bims-misrem Biomed News
on Mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle mass
Issue of 2021‒05‒02
nine papers selected by
Rafael Antonio Casuso Pérez
University of Granada

  1. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Apr 07. pii: 3874. [Epub ahead of print]18(8):
      The physical contact site between a mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), named the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM), has emerged as a fundamental platform for regulating the functions of the two organelles and several cellular processes. This includes Ca2+ transport from the ER to mitochondria, mitochondrial dynamics, autophagy, apoptosis signalling, ER stress signalling, redox reaction, and membrane structure maintenance. Consequently, the MAM is suggested to be involved in, and as a possible therapeutic target for, some common diseases and impairment in skeletal muscle function, such as insulin resistance and diabetes, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, age-related muscle atrophy, and exercise-induced muscle damage. In the past decade, evidence suggests that alterations in Ca2+ transport from the ER to mitochondria, mediated by the macromolecular complex formed by IP3R, Grp75, and VDAC1, may be a universal mechanism for how ER-mitochondria cross-talk is involved in different physiological/pathological conditions mentioned above. A better understanding of the ER (or sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle)-mitochondria Ca2+ transport system may provide a new perspective for exploring the mechanism of how the MAM is involved in the pathology of diseases and skeletal muscle dysfunction. This review provides a summary of recent research findings in this area.
    Keywords:  endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria Ca2+ transport; mitochondria-associated membrane; mitochondrial calcium overload; skeletal muscle function
  2. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Apr 11. pii: 588. [Epub ahead of print]10(4):
      Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body and is required for numerous vital functions, including breathing and locomotion. Notably, deterioration of skeletal muscle mass is also highly correlated to mortality in patients suffering from chronic diseases (e.g., cancer). Numerous conditions can promote skeletal muscle wasting, including several chronic diseases, cancer chemotherapy, aging, and prolonged inactivity. Although the mechanisms responsible for this loss of muscle mass is multifactorial, mitochondrial dysfunction is predicted to be a major contributor to muscle wasting in various conditions. This systematic review will highlight the biochemical pathways that have been shown to link mitochondrial dysfunction to skeletal muscle wasting. Importantly, we will discuss the experimental evidence that connects mitochondrial dysfunction to muscle wasting in specific diseases (i.e., cancer and sepsis), aging, cancer chemotherapy, and prolonged muscle inactivity (e.g., limb immobilization). Finally, in hopes of stimulating future research, we conclude with a discussion of important future directions for research in the field of muscle wasting.
    Keywords:  calpain; muscle atrophy; oxidative stress; protein synthesis; proteolysis; reactive oxygen species
  3. Cell Metab. 2021 Apr 22. pii: S1550-4131(21)00169-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      NAD(H) and NADP(H) have traditionally been viewed as co-factors (or co-enzymes) involved in a myriad of oxidation-reduction reactions including the electron transport in the mitochondria. However, NAD pathway metabolites have many other important functions, including roles in signaling pathways, post-translational modifications, epigenetic changes, and regulation of RNA stability and function via NAD-capping of RNA. Non-oxidative reactions ultimately lead to the net catabolism of these nucleotides, indicating that NAD metabolism is an extremely dynamic process. In fact, recent studies have clearly demonstrated that NAD has a half-life in the order of minutes in some tissues. Several evolving concepts on the metabolism, transport, and roles of these NAD pathway metabolites in disease states such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and aging have emerged in just the last few years. In this perspective, we discuss key recent discoveries and changing concepts in NAD metabolism and biology that are reshaping the field. In addition, we will pose some open questions in NAD biology, including why NAD metabolism is so fast and dynamic in some tissues, how NAD and its precursors are transported to cells and organelles, and how NAD metabolism is integrated with inflammation and senescence. Resolving these questions will lead to significant advancements in the field.
    Keywords:  NAD pathway metabolites; NAD(+); aging; disease; humans; mitochondria; transport; vitamin B3
  4. Life (Basel). 2021 Apr 17. pii: 351. [Epub ahead of print]11(4):
      The mitochondrial respiratory chain encompasses four oligomeric enzymatic complexes (complex I, II, III and IV) which, together with the redox carrier ubiquinone and cytochrome c, catalyze electron transport coupled to proton extrusion from the inner membrane. The protonmotive force is utilized by complex V for ATP synthesis in the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Respiratory complexes are known to coexist in the membrane as single functional entities and as supramolecular aggregates or supercomplexes (SCs). Understanding the assembly features of SCs has relevant biomedical implications because defects in a single protein can derange the overall SC organization and compromise the energetic function, causing severe mitochondrial disorders. Here we describe in detail the main types of SCs, all characterized by the presence of complex III. We show that the genetic alterations that hinder the assembly of Complex III, not just the activity, cause a rearrangement of the architecture of the SC that can help to preserve a minimal energetic function. Finally, the major metabolic disturbances associated with severe SCs perturbation due to defective complex III are discussed along with interventions that may circumvent these deficiencies.
    Keywords:  MTCYB mutations; complex III; cytochrome b; mitochondrial DNA; mitochondrial diseases; oxidative stress; respiratory complexes; respiratory supercomplexes
  5. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2021 Apr 30. e2001076
      SCOPE: Mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) connecting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria plays a significant role in lipid metabolism and Ca2+ homeostasis. Albeit sulforaphane (SFN) shows potential in ameliorating excessive fat accumulation and mitochondrial function, whether MAM is a target of SFN and its underling mechanisms are still unclear.METHODS AND RESULTS: High-fat-intake models are established both in vivo and in vitro. SFN widened the distance between ER and mitochondria and down-regulated MAM tether protein mitofusin-2. SFN reversed the increase of Ca2+ induced by fatty acid and inhibited the Ca2+ channel IP3R. Compared with high fat group, SFN alleviate Ca2+ overload in the mitochondria and suppressing mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Furthermore, SFN increased mitochondrial DNA quantities and mitochondria membrane potential, while decreased ROS production. Finally, SFN increased mitochondria complexes IV content and ATP synthesis.
    CONCLUSION: These results suggested that SFN balanced the Ca2+ homeostasis in the MAM through regulating Ca2+ flux by Ca2+ channel IP3R and MCU. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  Ca2+ homeostasis; lipid metabolism; mitochondria function; mitochondria-associated membrane; sulforaphane
  6. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Apr 15. pii: 609. [Epub ahead of print]10(4):
      Mitochondria are popularly called the "powerhouses" of the cell. They promote energy metabolism through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, which in contrast to cytosolic glycolysis are oxygen-dependent and significantly more substrate efficient. That is, mitochondrial metabolism provides substantially more cellular energy currency (ATP) per macronutrient metabolised. Enhancement of mitochondrial density and metabolism are associated with endurance training, which allows for the attainment of high relative VO2 max values. However, the sedentary lifestyle and diet currently predominant in the Western world lead to mitochondrial dysfunction. Underdeveloped mitochondrial metabolism leads to nutrient-induced reducing pressure caused by energy surplus, as reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-mediated high electron flow at rest leads to "electron leak" and a chronic generation of superoxide radicals (O2-). Chronic overload of these reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages cell components such as DNA, cell membranes, and proteins. Counterintuitively, transiently generated ROS during exercise contributes to adaptive reduction-oxidation (REDOX) signalling through the process of cellular hormesis or "oxidative eustress" defined by Helmut Sies. However, the unaccustomed, chronic oxidative stress is central to the leading causes of mortality in the 21st century-metabolic syndrome and the associated cardiovascular comorbidities. The endurance exercise training that improves mitochondrial capacity and the protective antioxidant cellular system emerges as a universal intervention for mitochondrial dysfunction and resultant comorbidities. Furthermore, exercise might also be a solution to prevent ageing-related degenerative diseases, which are caused by impaired mitochondrial recycling. This review aims to break down the metabolic components of exercise and how they translate to athletic versus metabolically diseased phenotypes. We outline a reciprocal relationship between oxidative metabolism and inflammation, as well as hypoxia. We highlight the importance of oxidative stress for metabolic and antioxidant adaptation. We discuss the relevance of lactate as an indicator of critical exercise intensity, and inferring from its relationship with hypoxia, we suggest the most appropriate mode of exercise for the case of a lost oxidative identity in metabolically inflexible patients. Finally, we propose a reciprocal signalling model that establishes a healthy balance between the glycolytic/proliferative and oxidative/prolonged-ageing phenotypes. This model is malleable to adaptation with oxidative stress in exercise but is also susceptible to maladaptation associated with chronic oxidative stress in disease. Furthermore, mutations of components involved in the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of mitochondrial metabolism may lead to the development of a cancerous phenotype, which progressively presents as one of the main causes of death, alongside the metabolic syndrome.
    Keywords:  endurance exercise; metabolic disease; oxidative phenotype; oxidative stress
  7. Biophys Rev. 2021 Apr;13(2): 203-219
      Among the four proteolytic systems in the cell, autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are the main proteolytic events that allow for the removal of cell debris and proteins to maintain cellular homeostasis. Previous studies have revealed that these systems perform their functions independently of each other. However, recent studies indicate the existence of regulatory interactions between these proteolytic systems via ubiquitinated tags and a reciprocal regulation mechanism with several crosstalk points. UPS plays an important role in the elimination of short-lived/soluble misfolded proteins, whereas autophagy eliminates defective organelles and persistent insoluble protein aggregates. Both of these systems seem to act independently; however, disruption of one pathway affects the activity of the other pathway and contributes to different pathological conditions. This review summarizes the recent findings on direct and indirect dependencies of autophagy and UPS and their execution at the molecular level along with the important drug targets in skeletal muscle atrophy.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Mitophagy; Molecular mechanism; Skeletal muscle atrophy; The ubiquitin-proteasome system
  8. Physiol Rep. 2021 Apr;9(7): e14808
      Dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) is a key regulator in mitochondrial fission. Excessive Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission in skeletal muscle under the obese condition is associated with impaired insulin action. However, it remains unknown whether pharmacological inhibition of Drp1, using the Drp1-specific inhibitor Mitochondrial Division Inhibitor 1 (Mdivi-1), is effective in alleviating skeletal muscle insulin resistance and improving whole-body metabolic health under the obese and insulin-resistant condition. We subjected C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) for 5-weeks. HFD-fed mice received Mdivi-1 or saline injections for the last week of the diet intervention. Additionally, myotubes derived from obese insulin-resistant humans were treated with Mdivi-1 or saline for 12 h. We measured glucose area under the curve (AUC) from a glucose tolerance test (GTT), skeletal muscle insulin action, mitochondrial dynamics, respiration, and H2 O2 content. We found that Mdivi-1 attenuated impairments in skeletal muscle insulin signaling and blood glucose AUC from a GTT induced by HFD feeding (p < 0.05). H2 O2 content was elevated in skeletal muscle from the HFD group (vs. LFD, p < 0.05), but was reduced with Mdivi-1 treatment, which may partially explain the improvement in skeletal muscle insulin action. Similarly, Mdivi-1 enhanced the mitochondrial network structure, reduced reactive oxygen species, and improved insulin action in myotubes from obese humans (vs. saline, p < 0.05). In conclusion, inhibiting Drp1 with short-term Mdivi-1 administration attenuates the impairment in skeletal muscle insulin signaling and improves whole-body glucose tolerance in the setting of obesity-induced insulin resistance. Targeting Drp1 may be a viable approach to treat obesity-induced insulin resistance.
    Keywords:  insulin resistance; mitochondrial dynamics; obesity; skeletal muscle
  9. Arch Med Res. 2021 Apr 26. pii: S0188-4409(21)00085-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Ischemic stroke has remained a principal cause of mortality and neurological disabilities worldwide. Blood flow resumption, reperfusion, in the cerebral ischemia prompts a cascade in the brain characterized by various cellular mechanisms like mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stresses, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and excitotoxicity, finally resulting in programmed cell death. Any changes in the ER-mitochondria axis are probably responsible for both the onset and progression of central nervous system diseases. Melatonin, a neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland, has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. Most studies have shown that it exerts neuroprotective effects against ischemic stroke. It was observed that melatonin therapy after the stroke not only leads to reduce mitochondrial dysfunction but also cause to alleviate ER stress and inflammation. This review discusses the impact of melatonin on mitochondrial, ER function, and on the crosstalk between two organelles as a therapeutic target for stroke. Given that the influences of melatonin on each organelle separately, its effects on mechanisms of crosstalk between ER and mitochondria are discussed.
    Keywords:  Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Melatonin; Mitochondria dysfunction; Stroke