bims-aporos Biomed news
on Apoptosis and reactive oxygen species
Issue of 2018‒08‒12
two papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018 Aug 03. 48(4): 1664-1674
    Li N, Qin S, Xie L, Qin T, Yang Y, Fang W, Chen MH.
      BACKGROUND/AIMS: The anti-apoptotic effect of an increase in the extracellular concentration of potassium ([K+]) has been confirmed in vitro. However, it is not yet known whether elevated serum [K+] exerts a cerebroprotective effect in vivo. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of elevated serum [K+] in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R).METHODS: Rats subjected to 90-min MCAO received 2.5% KCL, 1.25% KCL, or a normal saline solution at a dose of 3.2 mL/kg at the onset of reperfusion. Rats that were subjected to vascular exposure and ligation without MCAO were defined as the Sham group. Serum [K+] was determined using a blood gas analyzer at 1 min after medicine administration. At 24 h post-reperfusion, rat brains were harvested and processed for 2% 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling staining, detection of caspase-3 and cleaved-caspase-3 by western blotting, detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by dihydroethidium staining, and observation of mitochondrial structure by electron microscopy. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening were measured using detection kits.
    RESULTS: The results showed that elevated serum [K+] decreased cerebral injury and apoptosis, reduced ROS and MDA levels and MPTP opening, increased ATP levels and cytochrome C oxidase activity, and improved mitochondrial ultrastructural changes, although there was no significant difference in T-SOD activity.
    CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that elevated serum [K+] could alleviate cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and the mechanism may be associated with the preservation of mitochondrial function.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Ischemia-reperfusion injury; Kcl; Mitochondria
  2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018 Aug 01. pii: S0167-4889(18)30232-5. [Epub ahead of print]
    Hoorelbeke D, Decrock E, Van Haver V, De Bock M, Leybaert L.
      Photodynamic therapy combines three non-toxic components: light, oxygen and a photosensitizer to generate singlet oxygen and/or other ROS molecules in order to target destruction of cancer cells. The damage induced in the targeted cells can furthermore propagate to non-exposed bystander cells thereby exacerbating the damage. Ca2+ signaling is strongly intertwined with ROS signaling and both play crucial roles in cell death. In this review we aimed to review current knowledge on the role of Ca2+ and ROS signaling, their effect on cell-cell propagation via connexin-linked mechanisms and the outcome in terms of cell death. In general, photodynamic therapy results in an increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration originating from Ca2+ entry or Ca2+ release from internal stores. While photodynamic therapy can certainly induce cell death, the outcome depends on the cell type and the photosensitizer used. Connexin channels propagating the Ca2+ signal, and presumably regenerating ROS at distance, may play a role in spreading the effect to neighboring non-exposed bystander cells. Given the various cell types and photosensitizers used, there is currently no unified signaling scheme to explain the role of Ca2+ and connexins in the responses following photodynamic therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium signaling in health, disease and therapy edited by Geert Bultynck and Jan Parys.
    Keywords:  Bystander signaling; Calcium signaling; Connexin; Photodynamic therapy