bims-proteo Biomed News
on Proteostasis
Issue of 2020‒12‒06
thirty-six papers selected by
Eric Chevet

  1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Nov 30. pii: 202018138. [Epub ahead of print]
      Proteostasis collapse, the diminished ability to maintain protein homeostasis, has been established as a hallmark of nematode aging. However, whether proteostasis collapse occurs in humans has remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate that proteostasis decline is intrinsic to human senescence. Using transcriptome-wide characterization of gene expression, splicing, and translation, we found a significant deterioration in the transcriptional activation of the heat shock response in stressed senescent cells. Furthermore, phosphorylated HSF1 nuclear localization and distribution were impaired in senescence. Interestingly, alternative splicing regulation was also dampened. Surprisingly, we found a decoupling between different unfolded protein response (UPR) branches in stressed senescent cells. While young cells initiated UPR-related translational and transcriptional regulatory responses, senescent cells showed enhanced translational regulation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensing; however, they were unable to trigger UPR-related transcriptional responses. This was accompanied by diminished ATF6 nuclear localization in stressed senescent cells. Finally, we found that proteasome function was impaired following heat stress in senescent cells, and did not recover upon return to normal temperature. Together, our data unraveled a deterioration in the ability to mount dynamic stress transcriptional programs upon human senescence with broad implications on proteostasis control and connected proteostasis decline to human aging.
    Keywords:  UPR; chaperones; heat shock response; protein homeostasis; senescence
  2. Matrix Biol. 2020 Nov 28. pii: S0945-053X(20)30105-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Degradation of dysfunctional, damaged, or misfolded proteins is a crucial component of the protein quality control network to maintain cellular proteostasis. Dysfunction in proteostasis regulation due to imbalances in protein synthesis, folding, and degradation challenges the integrity of the cellular proteome and favors the accumulation of aggregated proteins that can damage cells by a loss of their functions and/or a gain of adverse functions. Ubiquitination is an essential player in proteostasis regulation but also in orchestrating signaling pathways in response to various stress conditions. Both cellular degradation systems, the proteasome and autophagy, employ ubiquitin for selection and targeting of substrates to the degradative machineries. Here we summarize the manifold functions of ubiquitin in protein degradation and discuss its emerging role in the formation of biomolecular condensates through liquid-liquid phase separation, which allows spatiotemporal regulation of protein quality control.
    Keywords:  RAD23B; UBQLN2; biomolecular condensates; p62; phase separation; proteostasis
  3. Mol Cell. 2020 Nov 19. pii: S1097-2765(20)30779-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Aborted translation produces large ribosomal subunits obstructed with tRNA-linked nascent chains, which are substrates of ribosome-associated quality control (RQC). Bacterial RqcH, a widely conserved RQC factor, senses the obstruction and recruits tRNAAla(UGC) to modify nascent-chain C termini with a polyalanine degron. However, how RqcH and its eukaryotic homologs (Rqc2 and NEMF), despite their relatively simple architecture, synthesize such C-terminal tails in the absence of a small ribosomal subunit and mRNA has remained unknown. Here, we present cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of Bacillus subtilis RQC complexes representing different Ala tail synthesis steps. The structures explain how tRNAAla is selected via anticodon reading during recruitment to the A-site and uncover striking hinge-like movements in RqcH leading tRNAAla into a hybrid A/P-state associated with peptidyl-transfer. Finally, we provide structural, biochemical, and molecular genetic evidence identifying the Hsp15 homolog (encoded by rqcP) as a novel RQC component that completes the cycle by stabilizing the P-site tRNA conformation. Ala tailing thus follows mechanistic principles surprisingly similar to canonical translation elongation.
    Keywords:  Hsp15; RQC; RqcH; RqcP; SsrA; alanine tailing; cryo-EM; ribosome-associated quality control; ribosomes; translation elongation
  4. ACS Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 02.
      Human coronaviruses (hCoVs) have become a threat to global health and society, as evident from the SARS outbreak in 2002 caused by SARS-CoV-1 and the most recent COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Despite a high sequence similarity between SARS-CoV-1 and -2, each strain has a distinctive virulence. A better understanding of the basic molecular mechanisms mediating changes in virulence is needed. Here, we profile the virus-host protein-protein interactions of two hCoV nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are critical for virus replication. We use tandem mass tag-multiplexed quantitative proteomics to sensitively compare and contrast the interactomes of nsp2 and nsp4 from three betacoronavirus strains: SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, and hCoV-OC43-an endemic strain associated with the common cold. This approach enables the identification of both unique and shared host cell protein binding partners and the ability to further compare the enrichment of common interactions across homologues from related strains. We identify common nsp2 interactors involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ signaling and mitochondria biogenesis. We also identify nsp4 interactors unique to each strain, such as E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes for SARS-CoV-1 and ER homeostasis factors for SARS-CoV-2. Common nsp4 interactors include N-linked glycosylation machinery, unfolded protein response associated proteins, and antiviral innate immune signaling factors. Both nsp2 and nsp4 interactors are strongly enriched in proteins localized at mitochondria-associated ER membranes suggesting a new functional role for modulating host processes, such as calcium homeostasis, at these organelle contact sites. Our results shed light on the role these hCoV proteins play in the infection cycle, as well as host factors that may mediate the divergent pathogenesis of OC43 from SARS strains. Our mass spectrometry workflow enables rapid and robust comparisons of multiple bait proteins, which can be applied to additional viral proteins. Furthermore, the identified common interactions may present new targets for exploration by host-directed antiviral therapeutics.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; affinity purification-mass spectrometry; mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane; nsp2; nsp4; tandem mass tags
  5. Cell Death Differ. 2020 Dec 02.
      To survive proteotoxic stress, cancer cells activate the proteotoxic-stress response pathway, which is controlled by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). This pathway supports cancer initiation, cancer progression and chemoresistance and thus is an attractive therapeutic target. As developing inhibitors against transcriptional regulators, such as HSF1 is challenging, the identification and targeting of upstream regulators of HSF1 present a tractable alternative strategy. Here we demonstrate that in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, the dual specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 2 (DYRK2) phosphorylates HSF1, promoting its nuclear stability and transcriptional activity. DYRK2 depletion reduces HSF1 activity and sensitises TNBC cells to proteotoxic stress. Importantly, in tumours from TNBC patients, DYRK2 levels positively correlate with active HSF1 and associates with poor prognosis, suggesting that DYRK2 could be promoting TNBC. These findings identify DYRK2 as a key modulator of the HSF1 transcriptional programme and a potential therapeutic target.
  6. PLoS Genet. 2020 Dec 04. 16(12): e1009255
      Thirty percent of all cellular proteins are inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which spans throughout the cytoplasm. Two well-established stress-induced pathways ensure quality control (QC) at the ER: ER-phagy and ER-associated degradation (ERAD), which shuttle cargo for degradation to the lysosome and proteasome, respectively. In contrast, not much is known about constitutive ER-phagy. We have previously reported that excess of integral-membrane proteins is delivered from the ER to the lysosome via autophagy during normal growth of yeast cells. Whereas endogenously expressed ER resident proteins serve as cargos at a basal level, this level can be induced by overexpression of membrane proteins that are not ER residents. Here, we characterize this pathway as constitutive ER-phagy. Constitutive and stress-induced ER-phagy share the basic macro-autophagy machinery including the conserved Atgs and Ypt1 GTPase. However, induction of stress-induced autophagy is not needed for constitutive ER-phagy to occur. Moreover, the selective receptors needed for starvation-induced ER-phagy, Atg39 and Atg40, are not required for constitutive ER-phagy and neither these receptors nor their cargos are delivered through it to the vacuole. As for ERAD, while constitutive ER-phagy recognizes cargo different from that recognized by ERAD, these two ER-QC pathways can partially substitute for each other. Because accumulation of membrane proteins is associated with disease, and constitutive ER-phagy players are conserved from yeast to mammalian cells, this process could be critical for human health.
  7. J Cell Sci. 2020 Dec 01. pii: jcs.250241. [Epub ahead of print]
      Defective intracellular trafficking and export of microRNAs have been observed in growth retarded mammalian cells having impaired mitochondrial potential and dynamics. Uncoupling Protein 2 mediated depolarization of mitochondrial membrane also results in progressive sequestration of microRNAs with polysomes and lowered their release via extracellular vesicles. Interestingly, impaired miRNA-trafficking process in growth retarded human cells could be reversed in presence of Genipin an inhibitor of Uncoupling Protein 2. Mitochondrial detethering of endoplasmic reticulum, observed in mitochondria depolarized cells, found to be responsible for defective compartmentalization of translation initiation factor eIF4E to endoplasmic reticulum attached polysomes. It causes retarded translation process accompanied by enhanced retention of miRNAs and target mRNAs with endoplasmic reticulum attached polysomes to restrict extracellular export of miRNAs. Reduced compartment specific activity of mTORC1 complex, the master regulator of protein synthesis, in mitochondria defective or ER- detethered cells, causes reduced phosphorylation of eIF4E-BP1 to prevent eIF-4E targeting to ER attached polysome and microRNA export. These data suggest how mitochondrial membrane potential and dynamics, by affecting mTORC1 activity and compartmentalization, determine sub-cellular localization and export of microRNAs.
    Keywords:  EIF4E and mTORC1; Exosomes; Extracellular vesicles; MiRNA; Mitochondria; P-body; Polysome; Processing bodies
  8. Plant Signal Behav. 2020 Dec 01. 1856547
      Plant virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs) interact with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, the cytoskeleton, and plasmodesmata (PD) to mediate intracellular delivery of the virus genome to PD and its further transport through PD from infected to healthy cells. The Hibiscus green spot virus MP termed BMB2 has been shown to induce constrictions of ER tubules and to occur at highly curved membranes, thus showing properties similar to those of reticulons, a class of cellular proteins inducing membrane curvature and shaping the ER tubules. Consistent with this BMB2 function, mRFP-BMB2 localizes to discrete, constricted regions scattered along the ER tubules. Here, using BMB2-mRFP fusion protein as a BMB2 derivative with partially disabled functionality, we demonstrate that the focal localization of BMB2 to discrete sites along the ER tubules is insufficient to induce local tubule constrictions at these sites, suggesting that the formation of ER tubule constrictions represents a specific BMB2 function and is not simply a mechanistic consequence of its localization to the ER. The presented data suggest that the formation of ER-residing BMB2-containing distinct small aggregates, or protein platforms, can be uncoupled from BMB2-induced ER tubule constrictions, whereas the anchoring of platforms at particular ER sites appears to be linked to the constriction of ER tubules at these sites.
    Keywords:  Plasmodesmata; cell-to-cell transport; endoplasmic reticulum; membrane curvature; movement protein; plant virus; reticulon
  9. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2020 Nov 30. pii: S0959-440X(20)30175-5. [Epub ahead of print]67 110-119
      E3 ubiquitin ligase machineries are emerging as attractive therapeutic targets because they confer specificity to substrate ubiquitination and can be hijacked for targeted protein degradation. In this review, we bring to focus our current structural understanding of E3 ligase complexes, in particular the multi-subunit cullin RING ligases, and modulation thereof by small-molecule glues and PROTAC degraders. We highlight recent advances in elucidating the modular assembly of E3 ligase machineries, their diverse substrate and degron recognition mechanisms, and how these structural features impact on ligase function. We then outline the emergence of structures of E3 ligases bound to neo-substrates and degrader molecules, and highlight the importance of studying such ternary complexes for structure-based degrader design.
  10. bioRxiv. 2020 Nov 24. pii: 2020.11.24.390039. [Epub ahead of print]
      In order to produce proteins essential for their propagation, many pathogenic human viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 the causative agent of COVID-19 respiratory disease, commandeer host biosynthetic machineries and mechanisms. Three major structural proteins, the spike, envelope and membrane proteins, are amongst several SARS-CoV-2 components synthesised at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of infected human cells prior to the assembly of new viral particles. Hence, the inhibition of membrane protein synthesis at the ER is an attractive strategy for reducing the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 and other obligate viral pathogens. Using an in vitro system, we demonstrate that the small molecule inhibitor ipomoeassin F (Ipom-F) potently blocks the Sec61-mediated ER membrane translocation/insertion of three therapeutic protein targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection; the viral spike and ORF8 proteins together with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the host cell plasma membrane receptor. Our findings highlight the potential for using ER protein translocation inhibitors such as Ipom-F as host-targeting, broad-spectrum, antiviral agents.
  11. Cell Signal. 2020 Nov 27. pii: S0898-6568(20)30336-3. [Epub ahead of print] 109859
      The NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a multimeric, cytoplasmic, protein complex that regulates maturation and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine. Critical to host defense against pathogens, IL-1β amplifies early innate immune responses by activating transcription of numerous other cytokines and chemokines. Excessive IL-1β is associated with poor outcomes in inflammatory illnesses, such as sepsis and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Tight regulation of this signaling axis is vital, but little is known about mechanisms to limit excessive inflammasome activity. Here we identify the deubiquitinase STAM-binding protein (STAMBP) as a negative regulator of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In monocytes, knockout of STAMBP by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing increased expression of numerous cytokines and chemokines in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This exaggerated inflammatory response was dependent on IL-1β signaling, and STAMBP knockout directly increased release of IL-1β with TLR ligation. While STAMBP does not modulate NLRP3 protein abundance, cellular depletion of the deubiquitinase increased NLRP3 K63 chain polyubiquitination resulting in increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These findings describe a unique mechanism of non-degradative ubiquitination of NLRP3 by STAMBP to limit excessive inflammasome activation and to reduce injurious IL-1β signaling.
    Keywords:  Deubiquitinase; Inflammasome; Innate immunity; Interleukin-1β; Ubiquitin
  12. FEBS Lett. 2020 Nov 28.
      Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and subsequently translocated as unfolded polypeptides into mitochondria. Cytosolic chaperones maintain precursor proteins in an import-competent state. This post-translational import reaction is under surveillance of the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system, which carries out several distinguishable activities. On the one hand, the proteasome degrades non-productive protein precursors from the cytosol and nucleus, import intermediates that are stuck in mitochondrial translocases, and misfolded or damaged proteins from the outer membrane and the intermembrane space. These surveillance activities of the proteasome are essential for mitochondrial functionality, as well as cellular fitness and survival. On the other hand, the proteasome competes with mitochondria for non-imported cytosolic precursor proteins, which can compromise mitochondrial biogenesis. In order to balance the positive and negative effects of the cytosolic protein quality control system on mitochondria, mitochondrial import efficiency directly regulates the capacity of the proteasome via transcription factor Rpn4 in yeast and nuclear respiratory factor (Nrf) 1 and 2 in animal cells. In this review, we provide a thorough overview of how the proteasome regulates mitochondrial biogenesis.
    Keywords:  Aging; Mitochondria; Mitochondria-Associated Degradation; Mitoprotein-Induced Stress Response; Proteasome; Protein Quality Control; Protein degradation; Rpn4; Ubiquitin
  13. Elife. 2020 Dec 02. pii: e63452. [Epub ahead of print]9
      The dendritic cell receptor Clec9A facilitates processing of dead cell-derived antigens for cross-presentation and the induction of effective CD8+ T cell immune responses. Here, we show that this process is regulated by E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF41 and define a new ubiquitin-mediated mechanism for regulation of Clec9A, reflecting the unique properties of Clec9A as a receptor specialized for delivery of antigens for cross-presentation. We reveal RNF41 is a negative regulator of Clec9A and the cross-presentation of dead cell-derived antigens by mouse dendritic cells. Intriguingly, RNF41 regulates the downstream fate of Clec9A by directly binding and ubiquitinating the extracellular domains of Clec9A. At steady-state, RNF41 ubiquitination of Clec9A facilitates interactions with ER-associated proteins and degradation machinery to control Clec9A levels. However, Clec9A interactions are altered following dead cell uptake to favor antigen presentation. These findings provide important insights into antigen cross-presentation and have implications for development of approaches to modulate immune responses.
    Keywords:  DAMP recognition; E3 ubiquitin ligase; antigen presentation; dendritic cells; immunology; inflammation; mouse; ubiquitination
  14. Cell Death Dis. 2020 Dec 04. 11(12): 1033
      Deubiquitination is now understood to be as important as its partner ubiquitination for the maintenance of protein half-life, activity, and localization under both normal and pathological conditions. The enzymes that remove ubiquitin from target proteins are called deubiquitinases (DUBs) and they regulate a plethora of cellular processes. DUBs are essential enzymes that maintain intracellular protein homeostasis by recycling ubiquitin. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification where ubiquitin molecules are added to proteins thus influencing activation, localization, and complex formation. Ubiquitin also acts as a tag for protein degradation, especially by proteasomal or lysosomal degradation systems. With ~100 members, DUBs are a large enzyme family; the ubiquitin-specific peptidases (USPs) being the largest group. USP10, an important member of this family, has enormous significance in diverse cellular processes and many human diseases. In this review, we discuss recent studies that define the roles of USP10 in maintaining cellular function, its involvement in human pathologies, and the molecular mechanisms underlying its association with cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. We also discuss efforts to modulate USPs as therapy in these diseases.
  15. Cell Rep. 2020 Dec 01. pii: S2211-1247(20)31407-8. [Epub ahead of print]33(9): 108418
      Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the formation and propagation of protein aggregates, especially amyloid fibrils. However, what normally suppresses protein misfolding and aggregation in metazoan cells remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that TRIM11, a member of the metazoan tripartite motif (TRIM) family, both prevents the formation of protein aggregates and dissolves pre-existing protein deposits, including amyloid fibrils. These molecular chaperone and disaggregase activities are ATP independent. They enhance folding and solubility of normal proteins and cooperate with TRIM11 SUMO ligase activity to degrade aberrant proteins. TRIM11 abrogates α-synuclein fibrillization and restores viability in cell models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Intracranial adeno-associated viral delivery of TRIM11 mitigates α-synuclein-mediated pathology, neurodegeneration, and motor impairments in a PD mouse model. Other TRIMs can also function as ATP-independent molecular chaperones and disaggregases. Thus, we define TRIMs as a potent and multifunctional protein quality-control system in metazoa, which might be applied to treat neurodegenerative diseases.
    Keywords:  Parkinson’s disease; SUMO E3 ligase; TRIM proteins; TRIM11; amyloid fibril; disaggregase; molecular chaperone; neurodegenerative diseases; protein aggregation; protein quality control
  16. Cell Rep. 2020 Dec 01. pii: S2211-1247(20)31435-2. [Epub ahead of print]33(9): 108446
      Isogenic cells manifest distinct cellular fates for a single stress; however, the nongenetic mechanisms driving such fates remain poorly understood. Here, we implement a robust multi-channel live-cell imaging approach to uncover noncanonical factors governing cell fate. We show that in response to acute glucose removal (AGR), budding yeast undergoes distinct fates, becoming either quiescent or senescent. Senescent cells fail to resume mitotic cycles following glucose replenishment but remain responsive to nutrient stimuli. Whereas quiescent cells manifest starvation-induced adaptation, senescent cells display perturbed endomembrane trafficking and defective nucleus-vacuole junction (NVJ) expansion. Surprisingly, senescence occurs even in the absence of lipid droplets. Importantly, we identify the nutrient-sensing kinase Rim15 as a key biomarker predicting cell fates before AGR stress. We propose that isogenic yeast challenged with acute nutrient shortage contains determinants influencing post-stress fate and demonstrate that specific nutrient signaling, stress response, trafficking, and inter-organelle biomarkers are early indicators for long-term fate outcomes.
    Keywords:  Bayesian analysis; LD; NVJ; cell cycle; cellular decision making; lipid droplet; nucleus-vacuole junction; quantitative imaging; quiescence; senescence; statistical evidence
  17. Subcell Biochem. 2021 ;96 1-151
      The 26S proteasome is the most complex ATP-dependent protease machinery, of ~2.5 MDa mass, ubiquitously found in all eukaryotes. It selectively degrades ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and plays fundamentally indispensable roles in regulating almost all major aspects of cellular activities. To serve as the sole terminal "processor" for myriad ubiquitylation pathways, the proteasome evolved exceptional adaptability in dynamically organizing a large network of proteins, including ubiquitin receptors, shuttle factors, deubiquitinases, AAA-ATPase unfoldases, and ubiquitin ligases, to enable substrate selectivity and processing efficiency and to achieve regulation precision of a vast diversity of substrates. The inner working of the 26S proteasome is among the most sophisticated, enigmatic mechanisms of enzyme machinery in eukaryotic cells. Recent breakthroughs in three-dimensional atomic-level visualization of the 26S proteasome dynamics during polyubiquitylated substrate degradation elucidated an extensively detailed picture of its functional mechanisms, owing to progressive methodological advances associated with cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Multiple sites of ubiquitin binding in the proteasome revealed a canonical mode of ubiquitin-dependent substrate engagement. The proteasome conformation in the act of substrate deubiquitylation provided insights into how the deubiquitylating activity of RPN11 is enhanced in the holoenzyme and is coupled to substrate translocation. Intriguingly, three principal modes of coordinated ATP hydrolysis in the heterohexameric AAA-ATPase motor  were discovered to regulate intermediate functional steps of the proteasome, including ubiquitin-substrate engagement, deubiquitylation, initiation of substrate translocation and processive substrate degradation. The atomic dissection of the innermost working of the 26S proteasome opens up a new era in our understanding of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and has far-reaching implications in health and disease.
    Keywords:  AAA-ATPase motor; Conformational dynamics; Cryo-EM; Cryogenic electron microscopy; Deubiquitylation; Homeostasis; Mechanochemistry; Proteasome; Proteolysis; Ubiquitin-proteasome system; Ubiquitylation
  18. EMBO Rep. 2020 Dec 03. e51929
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling has long been associated with various pathological states in particular with the development of diseases with an underlying inflammation, such as diabetes, liver or cardiovascular dysfunctions, and cancer. ER stress signaling is mediated by three stress sensors. The most evolutionarily conserved one, the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1), transduces most of the signals through an endoribonuclease (RNase) activity toward RNAs including mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs). By exploring phosphoinositide signaling in human macrophages, Hamid and colleagues discovered a novel function of IRE1 RNase that through the cleavage of pre-miR-2317 generates a mature miR-2317 independently of the canonical Dicer endonuclease to yield specific biological outcomes (Hamid et al, 2020).
  19. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(12): e0243075
      Prenylated Rab Acceptor 1 (PRA1/Rabac1) is a four-pass transmembrane protein that has been found to localize to the Golgi and promiscuously associate with a diverse array of Rab GTPases. We have previously identified PRA1 to be among the earliest significantly down-regulated genes in the rd1 mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa, a retinal degenerative disease. Here, we show that an endogenous subpopulation of PRA1 resides within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) at ER-mitochondria membrane contact sites in cultured mammalian cells. We also demonstrate that PRA1 contains two previously unidentified ER retention/retrieval amino acid sequences on its cytosolic N-terminal region: a membrane distal di-arginine motif and a novel membrane proximal FFAT-like motif. Using a truncation construct that lacks complete Golgi targeting information, we show that mutation of either motif leads to an increase in cell surface localization, while mutation of both motifs exhibits an additive effect. We also present evidence that illustrates that N- or C- terminal addition of a tag to full-length PRA1 leads to differential localization to either the Golgi or reticular ER, phenotypes that do not completely mirror endogenous protein localization. The presence of multiple ER retention motifs on the PRA1 N-terminal region further suggests that it has a functional role within the ER.
  20. Cell Death Differ. 2020 Dec 04.
      Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in severe and progressive motor impairments. However, the mechanisms underlying this neuronal loss remain largely unknown. Oxidative stress and ER stress have been implicated in PD and these factors are known to activate the integrated stress response (ISR). Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a key mediator of the ISR, and has been reported to induce the expression of genes involved in cellular homeostasis. However, during prolonged activation ATF4 can also induce the expression of pro-death target genes. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the role of ATF4 in neuronal cell death in models of PD. We demonstrate that PD neurotoxins (MPP+ and 6-OHDA) and α-synuclein aggregation induced by pre-formed human alpha-synuclein fibrils (PFFs) cause sustained upregulation of ATF4 expression in mouse cortical and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PD neurotoxins induce the expression of the pro-apoptotic factors Chop, Trb3, and Puma in dopaminergic neurons in an ATF4-dependent manner. Importantly, we have determined that PD neurotoxin and α-synuclein PFF induced neuronal death is attenuated in ATF4-deficient dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, ectopic expression of ATF4 but not transcriptionally defective ATF4ΔRK restores sensitivity of ATF4-deficient neurons to PD neurotoxins. Finally, we demonstrate that the eIF2α kinase inhibitor C16 suppresses MPP+ and 6-OHDA induced ATF4 activation and protects against PD neurotoxin induced dopaminergic neuronal death. Taken together these results indicate that ATF4 promotes dopaminergic cell death induced by PD neurotoxins and pathogenic α-synuclein aggregates and highlight the ISR factor ATF4 as a potential therapeutic target in PD.
  21. Molecules. 2020 Nov 27. pii: E5571. [Epub ahead of print]25(23):
      SUMOylation is a reversible posttranslational modification pathway catalyzing the conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins to lysine residues of distinct target proteins. SUMOylation modifies a wide variety of cellular regulators thereby affecting a multitude of key processes in a highly dynamic manner. The SUMOylation pathway displays a hallmark in cellular stress-adaption, such as heat or redox stress. It has been proposed that enhanced cellular SUMOylation protects the brain during ischemia, however, little is known about the specific regulation of the SUMO system and the potential target proteins during cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R). By applying left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation and reperfusion in mice, we detect dynamic changes in the overall cellular SUMOylation pattern correlating with decreased SUMO deconjugase activity during I/R injury. Further, unbiased system-wide quantitative SUMO-proteomics identified a sub-group of SUMO targets exhibiting significant alterations in response to cardiac I/R. Notably, transcription factors that control hypoxia- and angiogenesis-related gene expression programs, exhibit altered SUMOylation during ischemic stress adaptation. Moreover, several components of the ubiquitin proteasome system undergo dynamic changes in SUMO conjugation during cardiac I/R suggesting an involvement of SUMO signaling in protein quality control and proteostasis in the ischemic heart. Altogether, our study reveals regulated candidate SUMO target proteins in the mouse heart, which might be important in coping with hypoxic/proteotoxic stress during cardiac I/R injury.
    Keywords:  SENP; SUMO; cardiac I/R injury; immunoprecipitation; mass spectrometry; proteomics
  22. Mol Cell. 2020 Nov 19. pii: S1097-2765(20)30780-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      In all branches of life, stalled translation intermediates are recognized and processed by ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) pathways. RQC begins with the splitting of stalled ribosomes, leaving an unfinished polypeptide still attached to the large subunit. Ancient and conserved NEMF family RQC proteins target these incomplete proteins for degradation by the addition of C-terminal "tails." How such tailing can occur without the regular suite of translational components is, however, unclear. Using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (EM) of native complexes, we show that C-terminal tailing in Bacillus subtilis is mediated by NEMF protein RqcH in concert with RqcP, an Hsp15 family protein. Our structures reveal how these factors mediate tRNA movement across the ribosomal 50S subunit to synthesize polypeptides in the absence of mRNA or the small subunit.
    Keywords:  Hsp15; NEMF; RQC; RqcH; RqcP; YabO; polyalanine tailing; ribosome; tRNA movement
  23. Rejuvenation Res. 2020 Nov 30.
      SUMOylation, a conserved protein post-translational modification that performs multiple functions including regulation of nuclear transport and transcription, is implicated in numerous biological processes including aging. RNAi knockdown of the sole SUMO gene, smo-1, in C elegans shortened lifespan, while overexpression in the intestine modestly increased lifespan. Smo-1 is required for mitochondrial fission in a tissue-specific manner. Fission, in turn, is needed for mitophagy to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis during aging. SUMOlyation affects DAF16, which can be directly SUMOylated, and SKN-1, the homolog of mammalian Nrf2. These regulators play key roles in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. However, given the modest effect of overexpressing smo-1 on lifespan enhancement and potential interference with other genes that can promote increased lifespan, caution is advised in the translation of this work based on C elegans. Although inhibitors of SUMOlyation have been developed for cancer and activators have been identified, broad-acting biochemical pathway modifiers such as SUMO are often suboptimal drug targets and may not be as promising for anti-aging applications as they may appear.
  24. Cells. 2020 Dec 01. pii: E2577. [Epub ahead of print]9(12):
      Sustained imbalance in intracellular calcium (Ca2+) entry and clearance alters cellular integrity, ultimately leading to cellular homeostasis disequilibrium and cell death. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Beside the major pathological features associated with AD-linked toxic amyloid beta (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau), several studies suggested the contribution of altered Ca2+ handling in AD development. These studies documented physical or functional interactions of Aβ with several Ca2+ handling proteins located either at the plasma membrane or in intracellular organelles including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), considered the major intracellular Ca2+ pool. In this review, we describe the cellular components of ER Ca2+ dysregulations likely responsible for AD. These include alterations of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors' (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors' (RyRs) expression and function, dysfunction of the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) activity and upregulation of its truncated isoform (S1T), as well as presenilin (PS1, PS2)-mediated ER Ca2+ leak/ER Ca2+ release potentiation. Finally, we highlight the functional consequences of alterations of these ER Ca2+ components in AD pathology and unravel the potential benefit of targeting ER Ca2+ homeostasis as a tool to alleviate AD pathogenesis.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; IP3R; RyR; S1T; SERCA; calcium; endoplasmic reticulum; presenilin
  25. Autophagy. 2020 Nov 29.
      The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) are two major protein degradation pathways in eukaryotic cells. Initially considered as two independent pathways, there is emerging evidence that they can work in concert. As alterations of UPS and ALP function can contribute to neurodegenerative disorders, cancer and cardiac disease, there is great interest in finding targets that modulate these catabolic processes. We undertook an unbiased, total genome high-throughput screen to identify novel effectors that regulate both the UPS and ALP. We generated a stable HEK293 cell line expressing a UPS reporter (UbG76V-mCherry) and an ALP reporter (GFP-LC3) and screened for genes for which knockdown increased both UbG76V-mCherry intensity and GFP-LC3 puncta. With stringent selection, we isolated 80 candidates, including the transcription factor ZNF418 (ZFP418 in rodents). After screen validation with Zfp418 overexpression in HEK293 cells, we evaluated Zfp418 knockdown and overexpression in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). Endogenous and overexpressed ZFP418 were localized in the nucleus. Subsequent experiments showed that ZFP418 negatively regulates UPS and positively regulates ALP activity in NRVMs. RNA-seq from Zfp418 knockdown revealed altered gene expression of numerous ubiquitinating and deubiquitinating enzymes, decreased expression of autophagy activators and initiators and increased expression of autophagy inhibitors. We found that ZPF418 activated the promoters of Dapk2 and Fyco1, which are involved in autophagy. RNA-seq from Zfp418 knockdown also revealed accumulation of several genes involved in cardiac development and/or hypertrophy. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that ZNF418 activates the ALP, inhibits the UPS and regulates genes associated with cardiomyocyte structure/function.
    Keywords:  ALP; UPS; ZFP418; ZNF418; autophagy; cardiomyocyte proteasome; protein degradation; screen; ubiquitin
  26. Cells. 2020 Nov 26. pii: E2547. [Epub ahead of print]9(12):
      Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) plays many roles in the HBV life cycle, such as regulation of transcription, RNA encapsidation, reverse transcription, and viral release. To accomplish these functions, HBc interacts with many host proteins and undergoes different post-translational modifications (PTMs). One of the most common PTMs is ubiquitination, which was shown to change the function, stability, and intracellular localization of different viral proteins, but the role of HBc ubiquitination in the HBV life cycle remains unknown. Here, we found that HBc protein is post-translationally modified through K29-linked ubiquitination. We performed a series of co-immunoprecipitation experiments with wild-type HBc, lysine to arginine HBc mutants and wild-type ubiquitin, single lysine to arginine ubiquitin mutants, or single ubiquitin-accepting lysine constructs. We observed that HBc protein could be modified by ubiquitination in transfected as well as infected hepatoma cells. In addition, ubiquitination predominantly occurred on HBc lysine 7 and the preferred ubiquitin chain linkage was through ubiquitin-K29. Mass spectrometry (MS) analyses detected ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component N-recognin 5 (UBR5) as a potential E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in K29-linked ubiquitination. These findings emphasize that ubiquitination of HBc may play an important role in HBV life cycle.
    Keywords:  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase; HBc; hepatitis B virus; post-translational modifications; ubiquitin; ubiquitination
  27. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Nov 28. pii: E9076. [Epub ahead of print]21(23):
      Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by the dysfunction of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). Alterations in the level of PAH leads to the toxic accumulation of phenylalanine in the blood and brain. Protein degradation mediated by ubiquitination is a principal cellular process for maintaining protein homeostasis. Therefore, it is important to identify the E3 ligases responsible for PAH turnover and proteostasis. Here, we report that anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-Cdh1 (APC/C)Cdh1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that interacts and promotes the polyubiquitination of PAH through the 26S proteasomal pathway. Cdh1 destabilizes and declines the half-life of PAH. In contrast, the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of Cdh1 stabilizes PAH expression and enhances phenylalanine metabolism. Additionally, our current study demonstrates the clinical relevance of PAH and Cdh1 correlation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Overall, we show that PAH is a prognostic marker for HCC and Cdh1 could be a potential therapeutic target to regulate PAH-mediated physiological and metabolic disorders.
    Keywords:  enzyme assay; hyperphenylalaninemia; liver cancer; neurological damage; tetrahydrobiopterin; ubiquitin-proteasome system
  28. Elife. 2020 Dec 01. pii: e62048. [Epub ahead of print]9
      With increased life expectancy age-associated cognitive decline becomes a growing concern, even in the absence of recognizable neurodegenerative disease. The integrated stress response (ISR) is activated during aging and contributes to age-related brain phenotypes. We demonstrate that treatment with the drug-like small-molecule ISR inhibitor ISRIB reverses ISR activation in the brain, as indicated by decreased levels of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2. Furthermore, ISRIB treatment reverses spatial memory deficits and ameliorates working memory in old mice. At the cellular level in the hippocampus, ISR inhibition i) rescues intrinsic neuronal electrophysiological properties, ii) restores spine density and iii) reduces immune profiles, specifically interferon and T cell-mediated responses. Thus, pharmacological interference with the ISR emerges as a promising intervention strategy for combating age-related cognitive decline in otherwise healthy individuals.
    Keywords:  mouse; neuroscience
  29. Nat Commun. 2020 Dec 04. 11(1): 6215
      A distinct 12-hour clock exists in addition to the 24-hour circadian clock to coordinate metabolic and stress rhythms. Here, we show that liver-specific ablation of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) disrupts the hepatic 12-hour clock and promotes spontaneous non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We show that hepatic XBP1 predominantly regulates the 12-hour rhythmicity of gene transcription in the mouse liver and demonstrate that perturbation of the 12-hour clock, but not the core circadian clock, is associated with the onset and progression of this NAFLD phenotype. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that the spliced form of XBP1 (XBP1s) binds to the hepatic 12-hour cistrome to directly regulate the 12-hour clock, with a periodicity paralleling the harmonic activation of the 12-hour oscillatory transcription of many rate-limiting metabolic genes known to have perturbations in human metabolic disease. Functionally, we show that Xbp1 ablation significantly reduces cellular membrane fluidity and impairs lipid homeostasis via rate-limiting metabolic processes in fatty acid monounsaturated and phospholipid remodeling pathways. These findings reveal that genetic disruption of the hepatic 12-hour clock links to the onset and progression of NAFLD development via transcriptional regulator XBP1, and demonstrate a role for XBP1 and the 12-hour clock in the modulation of phospholipid composition and the maintenance of lipid homeostasis.
  30. Sci Adv. 2020 Dec;pii: eabd9443. [Epub ahead of print]6(49):
      Herpesviruses are ubiquitous human pathogens that tightly regulate many cellular pathways including the unfolded protein response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Pharmacological modulation of this pathway results in the inhibition of viral replication. In this study, we tested 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), a chemical chaperone-based potent alleviator of ER stress, for its effects on herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 infection. Through in vitro studies, we observed that application of PBA to HSV-infected cells results in the down-regulation of a proviral, ER-localized host protein CREB3 and a resultant inhibition of viral protein synthesis. PBA treatment caused viral inhibition in cultured human corneas and human skin grafts as well as murine models of ocular and genital HSV infection. Thus, we propose that this drug can provide an alternative to current antivirals to treat both ocular HSV-1 and genital HSV-2 infections and may be a strong candidate for human trials.
  31. J Cell Sci. 2020 Dec 04. pii: jcs.251835. [Epub ahead of print]
      Autophagy is a degradative cellular pathway that targets cytoplasmic contents and organelles for turnover by the lysosome. Various autophagy pathways play key roles in the clearance of viral infections, and many families of viruses have developed unique methods for avoiding degradation. Some positive stranded RNA viruses, such as enteroviruses and flaviviruses, usurp the autophagic pathway to promote their own replication. We previously identified the endoplasmic reticulum-localized protein BPIFB3 as an important negative regulator of non-canonical autophagy that uniquely impacts the replication of enteroviruses and flaviviruses. Here, we find that many components of the canonical autophagy machinery are not required for BPIFB3 depletion induced autophagy and identify the host factors that facilitate its role in the replication of enteroviruses and flaviviruses. Using proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) followed by mass spectrometry, we identify ARFGAP1 and TMED9 as two cellular components that interact with BPIFB3 to regulate autophagy and viral replication. Importantly, our data demonstrate that non-canonical autophagy in mammalian cells can be controlled outside of the traditional pathway regulators and define the role of two proteins in BPIFB3 depletion mediated non-canonical autophagy.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; BPI-like proteins; BPIFB3; Enterovirus; Flavivirus
  32. Matrix Biol. 2020 Dec 01. pii: S0945-053X(20)30112-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      The ubiquitin-proteasomal system and the autophagy-lysosome system are two major degradation systems in mammalian cells. Ubiquitin not only regulates proteasomal degradation of substrates but also regulates the autophagy pathway. In one type of macroautophagy, called selective autophagy targeting cargos selectively, cargos are recruited to phagophore in a ubiquitin-dependent manner. Ubiquitin can target autophagy regulators for proteasomal degradation, or control protein conformation or interacting partners of these regulators. To understand the regulatory mechanisms of these degradation pathways, it is critical to dissect how the ubiquitin system contributes to them. Since enzymes are key regulators of ubiquitination, in this review, such enzymes in autophagy regulation are discussed, with specific focus on ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2s, of which roles in autophagy are emerging.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Degradation; Ubiquitin; Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2)
  33. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2020 Nov 30. pii: mcp.R120.002190. [Epub ahead of print]
      In all cells, proteins are continuously synthesized and degraded in order to maintain protein homeostasis and modify gene expression levels in response to stimuli. Collectively, the processes of protein synthesis and degradation are referred to as protein turnover. At steady state, protein turnover is constant to maintain protein homeostasis, but in dynamic responses, proteins change their rates of synthesis and degradation in order to adjust their proteomes to internal or external stimuli. Thus, probing the kinetics and dynamics of protein turnover lends insight into how cells regulate essential processes such as growth, differentiation, and stress response. Here we outline historical and current approaches to measuring the kinetics of protein turnover on a proteome-wide scale in both steady-state and dynamic systems, with an emphasis on metabolic tracing using stable-isotope-labeled amino acids. We highlight important considerations for designing proteome turnover experiments, key biological findings regarding the conserved principles of proteome turnover regulation, and future perspectives for both technological and biological investigation.
    Keywords:  Mass Spectrometry; Protein Degradation*; Protein Synthesis*; Protein Turnover*; Protein-Protein Interactions*; Quantification; SILAC
  34. Autophagy. 2020 Nov 29. 1-6
      In less than eleven months, the world was brought to a halt by the COVID-19 outbreak. With hospitals becoming overwhelmed, one of the highest priorities concerned critical care triage to ration the scarce resources of intensive care units. Which patient should be treated first? Based on what clinical and biological criteria? A global joint effort rapidly led to sequencing the genomes of tens of thousands of COVID-19 patients to determine the patients' genetic signature that causes them to be at risk of suddenly developing severe disease. In this commentary, we would like to consider some points concerning the use of a multifactorial risk score for COVID-19 severity. This score includes macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy), a critical host process that controls all steps harnessed by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Abbreviation list: ATG5: autophagy related 5; BECN1: beclin 1; COVID-19: coronavirus infectious disease-2019; EGR1: early growth response 1; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; DMVs: double-membrane vesicles; IBV: infectious bronchitis virus; MAP1LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; LC3-I: proteolytically processed, non-lipidated MAP1LC3; LC3-II: lipidated MAP1LC3; MEFs: mouse embryonic fibroblasts; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus; MHV: mouse hepatitis virus; NSP: non-structural protein; PEDV: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; PLP2-TM: membrane-associated papain-like protease 2; SARS-CoV-2: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; TGEV: transmissible gastroenteritis virus.
    Keywords:  Antiviral; Covid-19; SARS-CoV-2; autophagy; coronavirus; intensive care; polygenic score; polymorphism; risk; screening test; susceptibility; virophagy
  35. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2020 Dec 02. pii: mcp.RA120.002414. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cullin RING E3 Ligases (CRLs) ubiquitylate hundreds of important cellular substrates. Here we have assembled and purified the Ankyrin repeat and SOCS Box protein 9 CUL5 RBX2 Ligase (ASB9-CRL) in vitro and show how it ubiquitylates one of its substrates, CKB. CRLs occasionally collaborate with RING between RING E3 ligases (RBRLs) and indeed, mass spectrometry analysis showed that CKB is specifically ubiquitylated by the ASB9-CRL-ARIH2-UBE2L3 complex. Addition of other E2s such as UBE2R1 or UBE2D2 contribute to polyubiquitylation but do not alter the sites of CKB ubiquitylation. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) analysis revealed that CUL5 neddylation allosterically exposes its ARIH2 binding site, promoting high affinity binding, and it also sequesters the NEDD8 E2 (UBE2F) binding site on RBX2. Once bound, ARIH2 helices near the Ariadne domain active site are exposed, presumably relieving its autoinhibition. These results allow us to propose a model of how neddylation activates ASB-CRLs to ubiquitylate their substrates.
    Keywords:  Enzyme catalysis*; Enzyme modification*; HDX-MS; Macromolecular Assemblages*; Macromolecular complex analysis; Ubiquitin
  36. Cancer Res. 2020 Dec 04. pii: canres.0790.2020. [Epub ahead of print]
      MDM2 regulates p53 degradation by functioning as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The role of MDMX, an MDM2 homolog that lacks E3 ligase activity, in the regulation of p53 degradation remains incompletely understood and sometime controversial. This confusion is due at least in part to studies of p53 degradation mainly carried out in in vitro settings, as elimination of either MDM2 or MDMX from mice results in p53-dependent embryonic lethality, thus obfuscating in vivo studies of the individual roles of MDM2 and MDMX in p53 degradation. To overcome this problem, we generated mice expressing an inducible p53 allele under various MDM2 and MDMX deletion and mutation statuses and studied in vivo p53 degradation. Degradation of p53 in vivo was largely prevented in mice and MEF retaining MDM2 but lacking MDMX. While MDM2 and MDMX interacted with p53 in the absence of each other, they bound p53 more efficiently as a heterodimer. MDMX, but not MDM2, interacted with ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5c, an interaction that was essential for MDMX to enable MDM2 E3 ligase activity for p53 degradation. Grafting the C-terminal residues of MDMX to the C-terminus of MDM2 allowed MDM2 to interact with UbcH5c and enhanced MDM2-mediated p53 degradation in the absence of MDMX. Together, these data indicate that MDMX plays an essential role for p53 degradation in vivo by recruiting UbcH5c to facilitate MDM2 E3 ligase function.