell death. Mitochondria are centrally implicated in neuron and tissue injury after stroke, due to the function of supplying adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the tissue, regulating oxidative metabolism during the pathologic process, and contribution to apoptotic cell death after stroke. As a catabolic mechanism, mitophagy links numbers of a complex network of mitochondria, and affects mitochondrial dynamic process, fusion and fission, reducing mitochondrial production of ROS, mediated by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). The precise nature of mitophagy's involvement in stroke, and its underlying molecular mechanisms, have yet to be fully clarified. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the integration of mitochondria with mitophagy, also to introduce and discuss recent advances in the understanding of the potential role, and possible signaling pathway, of mitophagy in the pathological processes of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. The author also provides evidence to explain the dual role of mitophagy in stroke.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria; Mitochondria autophagy; Stroke
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12929-018-0487-4
  32. Front Physiol. 2018 ;9 1617
    Li H, Zhang X, Zhu X, Qi X, Lin K, Cheng L.
      Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe medical problem leading to crucial life change. Icariin (ICA) is a natural flavonoid compound extracted from the Chinese herb Epimedium brevicornum which has neuroprotective effects. But little is known about the relationship between ICA and SCI. We hypothesized ICA may enhance motor recovery through attenuating inflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mice were randomly assigned to sham, SCI, ICA 20 μmol/kg (low dose) and ICA 50 μmol/kg (high dose) groups. And Behavioral, biochemical, molecular biological, immunofluorescent and histological assays were performed. First, ICA enhanced motor recovery greatly at 14, 28, and 42 days and protected spinal cord tissues especially in the high dose group. Meanwhile, ICA decreased the production of interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase at 24 h and 3 days after SCI. The level of mitochondrial reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), Na+-K+-ATPase, mitochondrial membrane potential, state III respiration rate and the respiratory control ratio were also significantly increased, while malondialdehyde level and Ca2+ concentration were decreased by ICA. Furthermore, ICA decreased the expression of mitochondrial apoptotic proteins at 3 days after SCI. More importantly, transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Nissl staining implied that ICA at a high dose inhibited the neuronal apoptosis after SCI. Our research indicated that early and continuous treatment of ICA at a high dose significantly enhanced motor recovery after SCI through inhibiting pro-inflammatory factors, oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; icariin; inflammation; mitochondria; oxidative stress; spinal cord injury
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01617
  33. Toxicol Res (Camb). 2018 Nov 01. 7(6): 1029-1035
    Beigi Harchegani A, Mirnam Niha M, Sohrabiyan M, Ghatrehsamani M, Tahmasbpour E, Shahriary A.
      Sulfur mustard (SM) is a toxic compound that can target human spermatozoa. SM induces a wide variety of pathological effects in human reproductive organs, including sexual hormone disturbance, testicular atrophy, impaired spermatogenesis, poor sperm quality, defects in embryo development, childhood physical abnormalities, and severe fertility problems. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of SM action on male reproductive health and human sperm function are unclear. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species and the resulting oxidative stress is likely a significant mechanism of SM action, and could be associated with sperm DNA damage, membrane lipid peroxidation, reduced membrane fluidity, mitochondrial deficiency, apoptosis, and poor sperm quality. In this review, we aim to discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms of SM action on sperm and reproductive health, the significance of OS, and the mechanisms through which SM enhances the infertility rate among SM-exposed individuals.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1039/c8tx00062j
  34. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018 ;2018 7826576
    Tan BL, Norhaizan ME, Chan LC.
      Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen, called sapodilla, or locally known as ciku, belongs to the family Sapotaceae. We found that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract has cytotoxic effect against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line in our earlier study. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the anticancer properties of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract in HepG2 cells. We also aimed to unravel yet undiscovered mechanisms and identified several expressed genes whose functions in cytotoxicity activity of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract in HepG2 cells have not been well-studied. The apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activities were analyzed using Annexin V-propidium iodide staining and dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, respectively, by NovoCyte Flow Cytometer. Bax and Bcl-2 expression were assessed using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The associated molecular pathways were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Overall analyses revealed that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract can increase percentage of early apoptotic cells, induce the formation of ROS, upregulate c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and reduce Akt1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) transcriptional activities. Our data suggest that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract can suppress the growth of HepG2 cells via modulation of ERK1/2/Akt1/JNK1 transcriptional expression.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7826576
  35. Food Technol Biotechnol. 2018 Sep;56(3): 421-430
    Šeklić DS, Obradović AD, Stanković MS, Živanović MN, Mitrović TL, Stamenković SM, Marković SD.
      The aim of this study is to investigate cytotoxic, proapoptotic, antimigratory and pro-antioxidant effects of methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of lichens Pseudevernia furfuracea and Platismatia glauca on colorectal cancer (HCT-116 and SW-480) cell lines. We compared the cytotoxic effects on colorectal cancer cells with the effects obtained from normal human fibroblast (MRC-5) cell line. Tetrazolium (MTT) test evaluated the cytotoxic effects, Transwell assay evaluated cell migration, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescent method followed the apoptosis, while prooxidant/antioxidant effects were determined spectrophotometrically through concentration of redox parameters. The tested extracts showed considerable cytotoxic effect on cancer cells with no observable cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Ethyl acetate and acetone extract of P. furfuracea induced the highest cytotoxicity (IC50=(21.2±1.3) µg/mL on HCT-116, and IC50=(51.3±0.8) µg/mL on SW-480 cells, respectively, after 72 h), with noteworthy apoptotic and prooxidant effects, and antimigratory potential of methanol extract. P. glauca extracts induced cytotoxic effects on HCT-116 cells after 72 h (IC50<40 μg/mL), while only methanol and acetone extracts had cytotoxic effects on SW-480 cells after 24 h, with proapoptotic/necrotic activity, as a consequence of induced oxidative stress. In conclusion, lichen extracts changed to a great extent cell viability and migratory potential of colorectal cancer cell lines. HCT-116 cells were more sensitive to treatments, P. furfuracea had better proapoptotic and antimigratory effects, and both investigated lichen species might be a source of substances with anticancer activity.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; cell motility; colorectal cancer; cytotoxic effects; lichen extracts; redox status
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.56.03.18.5727
  36. J Cell Physiol. 2018 Dec 03.
    Chen X, Li Y, Feng M, Hu X, Zhang H, Zhang R, Dong X, Liu C, Zhang Z, Jiang S, Huang S, Chen L.
      Maduramicin (Mad), a polyether ionophore antibiotic, has been reported to be toxic to animals and humans because of being used at high doses or for long time, resulting in heart failure. However, the toxic mechanism of Mad in cardiac muscle cells is not well understood. Here, we show that Mad induced cell viability reduction and apoptosis in cardiac-derived H9c2, HL-1 cells, primary cardiomyocytes, and murine cardiac muscles, which was because of the inhibition of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2). Expression of constitutively active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MKK1) attenuated Mad-induced cell death in H9c2 cells, whereas silencing Erk1/2 or ectopic expression of dominant negative MKK1 strengthened Mad-induced cell death. Moreover, we found that both phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and protein kinase B (Akt) were implicated in the regulation of Erk1/2 inactivation and apoptosis in the cells and tissues exposed to Mad. Overexpression of dominant negative PTEN and/or constitutively active Akt, or constitutively active Akt and/or constitutively active MKK1 rescued the cells from Mad-induced dephosphorylated-Erk1/2 and cell death. Furthermore, Mad-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) activated PTEN and inactivated Akt-Erk1/2 contributing to cell death, as N-acetyl- L-cysteine ameliorated the event. Taken together, the results disclose that Mad inhibits Erk1/2 via ROS-dependent activation of PTEN and inactivation of Akt, leading to cell death in cardiac muscle cells. Our findings suggest that manipulation of the ROS-PTEN-Akt-Erk1/2 pathway may be a potential approach to prevent Mad-induced cardiotoxicity.
    Keywords:  Akt; PTEN; ROS; apoptosis; cardiac muscle cells; maduramicin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27830
  37. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Nov 30. pii: S0753-3322(18)37324-4. [Epub ahead of print]110 239-247
    Mohamed HM, Mahmoud AM.
      Tramadol is an opioid used as analgesic for treating moderate or sever pain. The long-term use of tramadol can induce several deleterious effects. We investigated the impact of chronic tramadol administration on the cerebrum of rats, focusing on oxidative damage, inflammation, apoptosis and changes in monoamine neurotransmitters. Rats received 30 or 60 mg/kg body weight tramadol dissolved in physiological saline daily for 8 weeks via oral gavage. Tramadol-induced rats showed significantly increased cerebral lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide, and deceased GSH content and activity and expression of the antioxidant enzymes. Tramadol administration for 8 weeks resulted in increased serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and expression of NF-κB, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 in the cerebrum of rats. Monoamine neurotransmitters, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, and gene and protein expression levels of p53 and Bax were significantly increased in the cerebrum of tramadol-induced rats. In contrast, chronic tramadol administration down-regulated Bcl-2 both gene and protein expression in the cerebrum of rats. In conclusion, our results indicate that the neurotoxic effect of chronic tramadol consumption is mediated via oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Tramadol provoked lipid peroxidation, up-regulated inflammation and apoptosis markers and altered neurotransmission in the cerebrum of rats.
    Keywords:  8-Oxo-dG; Apoptosis; Inflammation; ROS; Tramadol
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.11.141
  38. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2018 Nov 30.
    Xue Y, Sun C, Hao Q, Cheng J.
      Coronary microembolization (CME) caused by physical obstruction in coronary microcirculation induces myocardial apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction, and it was reported that the inactivation of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling was involved in this process. Astaxanthin (AST) is a reddish pigment that belongs to keto-carotenoids. It is also a potent antioxidant and has been reported to activate Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in vein endothelial cells. However, it is still unknown whether AST is able to activate Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway to protect cardiac functions from CME in vivo. To address this question, rats were orally administrated with AST or AST plus Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP, a HO-1 inhibitor), followed by CME modeling operation. Then, cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiographic measurement. Myocardial infarction was measured by HBFP staining, and apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining. The protein levels and mRNA expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 were measured by Western blot and qRT-PCR, respectively. ELISA was performed to measure the activity of enzymes related to oxidative stress. AST pretreatment dramatically attenuated CME-induced cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Mechanistically, AST suppressed CME-induced oxidative stress by re-activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP completely eliminated the benefits of AST in CEM, supporting the critical role of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in mediating the cardioprotective function of AST in CME. Conclusion: AST suppresses oxidative stress via activating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and thus prevents CME-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ameliorates cardiac dysfunction in rats.
    Keywords:  Astaxanthin; Cardiomyocyte apoptosis; Coronary microembolization; Nrf2/HO-1 signaling; Oxidative stress
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-018-1595-0
  39. Int J Pharm. 2018 Nov 27. pii: S0378-5173(18)30882-2. [Epub ahead of print]555 346-355
    Du X, Zhang P, Fu H, Ahsan HM, Gao J, Chen Q.
      Targeting mitochondrial redox homeostasis is an appealing methodology for cancer therapeutics because of the upregulated antioxidant capacity in drug resistance cases. By coupling triphenylamine (TPA) with an excellent fluorescent group BODIPY, a novel mitochondrial-targeted fluorescent probe, BODIPY-TPA (BTPA), was synthesized and characterized. Confocal microscopic colocalization imaging indicated that BTPA exhibited a subcellular mitochondrial distribution. Cytotoxicity experiments suggested that BTPA exhibited selective anticancer activity via the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction in BGC-823 cancer cells. BTPA induced alterations in mitochondrial redox homeostasis because of the electron-donating property of TPA and mitochondrial selectivity. In further studies, TrxR2 in the mitochondria was alternatively inhibited, which contributed to MtROS accumulation further attenuated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The resultant decline in mitochondrial antioxidant capacity aggravated mitochondrial oxidative stress, which is responsible for cytochrome C release and caspase-9 activation. NAC completely reversed BTPA-induced ROS-dependent mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic apoptosis. Therefore, BTPA was designed as a superior fluorescent cancer-imaging probe and a mitochondrial redox-targeting anticancer agent.
    Keywords:  Antioxidant capacity; BODIPY-TPA; Mitochondrial redox; Mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis; MtROS; TrxR2
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.057
  40. Free Radic Res. 2018 Dec 04. 1-19
    Liu W, Yang T, Xu Z, Xu B, Deng Y.
      Methyl-mercury (MeHg) is a dangerous environmental contamination biotransformed from mercury or inorganic mercury compounds in waterways, which induces severe toxic effects in central nervous system. Oxidative stress is involved in various ways of intracellular physiological or pathological processes including neuronal apoptosis. For understanding the ways that oxidative stress participating in MeHg-induced apoptosis, the current study attempted to explore the effects of oxidative stress on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria function, especially focussing on ER stress followed by unfold protein response (UPR), as well as mitochondrial apoptosis pathways activation in primary cultured cortical neurons. Cells were exposed to 0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1 µM MeHg for 1-6 h, respectively, followed by cell viability quantification. For further experiments, 100 µM of 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (trolox) pre-treatment for 3 h followed by 1 µM MeHg for 6 h were performed for evaluation of oxidative stress, neuronal apoptosis, ER stress, UPR activation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Results showed that MeHg induced neuronal oxidative stress, apoptosis, up-regulating glucose-regulated protein (GRP78, GRP94), spliced Xbp1, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) mRNA, with activation of UPR including PKR-like ER kinase-eIF2α, inositol-requiring enzyme 1, and ATF6 pathways, as well as C/EBP homologous transcription factor protein and cleaved caspase-12 up-regulation. In addition, mitochondrial function was disrupted by MeHg, which was supported by caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation, and high levels of cytoplasm cytochrome C and apoptosis induce factor. Trolox pre-treatment significantly blocked neuronal apoptosis, ER stress, UPR activation, as well as mitochondrial dysfunction, in addition to the direct anti-oxidation. In conclusion, MeHg induces neuronal apoptosis through ER and mitochondria pathway, oxidative stress plays important roles in mediating apoptosis pathways activation.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; endoplasmic reticulum stress; methyl-mercury; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/10715762.2018.1546852
  41. J Cell Physiol. 2018 Dec 04.
    Gong Y, Yang J, Cai J, Liu Q, Zhang JM, Zhang Z.
      Glutathione peroxidase 3 (Gpx3), as an important selenoprotein, is the most crucial antioxidant defense in cardiomyocytes. However, the role of Gpx3 in Se-deficient cardiomyocyte damage still less reported. Here, we developed Gpx3 silence cardiomyocytes culture model (small interfering RNA; siRNA) for research the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis are performed to detect the expression of apoptosis and autophagy-related genes. MDC stain, flow cytometry, AO/EB stain, and electron microscope were performed to observe the changes of cell morphology. Our results reveal that Gpx3 suppression can significant increases in ROS (p < 0.05) levels, which further induced apoptosis through upregulated the expression of Caspase-3 in cardiomyocytes. Meanwhile, we also found that the whole process is accompanied by the occurrence of autophagy, which are promoted by inhibiting the mTOR, and increasing the expression of ATG-7, ATG-10, and ATG-12. Altogether, we conclude that the apoptotic and autophagic response machineries share antagonistic function in Gpx3 knockdown cardiomyocytes.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; autophagy; cardiomyocytes; chickens; glutathione peroxidase 3
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27842
  42. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Nov 29. pii: S0141-8130(18)34207-7. [Epub ahead of print]
    Bao D, Wang J, Liu J, Liu H.
      The neurotoxicity of HIV-1 Tat protein contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of HAND, and hence the attractive therapeutic strategies focusing on Tat-induced neurotoxicity are warranted. Salvia miltiorrhiza have been known to antioxidant property and neuroprotective effects. The Danshen granule is the pharmaceutical dosage forms of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvianic acid A is an essential chemical constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza. However, the protective effects of Salvianic acid A and Danshen granule on Tat-induced neurotoxicity remain unknown. Here, we found that Salvianic acid A and Danshen granule remarkable inhibited Tat-induced cell death, blocked LDH release and rescued dendritic spine loss. Furthermore, Salvianic acid A and Danshen granule significantly ameliorates Tat-induced intracellular ROS and MDA production, attenuates cell apoptosis. In addition, Salvianic acid A and Danshen granule pretreatment obviously increases antioxidant enzymatic activity of CAT, SOD and GSH-Px and inhibits apoptotic pathways. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that Salvianic acid A and Danshen granule provides substantial neuroprotection against Tat-induced neurotoxicity, which may be new therapeutic agent in Tat induced HAND or neurodegenerative diseases.
    Keywords:  Danshen granule; Neuroprotective effects; Salvianic acid A
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.11.146
  43. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018 Nov 30. 51(4): 1863-1878
    Liang Q, Xiao Y, Liu K, Zhong C, Zeng M, Xiao F.
      BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] pollution has become a global concern for both ecosystems and human health. Our previous study revealed Cr(VI) could induce both apoptosis and autophagy in L-02 hepatocytes. Here, we sought to explore the underlying mechanism of Cr(VI)-induced autophagy and its exact role in cell death.METHODS: Autophagy ultrastructure was observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM), autophagy flux was measured with double-tagged mCherry-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) assay, long-lived protein degradation assay, and LC3II expression assay in the presence of lysosomal inhibitor, bafilomycin A1 (BafA1). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was determined using fluorescent probe dichloro-dihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). The expression levels of Beclin-1, LC3, p62/ SQSTM1, and AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway-related molecules including phosphorylation (p)-AKT, AKT, p-mTOR, and mTOR were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Apoptosis was determined using Annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining.
    RESULTS: Our results demonstrated Cr(VI) exposure activated autophagy in L-02 hepatocytes, as evidenced by the accumulation of autophagosomes, the increase of LC3-II and degradation of p62/ SQSTM1, and the enhanced overall degradation of proteins. We also confirmed Cr(VI)-induced LC3-II elevation mainly came from autophagy induction rather than lysosomal degradation impairment. ROS-AKT-mTOR pathway was associated with Cr(VI)-induced autophagy, and ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment inhibited Cr(VI)-induced autophagy by alleviating the inhibition of the AKT-mTOR pathway. Autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine diphosphate (CDP) promoted Cr(VI)-induced apoptotic death.
    CONCLUSION: These findings indicated Cr(VI)-induced autophagy protected L-02 hepatocytes from apoptosis through the ROS-AKT-mTOR pathway.
    Keywords:  AKT-mTOR; Apoptosis; Autophagy; Cr(VI); L-02 hepatocytes; ROS
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1159/000495713
  44. Toxicol Res (Camb). 2018 Nov 01. 7(6): 1048-1060
    Zhang M, Xu C, Jiang L, Qin J.
      The prevalent application of nanoparticles (NPs) has drawn intense concerns about their impact on the environment and human health. Inhalation of NPs is the major route of NP exposure and has led to adverse effects on the lung. It is of great concern to evaluate the potential hazards of nanoparticles for human health during pulmonary exposure. Here, we proposed a novel 3D human lung-on-a-chip model to recreate the organ-level structure and functions of the human lung that allow to us evaluate the pulmonary toxicity of nanoparticles. The lung-on-a-chip consists of three parallel channels for the co-culture of human vascular endothelial cells and human alveolar epithelial cells sandwiching a layer of Matrigel membrane, which recapitulate the key features of the alveolar capillary barrier in the human lung. Cell-cell interaction, cell-matrix interaction and vascular mechanical cues work synergistically to promote the barrier function of the lung-on-a-chip model. TiO2 nanoparticles and ZnO nanoparticles were applied on the lung-on-a-chip to assay their nanotoxicity on both epithelial cells and endothelial cells. Junction protein expression, increased permeability to macromolecules, dose dependent cytotoxicity, ROS production and apoptosis were assayed and compared on the chip. This lung-on-a-chip model indicated its versatile application in human pulmonary health and safety assessment for nanoparticles, environment, food and drugs.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1039/c8tx00156a
  45. Arch Toxicol. 2018 Dec 03.
    Singh F, Zoll J, Duthaler U, Charles AL, Panajatovic MV, Laverny G, McWilliams TG, Metzger D, Geny B, Krähenbühl S, Bouitbir J.
      Statins inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and lower serum LDL-cholesterol levels. Statins are generally well tolerated, but can be associated with potentially life-threatening myopathy of unknown mechanism. We have shown previously that statins impair PGC-1β expression in human and rat skeletal muscle, suggesting that PGC-1β may play a role in statin-induced myopathy. PGC-1β is a transcriptional co-regulator controlling the expression of important genes in mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidative capacity and energy metabolism. The principle aim of the current study was to investigate the interaction between atorvastatin and PGC-1β in more detail. We therefore treated wild-type mice and mice with selective skeletal muscle knockout of PGC-1β (PGC-1β(i)skm-/- mice) with oral atorvastatin (5 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. At the end of treatment, we determined body parameters, muscle function, structure, and composition as well as the function of muscle mitochondria, mitochondrial biogenesis and activation of apoptotic pathways. In wild-type mice, atorvastatin selectively impaired mitochondrial function in glycolytic muscle and caused a conversion of oxidative type IIA to glycolytic type IIB myofibers. Conversely, in oxidative muscle of wild-type mice, atorvastatin enhanced mitochondrial function via activation of mitochondrial biogenesis pathways and decreased apoptosis. In PGC-1β(i)skm-/- mice, atorvastatin induced a switch towards glycolytic fibers, caused mitochondrial dysfunction, increased mitochondrial ROS production, impaired mitochondrial proliferation and induced apoptosis in both glycolytic and oxidative skeletal muscle. Our work reveals that atorvastatin mainly affects glycolytic muscle in wild-type mice and demonstrates the importance of PGC-1β for oxidative muscle integrity during long-term exposure to a myotoxic agent.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Atorvastatin; Mitochondrial proliferation; Myopathy; PGC-1β; Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2369-7
  46. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2018 Dec;26(6): 1589-1597
    Mao XH, Xu YX, Xing HY, Tian Z, Tang KJ, Liu L, Rao Q, Wang M, Wang JX.
      OBJECTIVE: To screen the differentially expressed proteins at the early stage of K562 cells treated with meisoindigo by using tandem mass tags (TMT)-based proteomics technology, and to explore the mechanism for meisoindigo-inducing apoptosis.METHODS: The half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of mesoindigo on K562 cells was determined by CCK8. The flow cytometry was used to assay the apoptosis of K562 cells treated by meisoindigo or DMSO. Total proteins were extracted from the cells treated with 0.2% DMSO (control) or 20 μmol/L meisoindigo (Test) for 2 hours. Then, the TMT-labeling HPLC-MS/MS was used to identify and quantify the peptides and their abundance, all the tests were repeated for 3 times. The Mascot software was used to identify the proteins; the GO annotations, enrichment and cluster analysis were used to analyze the differentially expressed proteins.
    RESULTS: Meisoindigo-induced K562 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (r=0.98), 5 544 proteins were identified, 4792 of which were quantified. The protein with expression difference>1.5-folds in Test group accoanted for 8, out of which the expression of 4 proteins were up-regulated and 4 were down-regulated. The differentially expressed proteins mainly associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS).
    CONCLUSION: Several proteins including DDIT4 were found to have dramatic changes in the early stage of K562 cells treated with meisoindigo by using quantitative proteomics technology. The ROS metabolic process may play important roles in meisoindigo-inducing apoptosis of K562 cells.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7534/j.issn.1009-2137.2018.06.002
  47. J Cancer. 2018 ;9(23): 4527-4535
    Liu Y, Qin L, Bi T, Dai W, Liu W, Gao Q, Shen G.
      Cisplatin (CDDP) has been extensively used for gastric cancer (GC) treatment but limited by drug resistance and severe toxicity. The chemo-sensitizers that enhance its efficiency and overcome its limitation are urgently needed. Oxymatrine (OMT), a primary active ingredient from the dry roots of Sophora favescens, has shown powerful anti-cancer property with little side-effect. In this study, we explored the chemo-sensitization of OMT to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of CDDP. GC cell lines were dealt with OMT and/or CDDP and then subjected to different experimental methods. We found that OMT could significantly potentiate the CDDP-caused BGC-823 and SGC7901 cells viability loss, and OMT acts synergistically with CDDP. The combinative treatment could arrest cell cycle in G0/G1 phase by increasing p21, p27 and decreasing cyclin D1, and induced apoptosis by ROS generation and AKT/ERK inactivation. Inhibition of ROS respectively reversed the cell death induced by OMT and/or CDDP, suggesting the pivotal roles of ROS in the process. Moreover, OMT enhanced the antitumor effects of CDDP in nude mice bearing BGC823 tumor xenografts in vivo. Taken together, this study highlights that the co-treatment with OMT and CDDP exerted synergistic antitumor effects in GC cells, and that these effects may be mediated by ROS generation and inactivation of the AKT/ERK pathways.
    Keywords:  Cisplatin; Gastric cancer; Oxymatrine; Reactive oxygen species; Synergistically
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7150/jca.28532
  48. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2018 ;12 3951-3960
    Wu H, Ding J, Wang L, Lin J, Li S, Xiang G, Jiang L, Xu H, Gao W, Zhou K.
      Background: Random skin flaps are commonly applied during plastic surgery, but distal flap necrosis limits their clinical applications. Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a traditional antiepileptic agent, may promote flap survival.Materials and methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into VPA-treated and control groups. All rats received VPA or saline by intraperitoneal injections once daily for 7 days after the modified McFarlane flap model was established. On postoperative day 7, flap survival, laser Doppler blood flow, and water content were examined for flap viability, hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and Western blot analysis, and the status of angiogenesis, apoptosis, and oxidative stress were detected in the ischemic flaps.
    Results: VPA increased the survival area, blood flow, and number of microvessels in skin flaps on postoperative day 7 and reduced edema. VPA promoted angiogenesis by enhancing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA transcription and upregulating VEGF and cadherin 5 expression, inhibited apoptosis via reduction of caspase 3 cleavage, and relieved oxidative stress by increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels and reducing the malondialdehyde (MDA) level.
    Conclusion: VPA promoted random skin flap survival by enhancing angiogenesis and inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis.
    Keywords:  angiogenesis; apoptosis; oxidative stress; random skin flap; valproic acid
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S186222
  49. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018 Dec 02. pii: S1050-4648(18)30801-5. [Epub ahead of print]
    Xiong G, Zou L, Deng Y, Meng Y, Liao X, Lu H.
      Clethodim is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, but its potential negative effects on aquatic organisms are still poorly understood. This study examined the effects of clethodim on zebrafish at aspects of early stage embryonic development, immune toxicity, cell apoptosis and locomotor behavior. Firstly, clethodim exposure markedly decreased the survival rate, body length, and heart rate and resulted in a series of morphological abnormalities, primarily spinal deformities (SD) and yolk sac edema, in zebrafish larvae. Secondly, the number of immune cells was substantially reduced but the levels of apoptosis and oxidative stress were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner upon clethodim exposure. Thirdly, we evaluated the expression of some key genes in TLR signaling including TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB p65 and they were all up-regulated by exposure to 300 μg/L clethodim. Meanwhile, some proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL8, and IFN-γ were also activated in both the mock and the TLR4-KD conditions. Moreover, the locomotor behaviors and the enzymatic activities of AChE were obviously inhibited but the levels of acetylated histone H3 were greatly increased by clethodim exposure. In addition, incubation of zebrafish larvae with acetylcholine receptor (AChR) agonist carbachol can partially rescue the clethodim-modulated locomotor behavior. Taken together, our results suggest that clethodim has the potential to induce developmental immunotoxicity and cause behavior alterations in zebrafish larvae. The information presented in this study will help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying clethodim exposure in aquatic ecosystems.
    Keywords:  Histone acetylation; Immunotoxicity; Locomotor behavior; TLR signaling; clethodim
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2018.12.002
  50. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2018 11 30. 64(14): 79-83
    Gümüş AF, Dede S, Yuksek V, Çetin S, Taşpınar M.
      The study was planned to investigate the effects of thymoquinone (TQ), which is a compound in N. sativa, on caspase dependent apoptosis and oxidative DNA damage in high glucose treated PC12 cells. PC12 cells were treated with high glucose (G1-150 mM, G2-250 mM, G3-350 mM), TQ (20 µM), and their combinations. Oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG (8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine)), and apoptosis (caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9 enzymes and M30 protein) parameters were analyzed with ELISA. The 8-OHdG levels decreased in all combination groups compared to the control (p≤0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between caspase 3 and 9. Caspase 8 in TQ, G3, TQG1, TQG2 groups were higher than the control (p≤0.002). Low M30 levels were observed in TQG1 group (p≤0.002). In conclusion, it was observed that in PC12 cell line treated with the high glucose concentrations, TQ administration had a statistically significant effect on oxidative DNA damage and some apoptotic parameters (caspase 8 and M30 protein).
    Keywords:  Caspases; DNA damage; High glucose; In vitro; Thymoquinone.
  51. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2018 Nov 28. pii: S0928-0987(18)30520-7. [Epub ahead of print]
    Derf A, Mudududdla R, Bharate SB, Chaudhuri B.
      Aggregated Aβ peptides which cause amyloid deposits, a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD), activate a stress response in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), known as the unfolded protein response, UPRER. Nascent UPRER induction helps in reducing ER stress by eliminating accumulated misfolded/aggregated secretory proteins. However, prolonged UPRER induction may trigger apoptosis. Here we show that, when expressed in yeast with an NH2-terminal secretory signal sequence (ss), the 42-amino acid human Aβ42 (h_Aβ42), but not the mouse/ratAβ42 (m_Aβ42) which reportedly does not misfold/aggregate, induces UPRER as monitored via an eGFP reporter. We also show that expression of ss-h_Aβ42, not ss-m_Aβ42, blocks yeast cell growth, with cells expressing ss-h_Aβ42 manifesting distinctive features of apoptosis such as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in ROS levels and DNA fragmentation. Screening for suppressors of ss-h_Aβ42-activated UPRER-eGFP induction, in a computationally-designed 29-compound methoxy-stilbene library, revealed three compounds that reduce >95% of UPRER-eGFP induction at 5 μM concentration, with EC50 values of 40-50 nM. Surprisingly, the compounds also rescue yeast cells from ss-h_Aβ42-mediated apoptosis, with EC50-s of 50-60 nM. These results provide direct evidence, probably for the first time, that there is a direct correlation between deactivation of UPRER and attenuation of apoptosis.
    Keywords:  Abeta; Apoptosis; DNA-fragmentation; Mitochondrial-membrane-potential; ROS; UPR(ER)-eGFP; Unfolded-protein-response (UPR)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2018.11.029
  52. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 ;2018 4780615
    Yao W, Han X, Zhang Y, Guan J, Ge M, Chen C, Wu S, Chen J, Luo G, Huang P, Hei Z.
      Background: Liver transplantation leads to liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, resulting in early graft dysfunction and failure. Exacerbations of oxidative stress and inflammatory response are key processes in the development of liver I/R injury. Intravenous anesthetic propofol potent effects on free radical scavenging and protects livers against I/R injury. However, the role and mechanism of propofol-mediated hepatic protection in liver transplantation is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of propofol postconditioning in the liver I/R injury after liver transplantation.Methods: Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into six groups: rats receiving either sham operation or orthotopic autologous liver transplantation (OALT) in the absence or presence of propofol (high dose and low dose) postconditioning or intralipid control or VAS2870 (Nox2 special inhibitor). Eight hours after OALT or sham operation, parameters of organ injury, oxidative stress, inflammation, and NADPH-associated proteins were assessed.
    Results: After OALT, severe liver pathological injury was observed that was associated with increases of serum AST and ALT, which were attenuated by propofol postconditioning. In addition, especially high dose of propofol postconditioning reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, TLR4, and NF-κB inflammatory pathway, accompanied with decrease of neutrophil elastase activity, MPO activity, 8-isoprotane, p47phox and gp91phox protein expressions, and increase of SOD activity. Inhibition of Nox2 by VAS2870 conferred similar protective effects in liver transplantation.
    Conclusion: Liver transplantation leads to severe inflammation and oxidative stress with NADPH oxidase activation. Propofol postconditioning reduces liver I/R injury after liver transplantation partly via inhibiting NADPH oxidase Nox2 and the subsequent inflammation and oxidative stress.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4780615