bims-mikwok Biomed News
on Mitochondrial quality control
Issue of 2021‒02‒28
twenty-one papers selected by
Avinash N. Mukkala
University of Toronto


  1. FEBS Lett. 2021 Feb 22.
      Mitophagy is one of the selective autophagy pathways that catabolizes dysfunctional or superfluous mitochondria. Under mitophagy-inducing conditions, mitochondria are labeled with specific molecular landmarks that recruit the autophagy machinery to the surface of mitochondria, enclosed into autophagosomes, and delivered to lysosomes (vacuoles in yeast) for degradation. As damaged mitochondria are the major sources of reactive oxygen species, mitophagy is critical for mitochondrial quality control and cellular health. Moreover, appropriate control of mitochondrial quantity via mitophagy is vital for the energy supply-demand balance in cells and whole organisms, cell differentiation, and developmental programs. Thus, it seems conceivable that defects in mitophagy could elicit pleiotropic pathologies such as excess inflammation, tissue injury, neurodegeneration, and ageing. In this review, we will focus on the molecular basis and physiological relevance of mitophagy, and potential of mitophagy as a therapeutic target to overcome such disorders.
    Keywords:  adaptor; ageing; autophagy; inflammation; mitochondria; neurodegeneration; ubiquitin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.14060
  2. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2021 Feb 19. pii: S0925-4439(21)00037-5. [Epub ahead of print] 166104
      Depolarized/damaged mitochondria aggregate at the perinuclear region prior to mitophagy in cells treated with mitochondrial stressors. However, the cellular mechanism(s) by which damaged mitochondria are transported and remain aggregated at the perinuclear region is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that mitofusins (Mfn1/2) are post-translationally modified by SUMO2 (Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier 2) in Human embryonic kidney 293 (Hek293) cells treated with protonophore CCCP and proteasome inhibitor MG132, both known mitochondrial stressors. SUMOylation of Mfn1/2 is not for their proteasomal degradation but facilitate mitochondrial congression at the perinuclear region in CCCP- and MG132-treated cells. Additionally, congressed mitochondria (mito-aggresomes) colocalize with LC3, ubiquitin, and SUMO2 in CCCP-treated cells. Knowing that SUMO functions as a "molecular glue" to facilitate protein-protein interactions, we propose that SUMOylation of Mfn1/2 may congress, glues, and confines damaged mitochondria to the perinuclear region thereby, protectively quarantining them from the heathy mitochondrial network until their removal via mitophagy in cells.
    Keywords:  26S Proteasome; Autophagy; Mitochondria; Mitofusin; Mitophagy; Small Ubiquitin Modifier (SUMO); ubiquitin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2021.166104
  3. Front Microbiol. 2021 ;12 633380
      The vacuole and mitochondria patches (vCLAMPs) are novel membrane contact sites in yeast. However, their role in autophagy has not been elucidated so far. In this article, the role of Mcp1, one core component of vCLAMP, in mitophagy of Candida albicans was investigated. Deletion of MCP1 led to abnormal accumulation of enlarged mitochondria and attenuated stability of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in C. albicans when cultured in non-fermentable carbon sources. Furthermore, the mcp1Δ/Δ mutant exhibited defective growth and degradation of Csp37-GFP. These results indicate that Mcp1 plays a crucial role in mitophagy and maintenance of mitochondrial functions under the non-fermentable condition. Interestingly, this deletion had no impact on degradation of Atg8 (the macroautophagy reporter) and Lap41 (the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway marker) under SD-N medium. Moreover, deletion of MCP1 inhibited filamentous growth and impaired virulence of the pathogen. This study provides an insight to vCLAMPs in cellular functions and pathogenicity in C. albicans.
    Keywords:  Candida albicans; Mcp1; mitochondria; mitophagy; vCLAMP
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.633380
  4. Function (Oxf). 2021 ;2(2): zqab001
      Nonacholic fatty liver disease, or hepatic steatosis, is the most common liver disorder affecting the western world and currently has no pharmacologic cure. Thus, many investigations have focused on alternative strategies to treat or prevent hepatic steatosis. Our laboratory has shown that chronic heat treatment (HT) mitigates glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in rodent models of obesity. Here, we investigate the direct bioenergetic mechanism(s) surrounding the metabolic effects of HT on hepatic mitochondria. Utilizing mitochondrial proteomics and respiratory function assays, we show that one bout of acute HT (42°C for 20 min) in male C57Bl/6J mice (n = 6/group) triggers a hepatic mitochondrial heat shock response resulting in acute reductions in respiratory capacity, degradation of key mitochondrial enzymes, and induction of mitophagy via mitochondrial ubiquitination. We also show that chronic bouts of HT and recurrent activation of the heat shock response enhances mitochondrial quality and respiratory function via compensatory adaptations in mitochondrial organization, gene expression, and transport even during 4 weeks of high-fat feeding (n = 6/group). Finally, utilizing a liver-specific heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) knockout model, we are the first to show that HSP72, a protein putatively driving the HT metabolic response, does not play a significant role in the hepatic mitochondrial adaptation to acute or chronic HT. However, HSP72 is required for the reductions in blood glucose observed with chronic HT. Our data are the first to suggest that chronic HT (1) improves hepatic mitochondrial respiratory efficiency via mitochondrial remodeling and (2) reduces blood glucose in a hepatic HSP72-dependent manner.
    Keywords:  HSP72; autophagy; chaperone-mediated autophagy; liver; mitochondrial organization; mitophagy; redox; ubiquitin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/function/zqab001
  5. Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 21. pii: S1568-1637(21)00056-8. [Epub ahead of print] 101309
      Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles capable of adapting their network, morphology, and function, playing a role in oxidative phosphorylation and many cellular processes in most cell types. Skeletal muscle is a very plastic tissue, subjected to many morphological changes following diverse stimuli, such as during myogenic differentiation and regenerative myogenesis. For some time now, mitochondria have been reported to be involved in myogenesis by promoting a bioenergetic remodeling and assisting myoblasts in surviving the process. However, not much is known about the interplay between mitochondrial quality control and myogenic differentiation. Sestrin2 (SESN2) is a well described regulator of autophagy and antioxidant responses and has been gaining attention due to its role in aging-associated pathologies and redox signaling promoted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in many tissues. Current evidence involving SESN2-associated pathways suggest that it can act as a potential regulator of mitochondrial quality control following induction by ROS under stress conditions, such as during myogenesis. Yet, there are no studies directly assessing SESN2 involvement in myogenic differentiation. This review provides novel insights pertaining the involvement of SESN2 in myogenic differentiation by analyzing the interactions between ROS and mitochondrial remodeling.
    Keywords:  SESN2; differentiation; mitochondria; mitohormesis; myogenesis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101309
  6. Cell Death Dis. 2021 Feb 24. 12(2): 209
      Increased reactive oxygen species levels in the mitochondrial matrix can induce Parkin-dependent mitophagy, which selectively degrades dysfunctional mitochondria via the autolysosome pathway. Phosphorylated mitofusin-2 (MFN2), a receptor of parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (Parkin), interacts with Parkin to promote the ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins; meanwhile, the mitophagy receptors Optineurin (OPTN) and nuclear dot protein 52 (NDP52) are recruited to damaged mitochondria to promote mitophagy. However, previous studies have not investigated changes in the levels of OPTN, MFN2, and NDP52 during Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Here, we show that mild and sustained hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulation induces Parkin-dependent mitophagy accompanied by downregulation of the mitophagy-associated proteins OPTN, NDP52, and MFN2. We further demonstrate that H2O2 promotes the expression of the miR-106b-93-25 cluster and that miR-106b and miR-93 synergistically inhibit the translation of OPTN, NDP52, and MFN2 by targeting their 3' untranslated regions. We further reveal that compromised phosphorylation of MYC proto-oncogene protein (c-Myc) at threonine 58 (T58) (producing an unstable form of c-Myc) caused by reduced nuclear glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3β) levels contributes to the promotion of miR-106b-93-25 cluster expression upon H2O2 induction. Furthermore, miR-106b-mediated and miR-93-mediated inhibition of mitophagy-associated proteins (OPTN, MFN2, and NDP52) restrains cell death by controlling excessive mitophagy. Our data suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting mitophagy-associated proteins maintain cell survival, which is a novel mechanism of mitophagy control. Thus, our findings provide mechanistic insight into how miRNA-mediated regulation alters the biological process of mitophagy.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03484-3
  7. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2021 Feb 19. pii: S0925-4439(21)00035-1. [Epub ahead of print] 166102
      Mitophagy is defective in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T). However, the molecular mechanism underlying defective mitophagy in A-T is unknown. Literature indicates that damaged mitochondria are transported to the perinuclear region prior to their removal via mitophagy. Our previous work has indicated that conjugation of SUMO2 (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier 2) to mitofusins (Mfns) may be necessary for congression of mitochondria into SUMO2-/ubiquitin-/LC3-positive compact structures resembling mito-aggresomes at the perinuclear region in CCCP-treated HEK293 cells. Here, we demonstrate that Mfns are SUMOylated, and mitochondria are transported to the perinuclear region; however, mitochondria fail to congress into mito-aggresome-like structures in CCCP-treated A-T cells. Defect in mitochondrial congression is causally related to constitutively elevated ISG15 (Interferon-Stimulated Gene 15), an antagonist of the ubiquitin pathway, in A-T cells. Suppression of the ISG15 pathway restores mitochondrial congression, reduce oxidative stress, and level of unhealthy mitochondria, which is suggestive of restoration of mitophagy in A-T cells. ISG15 is also constitutively elevated and mitophagy is defective in Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The constitutively elevated ISG15 pathway therefore appears to be a common unifying biochemical mechanism underlying defective mitophagy in neurodegenerative disorders thus, implying the broader significance of our findings, and suggest the potential role of ISG15 inhibitors in their treatment.
    Keywords:  26S proteasome; Ataxia Telangiectasia; Autophagy; Interferon-Stimulated Gene 15 (ISG15); Mitofusin; Mitophagy; Ubiquitin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2021.166102
  8. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021 Mar 02. pii: S0735-1097(21)00067-X. [Epub ahead of print]77(8): 1073-1088
      BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction results in an imbalance between energy supply and demand in a failing heart. An innovative therapy that targets the intracellular bioenergetics directly through mitochondria transfer may be necessary.OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to establish a preclinical proof-of-concept that extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated transfer of autologous mitochondria and their related energy source enhance cardiac function through restoration of myocardial bioenergetics.
    METHODS: Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iCMs) were employed. iCM-conditioned medium was ultracentrifuged to collect mitochondria-rich EVs (M-EVs). Therapeutic effects of M-EVs were investigated using in vivo murine myocardial infarction (MI) model.
    RESULTS: Electron microscopy revealed healthy-shaped mitochondria inside M-EVs. Confocal microscopy showed that M-EV-derived mitochondria were transferred into the recipient iCMs and fused with their endogenous mitochondrial networks. Treatment with 1.0 × 108/ml M-EVs significantly restored the intracellular adenosine triphosphate production and improved contractile profiles of hypoxia-injured iCMs as early as 3 h after treatment. In contrast, isolated mitochondria that contained 300× more mitochondrial proteins than 1.0 × 108/ml M-EVs showed no effect after 24 h. M-EVs contained mitochondrial biogenesis-related messenger ribonucleic acids, including proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, which on transfer activated mitochondrial biogenesis in the recipient iCMs at 24 h after treatment. Finally, intramyocardial injection of 1.0 × 108 M-EVs demonstrated significantly improved post-MI cardiac function through restoration of bioenergetics and mitochondrial biogenesis.
    CONCLUSIONS: M-EVs facilitated immediate transfer of their mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial cargos, contributing to improved intracellular energetics in vitro. Intramyocardial injection of M-EVs enhanced post-MI cardiac function in vivo. This therapy can be developed as a novel, precision therapeutic for mitochondria-related diseases including heart failure.
    Keywords:  bioenergetics; heart failure; human stem cells; mitochondria; myocardial infarction
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.12.060
  9. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 23.
      Preservation of mitochondrial quality is paramount for cellular homeostasis. The integrity of mitochondria is guarded by the balanced interplay between anabolic and catabolic mechanisms. The removal of bio-energetically flawed mitochondria is mediated by the process of mitophagy; the impairment of which leads to the accumulation of defective mitochondria which signal the activation of compensatory mechanisms to the nucleus. This process is known as the mitochondrial retrograde response (MRR) and is enacted by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Calcium (Ca2+), ATP, as well as imbalanced lipid and proteostasis. Central to this mitochondria-to-nucleus signalling are the transcription factors (e.g. the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, NF-κB) which drive the expression of genes to adapt the cell to the compromised homeostasis. An increased degree of cellular proliferation is among the consequences of the MRR and as such, engagement of mitochondrial-nuclear communication is frequently observed in cancer. Mitophagy and the MRR are therefore interlinked processes framed to, respectively, prevent or compensate for mitochondrial defects.In this review, we discuss the available knowledge on the interdependency of these processes and their contribution to cell signalling in cancer.
    Keywords:  Cell signalling and Cancer; Mitochondrial retrograde response; Mitophagy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-021-03770-5
  10. Autophagy. 2021 Feb 25.
      The mechanisms orchestrating recycling of lysosomes through autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR) is incompletely understood. Previous data show that genetic depletion of BLOC1S1/GCN5L1/BORCS1 increases autolysosome (AL) accumulation. We postulated that this phenotype may manifest due to perturbed ALR. We explored this in control and bloc1s1 liver-specific knockout (LKO) mouse hepatocytes, showing that in response to nutrient-deprivation LKO's fail to initiate ALR due to blunted lysosomal tubulation. As kinesin motor proteins and the intracellular cytoskeleton are requirements for tubular formation from ALs, we explored the interaction of BLOC1S1 with motor proteins and cytoskeletal factors. BLOC1S1 interacts with the ARL8B-KIF5B (GTPase and kinesin motor protein) complex to recruit KIF5B to ALs. Furthermore, BLOC1S1 interacts with the actin nucleation promoting factor WHAMM, which is an essential structural protein in the initiation of lysosomal tubulation (LT). Interestingly, the genetic reintroduction of BLOC1S1 rescues LT in LKO hepatocytes, but not when KIF5B is concurrently depleted. Finally, given the central role of MTORC1 signaling in ALR initiation, it was interesting that MTORC1 activity was increased despite the absence of LT in LKO hepatocytes. Concurrently, inhibition of MTORC1 abolished BLOC1S1 reconstitution-mediated rescue of LT in LKO hepatocytes. Taken together these data demonstrate that the functional interaction of BLOC1S1 with the kinesin binding complex and the actin cytoskeleton are a requirement for LT which, in parallel with MTORC1 signaling, initiate lysosome recycling via ALR.
    Keywords:  Autophagic lysosome reformation; GCN5L1; MTORC1; autophagy; hepatocyte; lysosomal tubulation; lysosome
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1894759
  11. Nat Metab. 2021 Feb;3(2): 196-210
      Ketone bodies are generated in the liver and allow for the maintenance of systemic caloric and energy homeostasis during fasting and caloric restriction. It has previously been demonstrated that neonatal ketogenesis is activated independently of starvation. However, the role of ketogenesis during the perinatal period remains unclear. Here, we show that neonatal ketogenesis plays a protective role in mitochondrial function. We generated a mouse model of insufficient ketogenesis by disrupting the rate-limiting hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 enzyme gene (Hmgcs2). Hmgcs2 knockout (KO) neonates develop microvesicular steatosis within a few days of birth. Electron microscopic analysis and metabolite profiling indicate a restricted energy production capacity and accumulation of acetyl-CoA in Hmgcs2 KO mice. Furthermore, acetylome analysis of Hmgcs2 KO cells revealed enhanced acetylation of mitochondrial proteins. These findings suggest that neonatal ketogenesis protects the energy-producing capacity of mitochondria by preventing the hyperacetylation of mitochondrial proteins.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00342-6
  12. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021 ;2021 6699516
      Coronary artery no-reflow is a complex problem in the area of reperfusion therapy, and the molecular mechanisms underlying coronary artery no-reflow injury have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we explored whether oxidative stress caused damage to coronary endothelial cells by inducing mitochondrial fission and activating the JNK pathway. The hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model was induced in vitro to mimic coronary endothelial no-reflow injury, and mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial function, and endothelial cell viability were analyzed using western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunofluorescence. Our data indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly induced upon H/R injury, and this was followed by decreased endothelial cell viability. Mitochondrial fission was induced and mitochondrial bioenergetics were impaired in cardiac endothelial cells after H/R injury. Neutralization of ROS reduced mitochondrial fission and protected mitochondrial function against H/R injury. Our results also demonstrated that ROS stimulated mitochondrial fission via JNK-mediated Drp1 phosphorylation. These findings indicate that the ROS-JNK-Drp1 signaling pathway may be one of the molecular mechanisms underlying endothelial cell damage during H/R injury. Novel treatments for coronary no-reflow injury may involve targeting mitochondrial fission and the JNK-Drp1 signaling pathway.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6699516
  13. J Cell Sci. 2021 Feb 23. pii: jcs.249276. [Epub ahead of print]
      A genome-wide screen recently identified SEC24A as a novel mediator of thapsigargin-induced cell death in HAP1 cells. Here, we determined the cellular mechanism and specificity of SEC24A-mediated cytotoxicity. Measurement of calcium levels using organelle-specific fluorescent indicator dyes showed that calcium efflux from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and influx into mitochondria were significantly impaired in SEC24A knockout cells. Furthermore, SEC24A knockout cells also showed ∼44% less colocalization of mitochondria and peripheral tubular ER. Knockout of SEC24A, but not its paralogs SEC24B, SEC24C, or SEC24D, rescued HAP1 cells from cell death induced by three different inhibitors of Sarcoplasmic/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) but not from cell death induced by a topoisomerase inhibitor. Thapsigargin-treated SEC24A knockout cells showed a ∼2.5-fold increase in autophagic flux and ∼10-fold reduction in apoptosis compared to wild-type cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that SEC24A plays a previously unrecognized role in regulating association and calcium flux between the ER and mitochondria, thereby impacting processes dependent on mitochondrial calcium levels, including autophagy and apoptosis.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Autophagy; Calcium; ER stress; Mitochondrial-associated membranes; SEC24A; SERCA; Thapsigargin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.249276
  14. Autophagy. 2021 Feb 08. 1-382
    Klionsky DJ, Abdel-Aziz AK, Abdelfatah S, Abdellatif M, Abdoli A, Abel S, Abeliovich H, Abildgaard MH, Abudu YP, Acevedo-Arozena A, Adamopoulos IE, Adeli K, Adolph TE, Adornetto A, Aflaki E, Agam G, Agarwal A, Aggarwal BB, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Agrewala JN, Agrotis A, Aguilar PV, Ahmad ST, Ahmed ZM, Ahumada-Castro U, Aits S, Aizawa S, Akkoc Y, Akoumianaki T, Akpinar HA, Al-Abd AM, Al-Akra L, Al-Gharaibeh A, Alaoui-Jamali MA, Alberti S, Alcocer-Gómez E, Alessandri C, Ali M, Alim Al-Bari MA, Aliwaini S, Alizadeh J, Almacellas E, Almasan A, Alonso A, Alonso GD, Altan-Bonnet N, Altieri DC, Álvarez ÉMC, Alves S, Alves da Costa C, Alzaharna MM, Amadio M, Amantini C, Amaral C, Ambrosio S, Amer AO, Ammanathan V, An Z, Andersen SU, Andrabi SA, Andrade-Silva M, Andres AM, Angelini S, Ann D, Anozie UC, Ansari MY, Antas P, Antebi A, Antón Z, Anwar T, Apetoh L, Apostolova N, Araki T, Araki Y, Arasaki K, Araújo WL, Araya J, Arden C, Arévalo MA, Arguelles S, Arias E, Arikkath J, Arimoto H, Ariosa AR, Armstrong-James D, Arnauné-Pelloquin L, Aroca A, Arroyo DS, Arsov I, Artero R, Asaro DML, Aschner M, Ashrafizadeh M, Ashur-Fabian O, Atanasov AG, Au AK, Auberger P, Auner HW, Aurelian L, Autelli R, Avagliano L, Ávalos Y, Aveic S, Aveleira CA, Avin-Wittenberg T, Aydin Y, Ayton S, Ayyadevara S, Azzopardi M, Baba M, Backer JM, Backues SK, Bae DH, Bae ON, Bae SH, Baehrecke EH, Baek A, Baek SH, Baek SH, Bagetta G, Bagniewska-Zadworna A, Bai H, Bai J, Bai X, Bai Y, Bairagi N, Baksi S, Balbi T, Baldari CT, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Ballester M, Balazadeh S, Balzan R, Bandopadhyay R, Banerjee S, Banerjee S, Bánréti Á, Bao Y, Baptista MS, Baracca A, Barbati C, Bargiela A, Barilà D, Barlow PG, Barmada SJ, Barreiro E, Barreto GE, Bartek J, Bartel B, Bartolome A, Barve GR, Basagoudanavar SH, Bassham DC, Bast RC, Basu A, Batoko H, Batten I, Baulieu EE, Baumgarner BL, Bayry J, Beale R, Beau I, Beaumatin F, Bechara LRG, Beck GR, Beers MF, Begun J, Behrends C, Behrens GMN, Bei R, Bejarano E, Bel S, Behl C, Belaid A, Belgareh-Touzé N, Bellarosa C, Belleudi F, Belló Pérez M, Bello-Morales R, Beltran JSO, Beltran S, Benbrook DM, Bendorius M, Benitez BA, Benito-Cuesta I, Bensalem J, Berchtold MW, Berezowska S, Bergamaschi D, Bergami M, Bergmann A, Berliocchi L, Berlioz-Torrent C, Bernard A, Berthoux L, Besirli CG, Besteiro S, Betin VM, Beyaert R, Bezbradica JS, Bhaskar K, Bhatia-Kissova I, Bhattacharya R, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharyya S, Bhuiyan MS, Bhutia SK, Bi L, Bi X, Biden TJ, Bijian K, Billes VA, Binart N, Bincoletto C, Birgisdottir AB, Bjorkoy G, Blanco G, Blas-Garcia A, Blasiak J, Blomgran R, Blomgren K, Blum JS, Boada-Romero E, Boban M, Boesze-Battaglia K, Boeuf P, Boland B, Bomont P, Bonaldo P, Bonam SR, Bonfili L, Bonifacino JS, Boone BA, Bootman MD, Bordi M, Borner C, Bornhauser BC, Borthakur G, Bosch J, Bose S, Botana LM, Botas J, Boulanger CM, Boulton ME, Bourdenx M, Bourgeois B, Bourke NM, Bousquet G, Boya P, Bozhkov PV, Bozi LHM, Bozkurt TO, Brackney DE, Brandts CH, Braun RJ, Braus GH, Bravo-Sagua R, Bravo-San Pedro JM, Brest P, Bringer MA, Briones-Herrera A, Broaddus VC, Brodersen P, Brodsky JL, Brody SL, Bronson PG, Bronstein JM, Brown CN, Brown RE, Brum PC, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Bruno D, Bryson-Richardson RJ, Bucci C, Buchrieser C, Bueno M, Buitrago-Molina LE, Buraschi S, Buch S, Buchan JR, Buckingham EM, Budak H, Budini M, Bultynck G, Burada F, Burgoyne JR, Burón MI, Bustos V, Büttner S, Butturini E, Byrd A, Cabas I, Cabrera-Benitez S, Cadwell K, Cai J, Cai L, Cai Q, Cairó M, Calbet JA, Caldwell GA, Caldwell KA, Call JA, Calvani R, Calvo AC, Calvo-Rubio Barrera M, Camara NO, Camonis JH, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campbell EM, Campbell-Valois FX, Campello S, Campesi I, Campos JC, Camuzard O, Cancino J, Candido de Almeida D, Canesi L, Caniggia I, Canonico B, Cantí C, Cao B, Caraglia M, Caramés B, Carchman EH, Cardenal-Muñoz E, Cardenas C, Cardenas L, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carle GF, Carleton G, Carloni S, Carmona-Gutierrez 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Saito T, Sakai R, Sakai Y, Sakamaki JI, Saksela K, Salazar G, Salazar-Degracia A, Salekdeh GH, Saluja AK, Sampaio-Marques B, Sanchez MC, Sanchez-Alcazar JA, Sanchez-Vera V, Sancho-Shimizu V, Sanderson JT, Sandri M, Santaguida S, Santambrogio L, Santana MM, Santoni G, Sanz A, Sanz P, Saran S, Sardiello M, Sargeant TJ, Sarin A, Sarkar C, Sarkar S, Sarrias MR, Sarkar S, Sarmah DT, Sarparanta J, Sathyanarayan A, Sathyanarayanan R, Scaglione KM, Scatozza F, Schaefer L, Schafer ZT, Schaible UE, Schapira AHV, Scharl M, Schatzl HM, Schein CH, Scheper W, Scheuring D, Schiaffino MV, Schiappacassi M, Schindl R, Schlattner U, Schmidt O, Schmitt R, Schmidt SD, Schmitz I, Schmukler E, Schneider A, Schneider BE, Schober R, Schoijet AC, Schott MB, Schramm M, Schröder B, Schuh K, Schüller C, Schulze RJ, Schürmanns L, Schwamborn JC, Schwarten M, Scialo F, Sciarretta S, Scott MJ, Scotto KW, Scovassi AI, Scrima A, Scrivo A, Sebastian D, Sebti S, Sedej S, Segatori L, Segev N, Seglen PO, Seiliez I, Seki E, Selleck SB, Sellke FW, Selsby JT, Sendtner M, Senturk S, Seranova E, Sergi C, Serra-Moreno R, Sesaki H, Settembre C, Setty SRG, Sgarbi G, Sha O, Shacka JJ, Shah JA, Shang D, Shao C, Shao F, Sharbati S, Sharkey LM, Sharma D, Sharma G, Sharma K, Sharma P, Sharma S, Shen HM, Shen H, Shen J, Shen M, Shen W, Shen Z, Sheng R, Sheng Z, Sheng ZH, Shi J, Shi X, Shi YH, Shiba-Fukushima K, Shieh JJ, Shimada Y, Shimizu S, Shimozawa M, Shintani T, Shoemaker CJ, Shojaei S, Shoji I, Shravage BV, Shridhar V, Shu CW, Shu HB, Shui K, Shukla AK, Shutt TE, Sica V, Siddiqui A, Sierra A, Sierra-Torre V, Signorelli S, Sil P, Silva BJA, Silva JD, Silva-Pavez E, Silvente-Poirot S, Simmonds RE, Simon AK, Simon HU, Simons M, Singh A, Singh LP, Singh R, Singh SV, Singh SK, Singh SB, Singh S, Singh SP, Sinha D, Sinha RA, Sinha S, Sirko A, Sirohi K, Sivridis EL, Skendros P, Skirycz A, Slaninová I, Smaili SS, Smertenko A, Smith MD, Soenen SJ, Sohn EJ, Sok SPM, Solaini G, Soldati T, Soleimanpour SA, Soler RM, Solovchenko A, Somarelli JA, Sonawane A, Song F, Song HK, Song JX, Song K, Song Z, Soria LR, Sorice M, Soukas AA, Soukup SF, Sousa D, Sousa N, Spagnuolo PA, Spector SA, Srinivas Bharath MM, St Clair D, Stagni V, Staiano L, Stalnecker CA, Stankov MV, Stathopulos PB, Stefan K, Stefan SM, Stefanis L, Steffan JS, Steinkasserer A, Stenmark H, Sterneckert J, Stevens C, Stoka V, Storch S, Stork B, Strappazzon F, Strohecker AM, Stupack DG, Su H, Su LY, Su L, Suarez-Fontes AM, Subauste CS, Subbian S, Subirada PV, Sudhandiran G, Sue CM, Sui X, Summers C, Sun G, Sun J, Sun K, Sun MX, Sun Q, Sun Y, Sun Z, Sunahara KKS, Sundberg E, Susztak K, Sutovsky P, Suzuki H, Sweeney G, Symons JD, Sze SCW, Szewczyk NJ, Tabęcka-Łonczynska A, Tabolacci C, Tacke F, Taegtmeyer H, Tafani M, Tagaya M, Tai H, Tait SWG, Takahashi Y, Takats S, Talwar P, Tam C, Tam SY, Tampellini D, Tamura A, Tan CT, Tan EK, Tan YQ, Tanaka M, Tanaka M, Tang D, Tang J, Tang TS, Tanida I, Tao Z, Taouis M, Tatenhorst L, Tavernarakis N, Taylor A, Taylor GA, Taylor JM, Tchetina E, Tee AR, Tegeder I, Teis D, Teixeira N, Teixeira-Clerc F, Tekirdag KA, Tencomnao T, Tenreiro S, Tepikin AV, Testillano PS, Tettamanti G, Tharaux PL, Thedieck K, Thekkinghat AA, Thellung S, Thinwa JW, Thirumalaikumar VP, Thomas SM, Thomes PG, Thorburn A, Thukral L, Thum T, Thumm M, Tian L, Tichy A, Till A, Timmerman V, Titorenko VI, Todi SV, Todorova K, Toivonen JM, Tomaipitinca L, Tomar D, Tomas-Zapico C, Tomić S, Tong BC, Tong C, Tong X, Tooze SA, Torgersen ML, Torii S, Torres-López L, Torriglia A, Towers CG, Towns R, Toyokuni S, Trajkovic V, Tramontano D, Tran QG, Travassos LH, Trelford CB, Tremel S, Trougakos IP, Tsao BP, Tschan MP, Tse HF, Tse TF, Tsugawa H, Tsvetkov AS, Tumbarello DA, Tumtas Y, Tuñón MJ, Turcotte S, Turk B, Turk V, Turner BJ, Tuxworth RI, Tyler JK, Tyutereva EV, Uchiyama Y, Ugun-Klusek A, Uhlig HH, Ułamek-Kozioł M, Ulasov IV, Umekawa M, Ungermann C, Unno R, Urbe S, Uribe-Carretero E, Üstün S, Uversky VN, Vaccari T, Vaccaro MI, Vahsen BF, Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg H, Valdor R, Valente MJ, Valko A, Vallee RB, Valverde AM, Van den Berghe G, van der Veen S, Van Kaer L, van Loosdregt J, van Wijk SJL, Vandenberghe W, Vanhorebeek I, Vannier-Santos MA, Vannini N, Vanrell MC, Vantaggiato C, Varano G, Varela-Nieto I, Varga M, Vasconcelos MH, Vats S, Vavvas DG, Vega-Naredo I, Vega-Rubin-de-Celis S, Velasco G, Velázquez AP, Vellai T, Vellenga E, Velotti F, Verdier M, Verginis P, Vergne I, Verkade P, Verma M, Verstreken P, Vervliet T, Vervoorts J, Vessoni AT, Victor VM, Vidal M, Vidoni C, Vieira OV, Vierstra RD, Viganó S, Vihinen H, Vijayan V, Vila M, Vilar M, Villalba JM, Villalobo A, Villarejo-Zori B, Villarroya F, Villarroya J, Vincent O, Vindis C, Viret C, Viscomi MT, Visnjic D, Vitale I, Vocadlo DJ, Voitsekhovskaja OV, Volonté C, Volta M, Vomero M, Von Haefen C, Vooijs MA, Voos W, Vucicevic L, Wade-Martins R, Waguri S, Waite KA, Wakatsuki S, Walker DW, Walker MJ, Walker SA, Walter J, Wandosell FG, Wang B, Wang CY, Wang C, Wang C, Wang C, Wang CY, Wang D, Wang F, Wang F, Wang F, Wang G, Wang H, Wang H, Wang H, Wang HG, Wang J, Wang J, Wang J, Wang J, Wang K, Wang L, Wang L, Wang MH, Wang M, Wang N, Wang P, Wang P, Wang P, Wang P, Wang QJ, Wang Q, Wang QK, Wang QA, Wang WT, Wang W, Wang X, Wang X, Wang Y, Wang Y, Wang Y, Wang YY, Wang Y, Wang Y, Wang Y, Wang Y, Wang Z, Wang Z, Wang Z, Warnes G, Warnsmann V, Watada H, Watanabe E, Watchon M, Wawrzyńska A, Weaver TE, Wegrzyn G, Wehman AM, Wei H, Wei L, Wei T, Wei Y, Weiergräber OH, Weihl CC, Weindl G, Weiskirchen R, Wells A, Wen RH, Wen X, Werner A, Weykopf B, Wheatley SP, Whitton JL, Whitworth AJ, Wiktorska K, Wildenberg ME, Wileman T, Wilkinson S, Willbold D, Williams B, Williams RSB, Williams RL, Williamson PR, Wilson RA, Winner B, Winsor NJ, Witkin SS, Wodrich H, Woehlbier U, Wollert T, Wong E, Wong JH, Wong RW, Wong VKW, Wong WW, Wu AG, Wu C, Wu J, Wu J, Wu KK, Wu M, Wu SY, Wu S, Wu SY, Wu S, Wu WKK, Wu X, Wu X, Wu YW, Wu Y, Xavier RJ, Xia H, Xia L, Xia Z, Xiang G, Xiang J, Xiang M, Xiang W, Xiao B, Xiao G, Xiao H, Xiao HT, Xiao J, Xiao L, Xiao S, Xiao Y, Xie B, Xie CM, Xie M, Xie Y, Xie Z, Xie Z, Xilouri M, Xu C, Xu E, Xu H, Xu J, Xu J, Xu L, Xu WW, Xu X, Xue Y, Yakhine-Diop SMS, Yamaguchi M, Yamaguchi O, Yamamoto A, Yamashina S, Yan S, Yan SJ, Yan Z, Yanagi Y, Yang C, Yang DS, Yang H, Yang HT, Yang H, Yang JM, Yang J, Yang J, Yang L, Yang L, Yang M, Yang PM, Yang Q, Yang S, Yang S, Yang SF, Yang W, Yang WY, Yang X, Yang X, Yang Y, Yang Y, Yao H, Yao S, Yao X, Yao YG, Yao YM, Yasui T, Yazdankhah M, Yen PM, Yi C, Yin XM, Yin Y, Yin Z, Yin Z, Ying M, Ying Z, Yip CK, Yiu SPT, Yoo YH, Yoshida K, Yoshii SR, Yoshimori T, Yousefi B, Yu B, Yu H, Yu J, Yu J, Yu L, Yu ML, Yu SW, Yu VC, Yu WH, Yu Z, Yu Z, Yuan J, Yuan LQ, Yuan S, Yuan SF, Yuan Y, Yuan Z, Yue J, Yue Z, Yun J, Yung RL, Zacks DN, Zaffagnini G, Zambelli VO, Zanella I, Zang QS, Zanivan S, Zappavigna S, Zaragoza P, Zarbalis KS, Zarebkohan A, Zarrouk A, Zeitlin SO, Zeng J, Zeng JD, Žerovnik E, Zhan L, Zhang B, Zhang DD, Zhang H, Zhang H, Zhang H, Zhang H, Zhang H, Zhang H, Zhang H, Zhang HL, Zhang J, Zhang J, Zhang JP, Zhang KYB, Zhang LW, Zhang L, Zhang L, Zhang L, Zhang L, Zhang M, Zhang P, Zhang S, Zhang W, Zhang X, Zhang XW, Zhang X, Zhang X, Zhang X, Zhang X, Zhang XD, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Zhang YD, Zhang Y, Zhang YY, Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Zhang Z, Zhang Z, Zhang Z, Zhang Z, Zhang Z, Zhao H, Zhao L, Zhao S, Zhao T, Zhao XF, Zhao Y, Zhao Y, Zhao Y, Zhao Y, Zheng G, Zheng K, Zheng L, Zheng S, Zheng XL, Zheng Y, Zheng ZG, Zhivotovsky B, Zhong Q, Zhou A, Zhou B, Zhou C, Zhou G, Zhou H, Zhou H, Zhou H, Zhou J, Zhou J, Zhou J, Zhou J, Zhou K, Zhou R, Zhou XJ, Zhou Y, Zhou Y, Zhou Y, Zhou ZY, Zhou Z, Zhu B, Zhu C, Zhu GQ, Zhu H, Zhu H, Zhu H, Zhu WG, Zhu Y, Zhu Y, Zhuang H, Zhuang X, Zientara-Rytter K, Zimmermann CM, Ziviani E, Zoladek T, Zong WX, Zorov DB, Zorzano A, Zou W, Zou Z, Zou Z, Zuryn S, Zwerschke W, Brand-Saberi B, Dong XC, Kenchappa CS, Li Z, Lin Y, Oshima S, Rong Y, Sluimer JC, Stallings CL, Tong CK.
      In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
    Keywords:  Autophagosome; LC3; cancer; flux; lysosome; macroautophagy; neurodegeneration; phagophore; stress; vacuole
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280
  15. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2021 Feb 18. pii: S1357-2725(21)00035-2. [Epub ahead of print] 105951
      Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, which undergo frequent structural and metabolic changes to fulfil cellular demands. To facilitate these processes several proteins are required to regulate mitochondrial shape and interorganellar communication. These proteins include the classical mitochondrial fusion (MFN1, MFN2, and OPA1) and fission proteins (DRP1, MFF, FIS1 etc.) as well as several other proteins that are directly or indirectly involved in these processes (e.g. YME1L, OMA1, INF2, GDAP1, MIC13, etc.). During the last two decades, inherited genetic defects in mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins have emerged as an important class of neurodegenerative human disease with variable onset ranging from infancy to adulthood. So far, no causal treatment strategies are available for these disorders. In this review, we provide an overview about the current knowledge on mitochondrial dynamics under physiological conditions. Moreover, we describe human diseases, which are associated with genetic defects in these pathways.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; OXPHOS; Parkinson’s disease; cristae; mitochondrial dynamics; mitochondriopathy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2021.105951
  16. Nature. 2021 Feb 24.
      Mitochondrial DNA double-strand breaks (mtDSBs) are toxic lesions that compromise the integrity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and alter mitochondrial function1. Communication between mitochondria and the nucleus is essential to maintain cellular homeostasis; however, the nuclear response to mtDSBs remains unknown2. Here, using mitochondrial-targeted transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)1,3,4, we show that mtDSBs activate a type-I interferon response that involves the phosphorylation of STAT1 and activation of interferon-stimulated genes. After the formation of breaks in the mtDNA, herniation5 mediated by BAX and BAK releases mitochondrial RNA into the cytoplasm and triggers a RIG-I-MAVS-dependent immune response. We further investigated the effect of mtDSBs on interferon signalling after treatment with ionizing radiation and found a reduction in the activation of interferon-stimulated genes when cells that lack mtDNA are exposed to gamma irradiation. We also show that mtDNA breaks synergize with nuclear DNA damage to mount a robust cellular immune response. Taken together, we conclude that cytoplasmic accumulation of mitochondrial RNA is an intrinsic immune surveillance mechanism for cells to cope with mtDSBs, including breaks produced by genotoxic agents.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03269-w
  17. Cell Death Dis. 2021 Feb 24. 12(2): 211
      Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is an inevitable and serious clinical problem in donations after heart death (DCD) liver transplantation. Excessive sterile inflammation plays a fateful role in liver IRI. Hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (HOPE), as an emerging organ preservation technology, has a better preservation effect than cold storage (CS) for reducing liver IRI, in which regulating inflammation is one of the main mechanisms. HECTD3, a new E3 ubiquitin ligase, and TRAF3 have an essential role in inflammation. However, little is known about HECTD3 and TRAF3 in HOPE-regulated liver IRI. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of HOPE on liver IRI in a DCD rat model and explore the roles of HECTD3 and TRAF3 in its pathogenesis. We found that HOPE significantly improved liver damage, including hepatocyte and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell injury, and reduced DCD liver inflammation. Mechanistically, both the DOC and HECT domains of HECTD3 directly interacted with TRAF3, and the catalytic Cys (C832) in the HECT domain promoted the K63-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF3 at Lys138. Further, the ubiquitinated TRAF3 at Lys138 increased oxidative stress and activated the NF-κB inflammation pathway to induce liver IRI in BRL-3A cells under hypoxia/reoxygenation conditions. Finally, we confirmed that the expression of HECTD3 and TRAF3 was obviously increased in human DCD liver transplantation specimens. Overall, these findings demonstrated that HOPE can protect against DCD liver transplantation-induced-liver IRI by reducing inflammation via HECTD3-mediated TRAF3 K63-linked polyubiquitination. Therefore, HOPE regulating the HECTD3/TRAF3 pathway is a novel target for improving IRI in DCD liver transplantation.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03493-2
  18. Hum Mol Genet. 2021 Feb 25. pii: ddab057. [Epub ahead of print]
      Inactivation of constitutive autophagy results in the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions in neurons, but the relationship between impaired autophagy and Lewy bodies (LBs) remains unknown. α-Synuclein and p62, components of LBs, are the defining characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD). Until now, we have analyzed mice models and demonstrated p62 aggregates derived from an autophagic defect might serve as 'seeds' and can potentially be cause of LBs formation. P62 may be the key molecule for aggregate formation. To understand the mechanisms of LBs, we analyzed p62 homeostasis and inclusions formation using PD model mice. In PARK22-linked PD, intrinsically disordered mutant CHCHD2 initiates Lewy pathology. To determine the function of CHCHD2 for inclusions formation, we generated Chchd2-knockout (KO) mice and characterised the age-related pathological and motor phenotypes. Chchd2 KO mice exhibited p62 inclusion formation and dopaminergic neuronal loss in an age-dependent manner. These changes were associated with a reduction in mitochondria complex activity and abrogation of inner mitochondria structure. In particular, the OPA1 proteins, which regulate fusion of mitochondrial inner membranes, were immature in the mitochondria of CHCHD2 deficient mice. CHCHD2 regulates mitochondrial morphology and p62 homeostasis by controlling the level of OPA1. Our findings highlight the unexpected role of the homeostatic level of p62, which is regulated by a non-autophagic system, in controlling intracellular inclusion body formation, and indicate that the pathologic processes associated with the mitochondrial proteolytic system are crucial for loss of DA neurones.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab057
  19. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2021 Mar 05. 23 968-981
      Hypoxia modulates reparative angiogenesis, which is a tightly regulated pathophysiological process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression in hypoxia and angiogenesis. However, we do not yet have a clear understanding of how hypoxia-induced miRNAs fine-tune vasoreparative processes. Here, we identify miR-130a as a mediator of the hypoxic response in human primary endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), a well-characterized subtype of endothelial progenitors. Under hypoxic conditions of 1% O2, miR-130a gain-of-function enhances ECFC pro-angiogenic capacity in vitro and potentiates their vasoreparative properties in vivo. Mechanistically, miR-130a orchestrates upregulation of VEGFR2, activation of STAT3, and accumulation of HIF1α via translational inhibition of Ddx6. These findings unveil a new role for miR-130a in hypoxia, whereby it activates the VEGFR2/STAT3/HIF1α axis to enhance the vasoregenerative capacity of ECFCs.
    Keywords:  ECFC; angiogenesis; endothelial; endothelial cell; endothelial progenitor; endothelium; hypoxia; miRNA; vascular repair
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.01.015
  20. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021 Mar 02. pii: S0735-1097(21)00132-7. [Epub ahead of print]77(8): 1089-1092
      
    Keywords:  bioenergetics; heart failure; human stem cells; mitochondria; myocardial infarction
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.01.017
  21. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Feb 23. pii: S0891-5849(21)00110-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a clinically common acute inflammatory disease in digestive system, leading to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). It was reported that PINK1/PARK2 dependent mitophagy played an important role in various inflammatory diseases. However, its role in AP has not been elucidated. Herein, we explore the effect of mitophagy in the pathogenesis of AP.METHODS: Firstly, we established cerulein-induced AP group and arginine-induced SAP group based on wild, PINK1-/- and PARK2-/- mice. Pancreatic samples were harvested for further investing the mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy alterations, NLRP3 inflammatory pathway etc. Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from SAP patients were collected to examine the expression of mitophagy-related indicators. Additionally, the interrelationship between mitophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome was also explored in AP.
    RESULTS: It was confirmed that mitochondria were damaged in both AP and SAP models. The expressions of PINK1, PARK2 and mitochondrial autophagosomes were elevated in wild AP group, which were decreased in SAP group over time. Similarly, the expressions of PINK1 and PAKR2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were significantly lower in SAP patients. Besides, in PINK1-/- and PARK2-/- mice AP groups, more pronounced inflammatory infiltration, increased apoptotic and necrotic levels and upregulated NLRP3 inflammasome pathway were detected. After injection with MCC950, NLRP3 inflammasome production was notably reduced in PINK1-/-and PARK2-/-mice, which effectively alleviated the pancreatic damage and inflammatory cell infiltration.
    CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction activates PINK1/PARK2-mediated mitophagy in AP, while mitophagy was impaired in SAP. PINK1-/- and PARK2-/- mice were more sensitive to onset of SAP and the deficiency of mitophagy could lead to the formation of NLRP3 inflammasome.
    Keywords:  Acute pancreatitis; Inflammasome; Mitophagy; PARK2; PINK1
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.02.019